Frankenstein's monster

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Frankenstein's monster
Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus (Revised Edition, 1831) Creature.jpg
Steel engraving (993 × 78 mm), for the frontispiece of the 1831 revised edition of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, published by Colburn and Bentley, London
First appearanceFrankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus
Created byMary Shelley
Portrayed byBoris Karloff
Glenn Strange
Christopher Lee
Robert De Niro
Kevin James
Xavier Samuel
In-universe information
Nickname"Frankenstein’s ", "The Monster", "The Creature", "The Wretch", "Adam Frankenstein" and others
SpeciesSimulacrum human
GenderMale
FamilyVictor Frankenstein (creator)
Bride of Frankenstein (companion/predecessor; in different adaptions)

Frankenstein's monster or Frankenstein's creature, often informally referred to as simply "Frankenstein", is a fictional character who first appeared in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus. Shelley's title thus compares the monster's creator, Victor Frankenstein, to the mythological character Prometheus, who fashioned humans out of clay and gave them fire.

In Shelley's Gothic story, Victor Frankenstein builds the creature in his laboratory through an ambiguous method based on a scientific principle he discovered. Shelley describes the monster as 8 feet (240 cm) tall and terribly hideous, but emotional. The monster attempts to fit into human society but is shunned, which leads him to seek revenge against Frankenstein. According to the scholar Joseph Carroll, the monster occupies "a border territory between the characteristics that typically define protagonists and antagonists".[1]

Frankenstein's monster became iconic in popular culture, and has been featured in various forms of media, including films, television series, merchandise and video games. His most iconic version is his portrayal by Boris Karloff in the 1931 film Frankenstein, the 1935 sequel Bride of Frankenstein, and the 1939 sequel Son of Frankenstein.

Names[edit]

The actor T. P. Cooke as the monster in an 1823 stage production of Shelley's novel

Mary Shelley's original novel never gives the monster a name, although when speaking to his creator, Victor Frankenstein, the monster does say "I ought to be thy Adam" (in reference to the first man created in the Bible). Frankenstein refers to his creation as "creature", "fiend", "spectre", "the dæmon", "wretch", "devil", "thing", "being", and "ogre".[2] Frankenstein's creation referred to himself as a "monster" at least once, as did the residents of a hamlet who saw the creature towards the end of the novel.

As in Shelley's story, the creature's namelessness became a central part of the stage adaptations in London and Paris during the decades after the novel's first appearance. In 1823, Shelley herself attended a performance of Richard Brinsley Peake's Presumption, the first successful stage adaptation of her novel. "The play bill amused me extremely, for in the list of dramatis personae came _________, by Mr T. Cooke," she wrote to her friend Leigh Hunt. "This nameless mode of naming the unnameable is rather good."[3]

Within a decade of publication, the name of the creator—Frankenstein—was used to refer to the creature, but it did not become firmly established until much later. The story was adapted for the stage in 1927 by Peggy Webling,[4] and Webling's Victor Frankenstein does give the creature his name. However, the creature has no name in the Universal film series starring Boris Karloff during the 1930s, which was largely based upon Webling's play.[5] The 1931 Universal film treated the creature's identity in a similar way as Shelley's novel: in the opening credits, the character is referred to merely as "The Monster" (the actor's name is replaced by a question mark, but Karloff is listed in the closing credits).[6] Nevertheless, the creature soon enough became best known in the popular imagination as "Frankenstein". This usage is sometimes considered erroneous, but some usage commentators regard the monster sense of "Frankenstein" as well-established and not an error.[7][8]

Modern practice varies somewhat. For example, in Dean Koontz's Frankenstein, first published in 2004, the creature is named "Deucalion", after the character from Greek mythology, who is the son of the Titan Prometheus, a reference to the original novel's title. Another example is the second episode of Showtime's Penny Dreadful, which first aired in 2014; Victor Frankenstein briefly considers naming his creation "Adam", before deciding instead to let the monster "pick his own name". Thumbing through a book of the works of William Shakespeare, the monster chooses "Proteus" from The Two Gentlemen of Verona. It is later revealed that Proteus is actually the second monster Frankenstein has created, with the first, abandoned creation having been named "Caliban", from The Tempest, by the theatre actor who took him in and later, after leaving the theatre, named himself after the English poet John Clare.[9] Another example is an attempt by Randall Munroe of webcomic xkcd to make "Frankenstein" the canonical name of the monster, by publishing a short derivative version which directly states that it is.[10] In The Strange Case of the Alchemist's Daughter , the 2017 novel by Theodora Goss, the creature is named Adam.[11]

Shelley's plot[edit]

Close-up of Charles Ogle as the monster in Thomas Edison's Frankenstein (1910)

Victor Frankenstein builds the creature in the attic of his boarding house in Ingolstadt after discovering a scientific principle which allows him to create life from non-living matter. Frankenstein is disgusted by his creation, however, and flees from it in horror. Frightened, and unaware of his own identity, the monster wanders through the wilderness.

