Egyptian language

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Egyptian
r
Z1
nkmmt
O49
r n km.t[1][note 1]
Ebers Papyrus detailing treatment of asthma
RegionOriginally, throughout Ancient Egypt and parts of Nubia (especially during the times of the Nubian kingdoms)[2]
EthnicityAncient Egyptians
EraLate fourth millennium BC – 19th century AD[note 2] (with the extinction of Coptic); still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox and Coptic Catholic Churches
Afro-Asiatic
  • Egyptian
Dialects
Hieroglyphs, cursive hieroglyphs, Hieratic, Demotic and Coptic (later, occasionally, Arabic script in government translations and Latin script in scholars' transliterations and several hieroglyphic dictionaries[5])
Language codes
ISO 639-2egy (also cop for Coptic)
ISO 639-3egy (also cop for Coptic)
Glottologegyp1246
Linguasphere11-AAA-a

The Egyptian language, or Ancient Egyptian (r n km.t),[1][note 3][6] is an extinct branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages that was spoken in ancient Egypt. It is known today from a large corpus of surviving texts, which were made accessible to the modern world following the decipherment of the ancient Egyptian scripts in the early 19th century.

Egyptian is one of the earliest known written languages, first recorded in the hieroglyphic script in the late 4th millennium BC. It is also the longest-attested human language, with a written record spanning over 4,000 years.[7] Its classical form, known as "Middle Egyptian," served as the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period.

By the time of classical antiquity, the spoken language had evolved into Demotic, and by the Roman era, diversified into various Coptic dialects. These were eventually supplanted by Arabic after the Muslim conquest of Egypt, although Bohairic Coptic remains in use as the liturgical language of the Coptic Church.[8][note 2]

Classification

[edit]

The Egyptian language branch belongs to the Afroasiatic language family.[9][10] Among the typological features of Egyptian that are typically Afroasiatic are its fusional morphology, nonconcatenative morphology, a series of emphatic consonants, a three-vowel system /a i u/, a nominal feminine suffix *-at, a nominal prefix m-, an adjectival suffix and characteristic personal verbal affixes.[9] Of the other Afroasiatic branches, linguists have variously suggested that the Egyptian language shares its greatest affinities with Berber[11] and Semitic[10][12][13] languages, particularly Arabic[14] (which is spoken in Egypt today) and Hebrew.[10] However, other scholars have argued that the Egyptian language shared closer linguistic ties with northeastern African regions.[15][16][17]

There are two theories that seek to establish the cognate sets between Egyptian and Afroasiatic, the traditional theory and the neuere Komparatistik, founded by Semiticist Otto Rössler.[18] According to the neuere Komparatistik, in Egyptian, the Proto-Afroasiatic voiced consonants */d z ð/ developed into pharyngeal ⟨ꜥ⟩ /ʕ/: Egyptian ꜥr.t 'portal', Semitic dalt 'door'. The traditional theory instead disputes the values given to those consonants by the neuere Komparatistik, instead connecting ⟨ꜥ⟩ with Semitic /ʕ/ and /ɣ/.[19] Both schools agree that Afroasiatic */l/ merged with Egyptian ⟨n⟩, ⟨r⟩, ⟨ꜣ⟩, and ⟨j⟩ in the dialect on which the written language was based, but it was preserved in other Egyptian varieties. They also agree that original */k g ḳ/ palatalise to ⟨ṯ j ḏ⟩ in some environments and are preserved as ⟨k g q⟩ in others.[20][21]

The Egyptian language has many biradical and perhaps monoradical roots, in contrast to the Semitic preference for triradical roots. Egyptian is probably more conservative, and Semitic likely underwent later regularizations converting roots into the triradical pattern.[22]

Although Egyptian is the oldest Afroasiatic language documented in written form, its morphological repertoire is very different from that of the rest of the Afroasiatic languages in general, and Semitic languages in particular. There are multiple possibilities: perhaps Egyptian had already undergone radical changes from Proto-Afroasiatic before it was recorded; or the Afroasiatic family has so far been studied with an excessively Semitocentric approach; or, as G. W. Tsereteli suggests, Afroasiatic is an allogenetic rather than a genetic group of languages.[14]

History

[edit]

The Egyptian language can be grouped thus:[23][24]

  • Egyptian
    • Earlier Egyptian, Older Egyptian, or Classical Egyptian
      • Old Egyptian
        • Early Egyptian, Early Old Egyptian, Archaic Old Egyptian, Pre-Old Egyptian, or archaic Egyptian
        • standard Old Egyptian
      • Middle Egyptian
    • Later Egyptian
      • Late Egyptian
      • Demotic Egyptian
      • Coptic

The Egyptian language is conventionally grouped into six major chronological divisions:[25]

Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian were all written using both the hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts. Demotic is the name of the script derived from the hieratic beginning in the 7th century BC.

The Coptic alphabet was derived from the Greek alphabet, with adaptations for Egyptian phonology. It was first developed in the Ptolemaic period, and gradually replaced the Demotic script in about the 4th to 5th centuries of the Christian era.

Diagram showing the use of the various lects of Egyptian by time period and linguistic register.

Old Egyptian

[edit]
Seal impression from the tomb of Seth-Peribsen, containing the oldest known complete sentence in Egyptian

The term "Archaic Egyptian" is sometimes reserved for the earliest use of hieroglyphs, from the late fourth through the early third millennia BC. At the earliest stage, around 3300 BC,[26] hieroglyphs were not a fully developed writing system, being at a transitional stage of proto-writing; over the time leading up to the 27th century BC, grammatical features such as nisba formation can be seen to occur.[26][27]

Old Egyptian is dated from the oldest known complete sentence, including a finite verb, which has been found. Discovered in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen (dated c. 2690 BC), the seal impression reads:

d
D
n
f
N19
n
G38
f
M23 L2
t t
O1
F34
s
n
d(m)ḏ.n.f tꜣ-wj n zꜣ.f nsw.t-bj.t(j) pr-jb.sn(j)
unite.PRF.he[28] land.two for son.his sedge-bee house-heart.their
"He has united the Two Lands for his son, Dual King Peribsen."[29]

Extensive texts appear from about 2600 BC.[27] The Pyramid Texts are the largest body of literature written in this phase of the language. One of its distinguishing characteristics is the tripling of ideograms, phonograms, and determinatives to indicate the plural. Overall, it does not differ significantly from Middle Egyptian, the classical stage of the language, though it is based on a different dialect.

