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Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Family: Ampullaviridae
Genus: Bottigliavirus
  • Bottigliavirus ABV
  • Bottigliavirus ABV2
  • Bottigliavirus ABV3

Bottigliavirus [1]

  • Bottigliavirus ICTV 2022
  • Ampullavirus ICTV 2008

Bottigliavirus ABV[2]

  • Bottigliavirus ABV ICTV 2022
  • Acidianus bottle-shaped virus ICTV 2008

Bottigliavirus is the only genus in the family Ampullaviridae and contains 3 species.[3][4] Ampullaviridae infect archaea of the genus Acidianus.[5] The name of the family and genus is derived from the Latin word for bottle, ampulla, due to the virions having the shape of a bottle. The family was first described during an investigation of the microbial flora of hot springs in Italy.

Structure and genome[edit]

Ampullaviruses have unique morphology, with the virions being bottle-shaped with one narrow end that smoothly expands into a wider end for an overall length of about 230 nm and width of about 75 nm at the broad end. The narrow end projects beyond the viral envelope and is likely used to inject the viral DNA into host cells. The broad end possesses about 20 thin filaments, each that are regularly distributed in a ring. Inside the envelope is a funnel-shaped protein coat that houses the viral DNA.[5]The genome of ampullaviruses is linear, double-stranded DNA that is about 23.8 kilobases in length. The genome contains an estimated 56 or 57 open reading frames that encode for at least six structural proteins.[5][6]

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by virus attaches to host cell. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Archaea of the genus Acidianus serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.[7][8]


  1. ^ "ICTV Taxonomy history: Bottigliavirus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  2. ^ "ICTV Taxonomy history: Bottigliavirus ABV". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  3. ^ "Virus Taxonomy: 2022 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2023. Retrieved 14 August 2023.
  4. ^ Prangishvili, D; Krupovic, M; ICTV Report Consortium (8 February 2018). "ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Ampullaviridae". The Journal of General Virology. 99 (3): 288–289. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001023. PMC 5882107. PMID 29458532.
  5. ^ a b c Häring, M; Rachel, R; Peng, X; Garrett, R. A.; Prangishvili, D (2005). "Viral diversity in hot springs of Pozzuoli, Italy, and characterization of a unique archaeal virus, Acidianus bottle-shaped virus, from a new family, the Ampullaviridae". Journal of Virology. 79 (15): 9904–11. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.15.9904-9911.2005. PMC 1181580. PMID 16014951.
  6. ^ Peng, X; Basta, T; Häring, M; Garrett, R. A.; Prangishvili, D (2007). "Genome of the Acidianus bottle-shaped virus and insights into the replication and packaging mechanisms". Virology. 364 (1): 237–43. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2007.03.005. PMID 17412384.
  7. ^ "ICTV Online Report Ampullaviridae". Retrieved 2 May 2020.
  8. ^ "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 2 May 2020.

External links[edit]

  • ICTV Online Report: Ampullaviridae [1]
  • Viral zone: [2]