He finds solace beside a remote cottage inhabited by an older, blind man and his two children. Eavesdropping, the creature familiarizes himself with their lives and learns to speak, whereby he becomes an eloquent, educated, and well-mannered individual. During this time, he also finds Frankenstein's journal in the pocket of the jacket he found in the laboratory and learns how he was created. The creature eventually introduces himself to the family's blind father, who treats him with kindness. When the rest of the family returns, however, they are frightened of him and drive him away. Enraged, the creature feels that humankind is his enemy and begins to hate his creator for abandoning him. However, although he despises Frankenstein, he sets out to find him, believing that he is the only person who will help him. On his journey, the creature rescues a young girl from a river but is shot in the shoulder by the child's father, believing the creature intended to harm his child. Enraged by this final act of cruelty, the creature swears revenge on humankind for the suffering they have caused him. He seeks revenge against his creator in particular for leaving him alone in a world where he is hated. Using the information in Frankenstein's notes, the creature resolves to find him.

The monster kills Victor's younger brother William upon learning of the boy's relation to his creator and makes it appear as if Justine Moritz, a young woman who lives with the Frankensteins, is responsible. When Frankenstein retreats to the Alps, the monster approaches him at the summit, recounts his experiences, and asks his creator to build him a female mate. He promises, in return, to disappear with his mate and never trouble humankind again, but threatens to destroy everything Frankenstein holds dear should he fail or refuse. Frankenstein agrees, and eventually constructs a female creature on a remote island in Orkney, but aghast at the possibility of creating a race of monsters, destroys the female creature before it is complete. Horrified and enraged, the creature immediately appears, and gives Frankenstein a final threat: "I will be with you on your wedding night."

After leaving his creator, the creature goes on to kill Victor's best friend, Henry Clerval, and later kills Frankenstein's bride, Elizabeth Lavenza, on their wedding night, whereupon Frankenstein's father dies of grief. With nothing left to live for but revenge, Frankenstein dedicates himself to destroying his creation, and the creature goads him into pursuing him north, through Scandinavia and into Russia, staying ahead of him the entire way.

As they reach the Arctic Circle and travel over the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean, Frankenstein, suffering from severe exhaustion and hypothermia, comes within a mile of the creature, but is separated from him when the ice he is traveling over splits. A ship exploring the region encounters the dying Frankenstein, who relates his story to the ship's captain, Robert Walton. Later, the monster boards the ship, but upon finding Frankenstein dead, is overcome by grief and pledges to incinerate himself at "the Northernmost extremity of the globe". He then departs, never to be seen again.

Appearance[edit]

Boris Karloff in Bride of Frankenstein (1935) in a variation of the classic 1931 film version with an assist from make-up artist Jack Pierce. Karloff had gained weight since the original iteration and much of the monster's hair has been burned off to indicate having been caught in a fire.
Frankenstein's monster in an editorial cartoon, 1896, an allegory on the Silverite movement displacing other progressive factions in late 19th century U.S.

Shelley described Frankenstein's monster as an 8-foot-tall (2.4 m) creature of hideous contrasts:

His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips.

A picture of the creature appeared in the 1831 edition. Early stage portrayals dressed him in a toga, shaded, along with the monster's skin, a pale blue. Throughout the 19th century, the monster's image remained variable according to the artist.

Portrayals in film[edit]

The best-known image of Frankenstein's monster in popular culture derives from Boris Karloff's portrayal in the 1931 movie Frankenstein, in which he wore makeup applied and designed by Jack P. Pierce.[12] Universal Studios, which released the film, was quick to secure ownership of the copyright for the makeup format. Karloff played the monster in two more Universal films, Bride of Frankenstein and Son of Frankenstein; Lon Chaney Jr. took over the part from Karloff in The Ghost of Frankenstein; Bela Lugosi portrayed the role in Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man; and Glenn Strange played the monster in the last three Universal Studios films to feature the character – House of Frankenstein, House of Dracula, and Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. But their makeup replicated the iconic look first worn by Karloff. In modern times the image of Karloff's face is owned by his daughter's company, Karloff Enterprises, secured for her in a lawsuit for which she was represented by attorney Bela G. Lugosi (Bela Lugosi's son), after which Universal replaced Karloff's features with Glenn Strange's in most of their marketing. The New York Times mistakenly ran a photograph of Strange for Karloff's obituary.