In the period of the 3rd dynasty (c. 2650 – c. 2575 BC), many of the principles of hieroglyphic writing were regularized. From that time on, until the script was supplanted by an early version of Coptic (about the third and fourth centuries), the system remained virtually unchanged. Even the number of signs used remained constant at about 700 for more than 2,000 years.[30]

Middle Egyptian

[edit]

Middle Egyptian was spoken for about 700 years, beginning around 2000 BC, during the Middle Kingdom and the subsequent Second Intermediate Period.[12] As the classical variant of Egyptian, Middle Egyptian is the best-documented variety of the language, and has attracted the most attention by far from Egyptology. While most Middle Egyptian is seen written on monuments by hieroglyphs, it was also written using a cursive variant, and the related hieratic.[31]

Middle Egyptian first became available to modern scholarship with the decipherment of hieroglyphs in the early 19th century. The first grammar of Middle Egyptian was published by Adolf Erman in 1894, surpassed in 1927 by Alan Gardiner's work. Middle Egyptian has been well-understood since then, although certain points of the verbal inflection remained open to revision until the mid-20th century, notably due to the contributions of Hans Jakob Polotsky.[32][33]

The Middle Egyptian stage is taken to have ended around the 14th century BC, giving rise to Late Egyptian. This transition was taking place in the later period of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (known as the Amarna Period).[citation needed]

Egyptien de tradition

[edit]

Original Old Egyptian and Middle Egyptian texts were still used after the 14th century BCE. And an emulation of predominately Middle Egyptian, but also with characteristics of Old Egyptian, Late Egyptian and Demotic, called "Égyptien de tradition" or "Neo-Middle Egyptian" by scholars, was used as a literary language for new texts since the later New Kingdom in official and religious hieroglyphic and hieratic texts in preference to Late Egyptian or Demotic. Égyptien de tradition as a religious language survived until the Christianisation of Roman Egypt in the 4th century.

Late Egyptian

[edit]

Late Egyptian was spoken for about 650 years, beginning around 1350 BC, during the New Kingdom of Egypt. Late Egyptian succeeded but did not fully supplant Middle Egyptian as a literary language, and was also the language of the New Kingdom administration.[6][34]

Texts written wholly in Late Egyptian date to the Twentieth Dynasty of Egypt and later. Late Egyptian is represented by a large body of religious and secular literature, comprising such examples as the Story of Wenamun, the love poems of the Chester–Beatty I papyrus, and the Instruction of Any. Instructions became a popular literary genre of the New Kingdom, which took the form of advice on proper behavior. Late Egyptian was also the language of New Kingdom administration.[35][36]

Late Egyptian is not completely distinct from Middle Egyptian, as many "classicisms" appear in historical and literary documents of this phase.[37] However, the difference between Middle and Late Egyptian is greater than the difference between Middle and Old Egyptian. Originally a synthetic language, Egyptian by the Late Egyptian phase had become an analytic language.[38] The relationship between Middle Egyptian and Late Egyptian has been described as being similar to that between Latin and Italian.[39]

  • Written Late Egyptian was seemingly a better representative than Middle Egyptian of the spoken language in the New Kingdom and beyond: weak consonants ꜣ, w, j, as well as the feminine ending .t were increasingly dropped, apparently because they stopped being pronounced.
  • The demonstrative pronouns pꜣ (masc.), tꜣ (fem.), and nꜣ (pl.) were used as definite articles.
  • The old form sḏm.n.f (he heard) of the verb was replaced by sḏm-f which had both prospective (he shall hear) and perfective (he heard) aspects. The past tense was also formed using the auxiliary verb jr (make), as in jr.f saḥa.f (he has accused him).
  • Adjectives as attributes of nouns are often replaced by nouns.

The Late Egyptian stage is taken to have ended around the 8th century BC, giving rise to Demotic.

Demotic

[edit]
10th century stela with Coptic inscription, in the Louvre

Demotic is a later development of the Egyptian language written in the Demotic script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic, the latter of which it shares much with. In the earlier stages of Demotic, such as those texts written in the early Demotic script, it probably represented the spoken idiom of the time. However, as its use became increasingly confined to literary and religious purposes, the written language diverged more and more from the spoken form, leading to significant diglossia between the late Demotic texts and the spoken language of the time, similar to the use of classical Middle Egyptian during the Ptolemaic Period.

Coptic

[edit]

Coptic is the name given to the late Egyptian vernacular when it was written in a Greek-based alphabet, the Coptic alphabet; it flourished from the time of Early Christianity (c. 31/33–324), but Egyptian phrases written in the Greek alphabet first appeared during the Hellenistic period c. 3rd century BC,[40] with the first known Coptic text, still pagan (Old Coptic), from the 1st century AD.

Coptic survived into the medieval period, but by the 16th century was dwindling rapidly due to the persecution of Coptic Christians under the Mamluks. It probably survived in the Egyptian countryside as a spoken language for several centuries after that. Coptic survives as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Coptic Catholic Church.

Dialects

[edit]

Most hieroglyphic Egyptian texts are written in a literary prestige register rather than the vernacular speech variety of their author. As a result, dialectical differences are not apparent in written Egyptian until the adoption of the Coptic alphabet.[3][4] Nevertheless, it is clear that these differences existed before the Coptic period. In one Late Egyptian letter (dated c. 1200 BC), a scribe jokes that his colleague's writing is incoherent like "the speech of a Delta man with a man of Elephantine."[3][4]

Recently, some evidence of internal dialects has been found in pairs of similar words in Egyptian that, based on similarities with later dialects of Coptic, may be derived from northern and southern dialects of Egyptian.[41] Written Coptic has five major dialects, which differ mainly in graphic conventions, most notably the southern Saidic dialect, the main classical dialect, and the northern Bohairic dialect, currently used in Coptic Church services.[3][4]

Writing systems

[edit]

Most surviving texts in the Egyptian language are written on stone in hieroglyphs. The native name for Egyptian hieroglyphic writing is zẖꜣ n mdw-nṯr ("writing of the gods' words").[42][citation needed] In antiquity, most texts were written on the quite perishable medium of papyrus though a few have survived that were written in hieratic and (later) demotic.[43] There was also a form of cursive hieroglyphs, used for religious documents on papyrus, such as the Book of the Dead of the Twentieth Dynasty; it was simpler to write than the hieroglyphs in stone inscriptions, but it was not as cursive as hieratic and lacked the wide use of ligatures. Additionally, there was a variety of stone-cut hieratic, known as "lapidary hieratic".[44] In the language's final stage of development, the Coptic alphabet replaced the older writing system.

Hieroglyphs are employed in two ways in Egyptian texts: as ideograms to represent the idea depicted by the pictures and, more commonly, as phonograms to represent their phonetic value.

As the phonetic realisation of Egyptian cannot be known with certainty, Egyptologists use a system of transliteration to denote each sound that could be represented by a uniliteral hieroglyph.[45]

Egyptian scholar Gamal Mokhtar argued that the inventory of hieroglyphic symbols derived from "fauna and flora used in the signs [which] are essentially African" and in "regards to writing, we have seen that a purely Nilotic, hence African origin not only is not excluded, but probably reflects the reality" although he acknowledged the geographical location of Egypt made it a receptacle for many influences.[46]

Phonology

[edit]

While the consonantal phonology of the Egyptian language may be reconstructed, the exact phonetics is unknown, and there are varying opinions on how to classify the individual phonemes. In addition, because Egyptian is recorded over a full 2,000 years, the Archaic and Late stages being separated by the amount of time that separates Old Latin from Modern Italian, significant phonetic changes must have occurred during that lengthy time frame.[47]

Phonologically, Egyptian contrasted labial, alveolar, palatal, velar, uvular, pharyngeal, and glottal consonants. Egyptian also contrasted voiceless and emphatic consonants, as with other Afroasiatic languages, but exactly how the emphatic consonants were realised is unknown. Early research had assumed that the opposition in stops was one of voicing, but it is now thought to be either one of tenuis and emphatic consonants, as in many Semitic languages, or one of aspirated and ejective consonants, as in many Cushitic languages.[note 4]

Since vowels were not written until Coptic, reconstructions of the Egyptian vowel system are much more uncertain and rely mainly on evidence from Coptic and records of Egyptian words, especially proper nouns, in other languages/writing systems.[48]

The actual pronunciations reconstructed by such means are used only by a few specialists in the language. For all other purposes, the Egyptological pronunciation is used, but it often bears little resemblance to what is known of how Egyptian was pronounced.

Old Egyptian

[edit]

Consonants

[edit]

The following consonants are reconstructed for Archaic (before 2600 BC) and Old Egyptian (2686–2181 BC), with IPA equivalents in square brackets if they differ from the usual transcription scheme:

Early Egyptian consonants[49]
Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive voiceless p t [c] k q[a] ʔ
voiced b d[a] [a] [ɟ] ɡ[a]
Fricative voiceless f s š [ʃ] [ç] [χ] [ħ] h
voiced z[a] ꜥ (ʿ) [ʕ]
Approximant w l j
Trill r ꜣ (ȝ) [ʀ]
  1. ^ a b c d e Possibly unvoiced ejectives.

/l/ has no independent representation in the hieroglyphic orthography, and it is frequently written as if it were /n/ or /r/.[49] That is probably because the standard for written Egyptian is based on a dialect in which /l/ had merged with other sonorants.[20] Also, the rare cases of /ʔ/ occurring are not represented. The phoneme /j/ is written as ⟨j⟩ in the initial position (⟨jt⟩ = */ˈjaːtVj/ 'father') and immediately after a stressed vowel (⟨bjn⟩ = */ˈbaːjin/ 'bad') and as ⟨jj⟩ word-medially immediately before a stressed vowel (⟨ḫꜥjjk⟩ = */χaʕˈjak/ 'you will appear') and are unmarked word-finally (⟨jt⟩ = /ˈjaːtVj/ 'father').[49]

Middle Egyptian

[edit]

In Middle Egyptian (2055–1650 BC), a number of consonantal shifts take place. By the beginning of the Middle Kingdom period, /z/ and /s/ had merged, and the graphemes ⟨s⟩ and ⟨z⟩ are used interchangeably.[50] In addition, /j/ had become /ʔ/ word-initially in an unstressed syllable (⟨jwn/jaˈwin/ > */ʔaˈwin/ "colour") and after a stressed vowel (⟨ḥjpw⟩ */ˈħujpVw/ > /ˈħeʔp(Vw)/ '[the god] Apis').[51]

Late Egyptian

[edit]

In Late Egyptian (1069–700 BC), the phonemes d ḏ g gradually merge with their counterparts t ṯ k (⟨dbn⟩ */ˈdiːban/ > Akkadian transcription ti-ba-an 'dbn-weight'). Also, ṯ ḏ often become /t d/, but they are retained in many lexemes; becomes /ʔ/; and /t r j w/ become /ʔ/ at the end of a stressed syllable and eventually null word-finally: ⟨pḏ.t⟩ */ˈpiːɟat/ > Akkadian transcription -pi-ta 'bow'.[52]

Demotic

[edit]

Phonology

[edit]

The most important source of information about Demotic phonology is Coptic. The consonant inventory of Demotic can be reconstructed on the basis of evidence from the Coptic dialects.[53] Demotic orthography is relatively opaque. The Demotic "alphabetical" signs are mostly inherited from the hieroglyphic script, and due to historical sound changes they do not always map neatly onto Demotic phonemes. However, the Demotic script does feature certain orthographic innovations, such as the use of the sign for /ç/,[54] which allow it to represent sounds that were not present in earlier forms of Egyptian.