Since Karloff's portrayal, the creature almost always appears as a towering, undead-like figure, often with a flat-topped angular head and bolts on his neck to serve as electrical connectors or grotesque electrodes. He wears a dark, usually tattered, suit having shortened coat sleeves and thick, heavy boots, causing him to walk with an awkward, stiff-legged gait (as opposed to the novel, in which he is described as much more flexible than a human). The tone of his skin varies (although shades of green or gray are common), and his body appears stitched together at certain parts (such as around the neck and joints). This image has influenced the creation of other fictional characters, such as the Hulk.[13]

In the 1965 Toho film Frankenstein Conquers the World, the heart of Frankenstein’s Monster was transported from Germany to Hiroshima as World War II neared its end, only to be irradiated during the atomic bombing of the city, granting it miraculous regenerative capabilities. Over the ensuing 20 years, it grows into a complete human child, who then rapidly matures into a giant, 20 metre-tall man. After escaping a laboratory in the city, he is blamed for the crimes of the burrowing Kaiju Baragon, and the two monsters face off in a showdown that ends with Frankenstein victorious, though he falls into the depths of the Earth after the ground collapses beneath his feet.

In the 1973 TV miniseries Frankenstein: The True Story, a different approach was taken in depicting the monster: Michael Sarrazin appears as a strikingly handsome man who later degenerates into a grotesque monster due to a flaw in the creation process.

In the 1994 film Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, the creature is played by Robert De Niro in a nearer approach to the original source, except this version gives the creature balding grey hair and a body covered in bloody stitches. He is, as in the novel, motivated by pain and loneliness. In this version, Frankenstein gives the monster the brain of his mentor, Doctor Waldman, while his body is made from a man who killed Waldman while resisting a vaccination. The monster retains Waldman's "trace memories" that apparently help him quickly learn to speak and read.

In the 2004 film Van Helsing, the monster is shown in a modernized version of the Karloff design. He is 8 to 9 feet (240–270 cm) tall, has a square bald head, gruesome scars, and pale green skin. The electricity is emphasized with one electrified dome in the back of his head and another over his heart. It also has hydraulic pistons in its legs, essentially rendering the design as a steam-punk cyborg. Although not as eloquent as in the novel, this version of the creature is intelligent and relatively nonviolent.

In 2004, a TV miniseries adaptation of Frankenstein was made by Hallmark. Luke Goss plays The Creature. This adaptation more closely resembles the monster as described in the novel: intelligent and articulate, with flowing, dark hair and watery eyes.

The 2005 film Frankenstein Reborn portrays the Creature as a paraplegic man who tries to regain the ability to walk by having a computer chip implanted. Instead, the surgeon kills him and resurrects his corpse as a reanimated zombie creature.

The 2014 TV series Penny Dreadful also rejects the Karloff design in favour of Shelley's description. This version of the creature has the flowing dark hair described by Shelley, although he departs from her description by having pale grey skin and obvious scars along the right side of his face. Additionally, he is of average height, being even shorter than other characters in the series. In this series, the monster names himself "Caliban", after the character in William Shakespeare's The Tempest. In the series, Victor Frankenstein makes a second and third creature, each more indistinguishable from normal human beings.

Personality[edit]

Lon Chaney Jr. as the monster and Bela Lugosi as Ygor in The Ghost of Frankenstein (1942)
Glenn Strange as Frankenstein's monster with Boris Karloff, this time playing another character, in the 1944 film The House of Frankenstein
Christopher Lee as the creature in the Hammer's The Curse of Frankenstein (1957)

As depicted by Shelley, the monster is a sensitive, emotional creature whose only aim is to share his life with another sentient being like himself. The novel portrayed him as versed in Paradise Lost, Plutarch's Lives, and The Sorrows of Young Werther.

From the beginning, the monster is rejected by everyone he meets. He realizes from the moment of his "birth" that even his own creator cannot stand the sight of him; this is obvious when Frankenstein says "…one hand was stretched out, seemingly to detain me, but I escaped…".[14]:Ch.5 Upon seeing his own reflection, he realizes that he too is repulsed by his appearance. His greatest desire is to find love and acceptance; but when that desire is denied, he swears revenge on his creator.

The monster is a vegetarian. While speaking to Frankenstein, he tells him, “My food is not that of man; I do not destroy the lamb and the kid to glut my appetite; acorns and berries afford me sufficient nourishment...The picture I present to you is peaceful and human.”[15] At the time the novel was written, many writers, including Percy Shelley in A Vindication of Natural Diet,[16] argued that practicing vegetarianism was the morally right thing to do.[17]