The Demotic consonants can be divided into two primary classes: obstruents (stops, affricates and fricatives) and sonorants (approximants, nasals, and semivowels).[55] Voice is not a contrastive feature; all obstruents are voiceless and all sonorants are voiced.[56] Stops may be either aspirated or tenuis (unaspirated),[57] although there is evidence that aspirates merged with their tenuis counterparts in certain environments.[58]

The following table presents the consonants of Demotic Egyptian. The reconstructed value of a phoneme is given in IPA transcription, followed by a transliteration of the corresponding Demotic "alphabetical" sign(s) in angle brackets ⟨ ⟩.

Demotic Egyptian consonants
Labial Alveolar Postalv. Palatal Velar Pharyng. Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/
Obstruent aspirate // ⟨p⟩ // ⟨t ṯ⟩ /t͡ʃʰ/ ⟨ṯ⟩ // ⟨k⟩ // ⟨k⟩
tenuis /t/ ⟨d ḏ t ṯ ṱ⟩ /t͡ʃ/ ⟨ḏ ṯ⟩ /c/ ⟨g k q⟩ /k/ ⟨q k g⟩
fricative /f/ ⟨f⟩ /s/ ⟨s⟩ /ʃ/ ⟨š⟩ /ç/ ⟨h̭ ḫ⟩ /x/ ⟨ẖ ḫ⟩ /ħ/ ⟨ḥ⟩ /h/ ⟨h⟩
Approximant /β/ ⟨b⟩ /r/ ⟨r⟩ /l/ ⟨l r⟩ /j/ ⟨y ı͗⟩ /w/ ⟨w⟩ /ʕ/ ⟨ꜥ⟩[a]
  1. ^ /ʕ/ was lost near the end of the Ptolemaic period.[59]
Demotic–Coptic sound correspondences
Demotic
spelling
Demotic
phoneme
Coptic reflexes
Old Coptic[a] B F M S P L I A
m */m/ /m/ /m/ /m/ /m/ /m/ /m/ /m/ /m/ /m/
n */n/ , , /n/ /n/ /n/ /n/ /n/ , , /n/ /n/ /n/ /n/
p */pʰ/ /p/ /pʰ/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/
t, */tʰ/ /t/ /tʰ/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/
*/t͡ʃʰ/ , /t͡ʃ/ ϭ /t͡ʃʰ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/
k */cʰ/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /t͡ʃʰ/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/ /c/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/
k */kʰ/ , /k/ /kʰ/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/
p *[p][b] /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/ /p/
d, , t, , */t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/ /t/
*/t͡ʃ/ , /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/
g, k, q */c/ , ϭ, /c/ ϫ /t͡ʃ/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/ /c/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/ ϭ /c/
q, k, g */k/ , /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/ /k/
f */f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/ ϥ /f/
s */s/ /s/ /s/ /s/ /s/ /s/ /s/ /s/ /s/ /s/
š */ʃ/ ϣ, , /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/
, */ç/ , /ç~ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ ϣ /ʃ/ /ç/ ϣ /ʃ/ , ϣ /ç~ʃ/ /x/
, */x/ ϧ /x/ ϧ /x/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϧ /x/ ϩ /h/ /x/ /x/
*/ħ/ , ϩ, /ħ~h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/
h */h/ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/ ϩ /h/
b */β/ /β/ /β/ /β/ /β/ /β/ /β/ /β/ /β/ /β/
r */r/ /r/ /r/ /l/, /r/ /r/ /r/ /r/ /r/ /r/ /r/
l, r */l/ /l/ /l/ /l/ /l/ /l/ /l/ /l/ /l/ /l/
y, ı͗ */j/ () /j/ () /j/ () /j/ () /j/ () /j/ () /j/ () /j/ () /j/ () /j/
w */w/ () /w/ () /w/ () /w/ () /w/ () /w/ () /w/ () /w/ () /w/ () /w/
*/ʕ/ , ∅ /ʔ~/
  1. ^ The term Old Coptic refers to any Coptic texts produced before the standardization of the Coptic alphabet and the emergence of the major literary dialects. These texts exhibit a variety of orthographic and dialectal features and notably make use of several letters of Demotic origin which are not found in the standard Coptic script. The minor dialects P and I are sometimes grouped under the Old Coptic umbrella, however, strictly speaking Dialect I is written with a modified version of the Sahidic alphabet which it shares with Akhmimic, rather than a genuine Old Coptic system.
  2. ^ [p] is an allophone of /pʰ/ in Demotic.

Coptic

[edit]

More changes occur in the 1st millennium BC and the first centuries AD, leading to Coptic (1st or 3rd – c. 19th centuries AD). In Sahidic ẖ ḫ ḥ had merged into ϣ š (most often from ) and ϩ /h/ (most often ẖ ḥ). Bohairic and Akhmimic are more conservative and have a velar fricative /x/ (ϧ in Bohairic, in Akhmimic).[60] Pharyngeal *ꜥ had merged into glottal /ʔ/ after it had affected the quality of the surrounding vowels.[61] /ʔ/ is not indicated orthographically unless it follows a stressed vowel; then, it is marked by doubling the vowel letter (except in Bohairic): Akhmimic ⳉⲟⲟⲡ /xoʔp/, Sahidic and Lycopolitan ϣⲟⲟⲡ šoʔp, Bohairic ϣⲟⲡ šoʔp 'to be' < ḫpr.w */ˈχapraw/ 'has become'.[60][note 5] The phoneme /b/ was probably pronounced as a fricative [β], becoming /p/ after a stressed vowel in syllables that had been closed in earlier Egyptian (compare ⲛⲟⲩⲃ < */ˈnaːbaw/ 'gold' and ⲧⲁⲡ < */dib/ 'horn').[60] The phonemes /d g z/ occur only in Greek loanwords, with rare exceptions triggered by a nearby /n/: ⲁⲛⲍⲏⲃⲉ/ⲁⲛⲥⲏⲃⲉ < ꜥ.t n.t sbꜣ.w 'school'.[60]

Earlier *d ḏ g q are preserved as ejective t' c' k' k' before vowels in Coptic. Although the same graphemes are used for the pulmonic stops (ⲧ ϫ ⲕ), the existence of the former may be inferred because the stops ⲡ ⲧ ϫ ⲕ /p t c k/ are allophonically aspirated [pʰ kʰ] before stressed vowels and sonorant consonants.[62] In Bohairic, the allophones are written with the special graphemes ⲫ ⲑ ϭ ⲭ, but other dialects did not mark aspiration: Sahidic ⲡⲣⲏ, Bohairic ⲫⲣⲏ 'the sun'.[62][note 6]

Thus, Bohairic does not mark aspiration for reflexes of older *d ḏ g q: Sahidic and Bohairic ⲧⲁⲡ */dib/ 'horn'.[62] Also, the definite article is unaspirated when the next word begins with a glottal stop: Bohairic ⲡ + ⲱⲡ > ⲡⲱⲡ 'the account'.[63]

The consonant system of Coptic is as follows:

Coptic consonants[64]
Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal
m

n
Plosive voiceless ⲡ (ⲫ)
p ()
ⲧ (ⲑ)
t ()
ϫ (ϭ)
c ()
ⲕ (ⲭ)
k ()
[a]
ʔ
ejective
ϫ

voiced
d

ɡ
Fricative voiceless ϥ
f

s
ϣ
ʃ
(ϧ, ⳉ)
(x)
ϩ
h
voiced
β

z
Approximant (ⲟ)ⲩ
w

l
(ⲉ)ⲓ
j
Trill
r
  1. ^ Various orthographic representations; see above.

Vowels

[edit]

Here is the vowel system reconstructed for earlier Egyptian:

Earlier Egyptian vowel system[51]
Front Back
Close i u
Open a

Vowels are always short in unstressed syllables (⟨tpj⟩ = */taˈpij/ 'first') and long in open stressed syllables (⟨rmṯ⟩ = */ˈraːmac/ 'man'), but they can be either short or long in closed stressed syllables (⟨jnn⟩ = */jaˈnan/ 'we', ⟨mn⟩ = */maːn/ 'to stay').[65]

In the Late New Kingdom, after Ramses II, around 1200 BC, */ˈaː/ changes to */ˈoː/ (like the Canaanite shift), ⟨ḥrw⟩ '(the god) Horus' */ħaːra/ > */ħoːrə/ (Akkadian transcription: -ḫuru).[52][66] */uː/, therefore, changes to */eː/: ⟨šnj⟩ 'tree' */ʃuːn(?)j/ > */ʃeːnə/ (Akkadian transcription: -sini).[52]

In the Early New Kingdom, short stressed */ˈi/ changes to */ˈe/: ⟨mnj⟩ "Menes" */maˈnij/ > */maˈneʔ/ (Akkadian transcription: ma-né-e).[52] Later, probably 1000–800 BC, a short stressed */ˈu/ changes to */ˈe/: ⟨ḏꜥn.t⟩ "Tanis" */ˈɟuʕnat/ was borrowed into Hebrew as *ṣuʕn but would become transcribed as ⟨ṣe-e'-nu/ṣa-a'-nu⟩ during the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[67]

Unstressed vowels, especially after a stress, become */ə/: ⟨nfr⟩ 'good' */ˈnaːfir/ > */ˈnaːfə/ (Akkadian transcription -na-a-pa).[67] */iː/ changes to */eː/ next to /ʕ/ and /j/: ⟨wꜥw⟩ 'soldier' */wiːʕiw/ > */weːʕə/ (earlier Akkadian transcription: ú-i-ú, later: ú-e-eḫ).[67]

Egyptian vowel system c. 1000 BC[67]
Front Central Back
Close
Mid e ə
Open a

In Sahidic and Bohairic Coptic, Late Egyptian stressed */ˈa/ becomes */ˈo/ and */ˈe/ becomes /ˈa/, but are unchanged in the other dialects:

  • ⟨sn⟩ */san/ 'brother'
    Sahidic and Bohairic ⟨son⟩
    Akhmimic, Lycopolitan and Fayyumic ⟨san⟩
  • ⟨rn⟩ 'name' */rin/ > */ren/
    Sahidic and Bohairic ⟨ran⟩
    Akhmimic, Lycopolitan and Fayyumic ⟨ren⟩[61]

However, in the presence of guttural fricatives, Sahidic and Bohairic preserve */ˈa/, and Fayyumic renders it as ⟨e⟩:

  • ⟨ḏbꜥ⟩ 'ten thousand' */ˈbaʕ/
    Sahidic, Akhmimic and Lycopolitan ⟨tba⟩
    Bohairic ⟨tʰba⟩
    Fayyumic ⟨tbe⟩

In Akhmimic and Lycopolitan, */ˈa/ becomes /ˈo/ before etymological /ʕ, ʔ/:

  • ⟨jtrw⟩ 'river' */ˈjatraw/ > */jaʔr(ə)/
    Sahidic ⟨eioor(e)⟩
    Bohairic ⟨ior⟩
    Akhmimic ⟨ioore, iôôre⟩
    Fayyumic ⟨iaal, iaar⟩

Similarly, the diphthongs */ˈaj/, */ˈaw/, which normally have reflexes /ˈoj/, /ˈow/ in Sahidic and are preserved in other dialects, are in Bohairic ⟨ôi⟩ (in non-final position) and ⟨ôou⟩ respectively:

  • "to me, to them"
    Sahidic ⟨eroi, eroou⟩
    Akhmimic and Lycopolitan ⟨arai, arau⟩
    Fayyumic ⟨elai, elau⟩
    Bohairic ⟨eroi, erôou⟩

Sahidic and Bohairic preserve */ˈe/ before /ʔ/ (etymological or from lenited /t r j/ or tonic-syllable coda /w/),: Sahidic and Bohairic ⟨ne⟩ /neʔ/ 'to you (fem.)' < */ˈnet/ < */ˈnic/. */e/ may also have different reflexes before sonorants, near sibilants and in diphthongs.[68]

Old */aː/ surfaces as /uː/ after nasals and occasionally other consonants: ⟨nṯr⟩ 'god' */ˈnaːcar/ > /ˈnuːte/ ⟨noute⟩[69] /uː/ has acquired phonemic status, as is evidenced by minimal pairs like 'to approach' ⟨hôn⟩ /hoːn/ < */ˈçaːnan/ ẖnn vs. 'inside' ⟨houn⟩ /huːn/ < */ˈçaːnaw/ ẖnw.[70] An etymological */uː/ > */eː/ often surfaces as /iː/ next to /r/ and after etymological pharyngeals: ⟨hir⟩ < */χuːr/ 'street' (Semitic loan).[70]

Most Coptic dialects have two phonemic vowels in unstressed position. Unstressed vowels generally became /ə/, written as ⟨e⟩ or null (⟨i⟩ in Bohairic and Fayyumic word-finally), but pretonic unstressed /a/ occurs as a reflex of earlier unstressed */e/ near an etymological pharyngeal, velar or sonorant ('to become many' ⟨ašai⟩ < ꜥšꜣ */ʕiˈʃiʀ/) or an unstressed */a/. Pretonic [i] is underlyingly /əj/: Sahidic 'ibis' ⟨hibôi⟩ < h(j)bj.w */hijˈbaːj?w/.[70]

Thus, the following is the Sahidic vowel system c. AD 400:

Sahidic vowel system circa 400 AD[61]
Stressed Unstressed
Front Back Central
Close
Mid e o ə
Open a

Phonotactics

[edit]

Earlier Egyptian has the syllable structure CV(ː)(C) in which V is long in open stressed syllables and short elsewhere.[65] In addition, CVːC or CVCC can occur in word-final, stressed position.[65] However, CVːC occurs only in the infinitive of biconsonantal verbal roots, CVCC only in some plurals.[65][67]

In later Egyptian, stressed CVːC, CVCC, and CV become much more common because of the loss of final dentals and glides.[67]

Stress

[edit]

Earlier Egyptian stresses one of the last two syllables. According to some scholars, that is a development from a stage in Proto-Egyptian in which the third-last syllable could be stressed, which was lost as open posttonic syllables lost their vowels: */ˈχupiraw/ > */ˈχupraw/ 'transformation'.[71]

Egyptological pronunciation

[edit]

As a convention, Egyptologists make use of an "Egyptological pronunciation" in English: the consonants are given fixed values, and vowels are inserted according to essentially arbitrary rules. Two of these consonants known as alef and ayin are generally pronounced as the vowel /ɑː/. Yodh is pronounced /iː/, w /uː/. Between other consonants, /ɛ/ is then inserted. Thus, for example, the Egyptian name Ramesses is most accurately transliterated as rꜥ-ms-sw ("Ra is the one who bore him") and pronounced as /rɑmɛssu/.

In transcription, ⟨a⟩, ⟨i⟩, and ⟨u⟩ all represent consonants. For example, the name Tutankhamun (1341–1323 BC) was written in Egyptian as twt-ꜥnḫ-jmn ("living image of Amun"). Experts have assigned generic sounds to these values as a matter of convenience, which is an artificial pronunciation and should not be mistaken for how Egyptian was ever pronounced at any time. So although twt-ꜥnḫ-ı͗mn is pronounced /ttənˈkɑːmən/ in modern Egyptological pronunciation, in his lifetime, it was likely to be pronounced something like *[təˈwaːtəʔ ˈʕaːnəχ ʔaˈmaːnəʔ],[72][73][74][75][76][77][excessive citations] transliterable as təwā́təʾ-ʿā́nəkh-ʾamā́nəʾ.

Morphology

[edit]

Egyptian is fairly typical for an Afroasiatic language in that most of its vocabulary is built around a root of three consonants, though there are sometimes only two consonants in the root: rꜥ(w) ([riːʕa], "sun"--the [ʕ] is thought to have been something like a voiced pharyngeal fricative). Larger roots are also common and can have up to five consonants: sḫdḫd ("be upside-down").

Vowels and other consonants are added to the root to derive different meanings, as Arabic, Hebrew, and other Afroasiatic languages still do. However, because vowels and sometimes glides are not written in any Egyptian script except Coptic, it can be difficult to reconstruct the actual forms of words. Thus, orthographic stp ("to choose"), for example, can represent the stative (whose endings can be left unexpressed), the imperfective forms or even a verbal noun ("a choosing").

Nouns

[edit]

Egyptian nouns can be masculine or feminine (the latter is indicated, as with other Afroasiatic languages, by adding a -t) and singular or plural (-w / -wt), or dual (-wj / -tj).

Articles, both definite and indefinite, do not occur until Late Egyptian but are used widely thereafter.

Pronouns

[edit]

Egyptian has three different types of personal pronouns: suffix, enclitic (called "dependent" by Egyptologists) and independent pronouns. There are also a number of verbal endings added to the infinitive to form the stative and are regarded by some linguists[78] as a "fourth" set of personal pronouns. They bear close resemblance to their Semitic counterparts. The three main sets of personal pronouns are as follows:

Personal pronouns
Suffix Dependent Independent
1st
person
singular .j or .ı͗ wj or wı͗ jnk or ı͗nk
plural .n n jnn or ı͗nn
2nd
person
singular masc. .k ṯw ntk
fem. .ṯ ṯn ntṯ
plural .ṯn ṯn ntṯn
3rd
person
singular masc. .f sw ntf
fem. .s sj nts
plural .sn sn ntsn

Demonstrative pronouns have separate masculine and feminine singular forms and common plural forms for both genders:

Demonstrative pronouns
Singular Plural Meaning
Masc. Fem.
pn tn nn this, that, these, those
pf tf nf that, those
pw tw nw this, that, these, those (archaic)
pꜣ tꜣ nꜣ this, that, these, those (colloquial [earlier] & Late Egyptian)

Finally, interrogative pronouns bear a close resemblance to their Semitic and Berber counterparts:

Interrogative pronouns
Pronoun Meaning Dependency
mj or mı͗ who / what Dependent
ptr who / what Independent
jḫ what Dependent
jšst or ı͗šst what Independent
zy which Independent & Dependent

Verbs

[edit]

Egyptian verbs have finite and non-finite forms.

Finite verbs convey person, tense/aspect, mood and voice. Each is indicated by a set of affixal morphemes attached to the verb: For example, the basic conjugation is sḏm ("to hear") is sḏm.f ("he hears").

Non-finite verbs occur without a subject and are the infinitive, the participles and the negative infinitive, which Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs calls "negatival complement". There are two main tenses/aspects in Egyptian: past and temporally-unmarked imperfective and aorist forms. The latter are determined from their syntactic context.

Adjectives

[edit]

Adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify:

z

man

nfr

good.MASC

z nfr

man good.MASC

"[the] good man"

zt

woman

nfrt

good.FEM

zt nfrt

woman good.FEM

"[the] good woman"

Attributive adjectives in phrases are after the nouns they modify: nṯr ꜥꜣ ("[the] great god").

However, when they are used independently as a predicate in an adjectival phrase, as ꜥꜣ nṯr ("[the] god [is] great", lit. "great [is the] god"), adjectives precede the nouns they modify.

Prepositions

[edit]

Egyptian makes use of prepositions.

m "in, as, with, from"
n "to, for"
r "to, at"
jn or ı͗n "by"
ḥnꜥ "with"
mj or mı͗ "like"
ḥr "on, upon"
ḥꜣ "behind, around"
ẖr "under"
tp "atop"
ḏr "since"

Adverbs

[edit]

Adverbs, in Egyptian, are at the end of a sentence: For example:

ı͗m

there

zı͗.n nṯr ı͗m

went god there

"[the] god went there"

Here are some common Egyptian adverbs:

jm or ı͗m "there"
ꜥꜣ "here"
ṯnj or ṯnı͗ "where"
zy-nw "when" (lit. "which moment")
mj-jḫ or mı͗-ı͗ḫ "how" (lit. "like-what")
r-mj or r-mı͗ "why" (lit. "for what")
ḫnt "before"

Syntax

[edit]

Old Egyptian, Classical Egyptian, and Middle Egyptian have verb-subject-object as the basic word order. For example, the equivalent of "he opens the door" would be wn s ꜥꜣ ("opens he [the] door"). The so-called construct state combines two or more nouns to express the genitive, as in Semitic and Berber languages. However, that changed in the later stages of the language, including Late Egyptian, Demotic and Coptic.

The early stages of Egyptian have no articles, but the later forms use pꜣ, tꜣ and nꜣ.

As with other Afroasiatic languages, Egyptian uses two grammatical genders: masculine and feminine. It also uses three grammatical numbers: singular, dual and plural. However, later Egyptian has a tendency to lose the dual as a productive form.

Legacy

[edit]

The Egyptian language survived through the Middle Ages and into the early modern period in the form of the Coptic language. Coptic survived past the 16th century only as an isolated vernacular and as a liturgical language for the Coptic Orthodox and Coptic Catholic Churches. Coptic also had an enduring effect on Egyptian Arabic, which replaced Coptic as the main daily language in Egypt; the Coptic substratum in Egyptian Arabic appears in certain aspects of syntax and to a lesser degree in vocabulary and phonology.

In antiquity, Egyptian exerted some influence on Classical Greek, so that a number of Egyptian loanwords into Greek survive into modern usage. Examples include:

The Hebrew Bible also contains some words, terms, and names that are thought by scholars to be Egyptian in origin. An example of this is Zaphnath-Paaneah, the Egyptian name given to Joseph.

The etymological root of "Egypt" is the same as Copts, ultimately from the Late Egyptian name of Memphis, Hikuptah, a continuation of Middle Egyptian ḥwt-kꜣ-ptḥ (lit. "temple of the ka (soul) of Ptah").[79]

See also

[edit]

Notes

[edit]
  1. ^ Whence the designation Kemic for Egypto-Coptic with km.t */kū́m˘t/ "black land, Egypt", as opposed to ṭšr.t "red land, desert". Proposed by Schenkel (1990:1). Note that the name r n km.t is only attested in versions of the Story of Sinuhe and appears to have been a literary invention.
  2. ^ a b The language may have survived in isolated pockets in Upper Egypt as late as the 19th century, according to Quibell, James Edward (1901). "When did Coptic become extinct?". Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. 39: 87. In the village of Pi-Solsel (Az-Zayniyyah, El Zenya or Al Zeniya north of Luxor), passive speakers were recorded as late as the 1930s, and traces of traditional vernacular Coptic reported to exist in other places such as Abydos and Dendera, see Vycichl, Werner (1936). "Pi-Solsel, ein Dorf mit koptischer Überlieferung" [Pi-Solsel, a village with Coptic tradition] (PDF). Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Abteilung Kairo (MDAIK) (in German). 6: 169–175.
  3. ^ However, the name r n km.t is only attested in versions of the Story of Sinuhe and appears to have been a literary invention.
  4. ^ See Peust (1999), for a review of the history of thinking on the subject; his reconstructions of words are nonstandard.
  5. ^ There is evidence of Bohairic having a phonemic glottal stop: Loprieno (1995:44).
  6. ^ In other dialects, the graphemes are used only for clusters of a stop followed by /h/ and were not used for aspirates: see Loprieno (1995:248).
  7. ^ Possibly the precursor of Coptic šau ("tomcat") suffixed with feminine -t, but some authorities dispute this, e.g. Huehnergard, John (2007). "Qiṭṭa: Arabic Cats". Classical Arabic Humanities in Their Own Terms. pp. 407–418. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004165731.i-612.89. ISBN 978-90-04-16573-1..

References

[edit]
  1. ^ a b Erman & Grapow 1926–1961.
  2. ^ "Ancient Sudan~ Nubia: Writing: The Basic Languages of Christian Nubia: Greek, Coptic, Old Nubian, and Arabic". ancientsudan.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e Allen 2000, p. 2.
  4. ^ a b c d e Loprieno 1995, p. 8.
  5. ^ Budge, E. A. Wallis (1920). Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary (PDF). London: Harrison and sons. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 December 2017.
  6. ^ a b Loprieno 1995, p. 7.
  7. ^ Grossman, Eitan; Richter, Tonio Sebastian (2015). "The Egyptian-Coptic language: its setting in space, time and culture". Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 70. doi:10.1515/9783110346510.69. ISBN 9783110346510. The Egyptian-Coptic language is attested in a vast corpus of written texts that almost uninterruptedly document its lifetime over more than 4,000 years, from the invention of the hieroglyphic writing system in the late 4th millennium BCE, up to the 14th century CE. Egyptian is thus likely to be the longest-attested human language known.
  8. ^ Layton, Benjamin (2007). Coptic in 20 Lessons: Introduction to Sahidic Coptic with Exercises & Vocabularies. Peeters Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 9789042918108. The liturgy of the present day Coptic Orthodox Church in Egypt is written in a mixture of Arabic, Greek, and Bohairic Coptic, the ancient dialect of the Delta and the great monasteries of the Wadi Natrun. Coptic is no longer a living language.
  9. ^ a b Loprieno 1995, p. 1.
  10. ^ a b c Rubin 2013.
  11. ^ Frajzyngier, Zygmunt; Shay, Erin (31 May 2012). The Afroasiatic Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 102. ISBN 9780521865333.
  12. ^ a b Loprieno 1995, p. 5.
  13. ^ Allan, Keith (2013). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Linguistics. OUP Oxford. p. 264. ISBN 978-0199585847. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  14. ^ a b Loprieno 1995, p. 51.
  15. ^ Ehret, Christopher (1996). Egypt in Africa. Indianapolis, Ind.: Indianapolis Museum of Art. pp. 25–27. ISBN 0-936260-64-5.
  16. ^ Morkot, Robert (2005). The Egyptians: an introduction. New York: Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 0415271045.
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  18. ^ Takács 2011, p. 13-14.
  19. ^ Takács 2011, p. 8.
  20. ^ a b Loprieno 1995, p. 31.
  21. ^ Takács 2011, p. 8-9.
  22. ^ Loprieno 1995, p. 52.
  23. ^ Compiled and edited by Kathryn A. Bard with the editing assistance of Steven Blage Shubert. Bard, Kathryn A.; Steven Blake Shubert (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Routledge. p. 274f. (in the section Egyptian language and writing). ISBN 978-0-415-18589-9.
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  26. ^ a b Mattessich 2002.
  27. ^ a b Allen 2013, p. 2f..
  28. ^ Werning, Daniel A. (2008). "Aspect vs. Relative Tense, and the Typological Classification of the Ancient Egyptian sḏm.n⸗f". Lingua Aegyptia. 16: 289.
  29. ^ Allen (2013:2) citing Jochem Kahl, Markus Bretschneider, Frühägyptisches Wörterbuch, Part 1 (2002), p. 229.
  30. ^ "Hieroglyph | writing character". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
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  32. ^ Polotsky, H. J. (1944). Études de syntaxe copte. Cairo: Société d'Archéologie Copte.
  33. ^ Polotsky, H. J. (1965). Egyptian Tenses. Vol. 2. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
  34. ^ Meyers, op. cit., p. 209.
  35. ^ Loprieno, op.cit., p.7
  36. ^ Meyers, op.cit., p. 209
  37. ^ Haspelmath, op.cit., p.1743
  38. ^ Bard, op.cit., p.275
  39. ^ Christidēs et al. op.cit., p.811
  40. ^ Allen 2020, p. 3.
  41. ^ Satzinger 2008, p. 10.
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  44. ^ Shaw, Ian; Bloxam, Elizabeth (2020). The Oxford Handbook of Egyptology. Oxford University Press. p. 1119. ISBN 9780192596987. Retrieved 14 June 2024.
  45. ^ Allen 2000, p. 13.
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  50. ^ Loprieno 1995, p. 34.
  51. ^ a b Loprieno 1995, p. 35.
  52. ^ a b c d Loprieno 1995, p. 38.
  53. ^ Allen 2020, p. 26.
  54. ^ Allen 2020, p. 28.
  55. ^ Depuydt, Leo (1993). "On Coptic Sounds" (PDF). Orientalia. 62 (4). Gregorian Biblical Press: 338–375.
  56. ^ Allen 2020, p. 76.
  57. ^ Allen 2020, p. 74–75.
  58. ^ Peust 1999, p. 85, After the New Kingdom, confusion between both series of stops becomes very frequent in Egyptian writing. A phonetic merger of some kind is certainly the cause of this phenomenon..
  59. ^ Peust 1999, p. 102, In Roman Demotic ⟨ꜥ⟩ suddenly begins to be employed in a very inconsistent manner. It is often omitted or added without etymological justification. I take this as an indication that the phoneme /ʕ/ was lost from the spoken language..
  60. ^ a b c d Loprieno 1995, p. 41.
  61. ^ a b c Loprieno 1995, p. 46.
  62. ^ a b c Loprieno 1995, p. 42.
  63. ^ Loprieno 1995, p. 43.
  64. ^ Loprieno 1995, pp. 40–42.
  65. ^ a b c d Loprieno 1995, p. 36.
  66. ^ Allen 2013.
  67. ^ a b c d e f Loprieno 1995, p. 39.
  68. ^ Loprieno 1995, p. 47.
  69. ^ Loprieno 1995, pp. 47–48.
  70. ^ a b c Loprieno 1995, p. 48.
  71. ^ Loprieno 1995, p. 37.
  72. ^ Fecht, Gerhard (1960). "§§ 112 A. 194, 254 A. 395". Wortakzent und Silbenstruktur: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der ägyptischen Sprache. J. J. Augustin, Glückstadt–Hamburg–New York.
  73. ^ Vergote, Jozef (1973–1983). Grammaire Copte. two vols. Peters, Louvain.
  74. ^ Osing, J. (1976). Die Nominalbildung des Ägyptischen. Deutsches archäologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo.
  75. ^ Schenkel, W. (1983). Zur Rekonstruktion deverbalen Nominalbildung des Ägyptischen. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz. pp. 212, 214, 247.
  76. ^ Vycichl 1983, pp. 10, 224, 250.
  77. ^ Vycichl 1990, p. 215.
  78. ^ Loprieno 1995, p. 65.
  79. ^ Hoffmeier, James K (1 October 2007). "Rameses of the Exodus narratives is the 13th B.C. Royal Ramesside Residence". Trinity Journal: 1.

Bibliography

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Literature

[edit]

Overviews

[edit]

Grammars

[edit]

Dictionaries

[edit]

Online dictionaries

[edit]

Important Note: The old grammars and dictionaries of E. A. Wallis Budge have long been considered obsolete by Egyptologists, even though these books are still available for purchase.

More book information is available at Glyphs and Grammars.

[edit]