Contrary to many film versions, the creature in the novel is very articulate and eloquent in his speech. Almost immediately after his creation, he dresses himself; and within 11 months, he can speak and read German and French. By the end of the novel, the creature is able to speak English fluently as well. The Van Helsing and Penny Dreadful interpretations of the character have similar personalities to the literary original, although the latter version is the only one to retain the character's violent reactions to rejection. In the 1931 film adaptation, the monster is depicted as mute and bestial; it is implied that this is because he is accidentally implanted with a criminal's "abnormal" brain. In the subsequent sequel, Bride of Frankenstein, the monster learns to speak, albeit in short, stunted sentences. In the second sequel, Son of Frankenstein, the creature is again rendered inarticulate. Following a brain transplant in the third sequel, The Ghost of Frankenstein, the monster speaks with the voice and personality of the brain donor. This was continued after a fashion in the scripting for the fourth sequel, Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man, but the dialogue was excised before release. The monster was effectively mute in later sequels, although he refers to Count Dracula as his "master" in Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein. The monster is often portrayed as being afraid of fire, although he is not afraid of it in the novel.

The monster as a metaphor[edit]

Frankenstein's monster's bust, based on Boris Karloff, in the National Museum of Cinema of Turin, Italy

Scholars sometimes look for deeper meaning in Shelley's story, and have drawn an analogy between the monster and a motherless child; Shelley's own mother died while giving birth to her.[18] The monster has also been analogized to an oppressed class; Shelley wrote that the monster recognized "the division of property, of immense wealth and squalid poverty".[18] Others see in the monster the dangers of uncontrolled scientific progress,[19] especially as at the time of publishing; Galvanism had convinced many scientists that raising the dead through use of electrical currents was a scientific possibility.

Another proposal is that the Frankenstein was based on a real scientist who had a similar name, and who had been called a modern Prometheus – Benjamin Franklin. Accordingly, the monster would represent the new nation that Franklin helped to create out of remnants left by England.[20] Victor Frankenstein's father "made also a kite, with a wire and string, which drew down that fluid from the clouds," wrote Shelley, similar to Franklin's famous kite experiment.[20]

Racial Interpretations[edit]

In discussing the physical description of the monster, there has been some speculation about the potential his design is rooted in common perceptions of race during the 18th century. Three scholars have noted that Shelley’s description of the monster seems to be racially coded, one argues that, “Shelley's portrayal of her monster drew upon contemporary attitudes towards non-whites, in particular on fears and hopes of the abolition of slavery in the West Indie.”[21] Of course, there is no evidence to suggest that the Monster’s depiction is meant to mimic any race, and such interpretations are based in personal conjectural interpretations of Shelley’s text rather than remarks from herself or any known intentions of the author.

In her article “Frankenstein, Racial Science, and the Yellow Peril,”[22] Anne Mellor claims that the monster’s features share a lot in common with the Mongoloid race. This term, now out of fashion and carrying some negative connotations, is used to describe the "yellow" races of Asia as distinct from the Caucasian or white races. To support her claim, Mellor points out that both Mary and Percy Shelley were friends with William Lawrence, an early proponent of racial science and someone who Mary “continued to consult on medical matters and [met with] socially until his death in 1830.”[22] While Mellor points out to allusions to Orientalism and the yellow peril, John Malchow in his article “Frankenstein's Monster and Images of Race in Nineteenth-Century Britain”[21] explores the possibility of the monster either being intentionally or unintentionally coded as black. Malchow argues that the Monster’s depiction is based in an 18th century understanding of ”popular racial discourse [which] managed to conflate such descriptions of particular ethnic characteristics into a general image of the "Negro" body in which repulsive features, brute-like strength and size of limbs featured prominently.”[21] Malchow makes it clear that it is difficult to tell if this alleged racial allegory was intentional on Shelley’s part or if it was inspired by the society she lived in (or if it exists in the text at all outside of his interpretation), and he states that “There is no clear proof that Mary Shelley consciously set out to create a monster which suggested, explicitly, the Jamaican escaped slave or maroon, or that she drew directly from any person knowledge of either planter or abolitionist propaganda.”[21] In addition to the previous interpretations, Karen Lynnea Piper argues in her article, “Inuit Diasporas: Frankenstein and the Inuit in England” that the symbolism surrounding Frankenstein’s monster could stem from the Inuit people of the arctic. Piper argues that the monster accounts for the “missing presence” of any indigenous people during Waldon’s expedition, and that he represents the fear of the savage, lurking on the outskirts of civilization.[23]

Portrayals[edit]

Actor Year Production
Thomas Cooke 1823 Presumption; or, the Fate of Frankenstein
Charles Stanton Ogle 1910 Frankenstein
Percy Standing 1915 Life Without Soul
Umberto Guarracino 1920 The Monster of Frankenstein
Boris Karloff 1931 Frankenstein
1935 Bride of Frankenstein
1939 Son of Frankenstein
1962 Route 66': "Lizard's Leg and Owlet's Wing" (TV series episode)
Dale Van Sickel 1941 Hellzapoppin
Lon Chaney Jr. 1942 The Ghost of Frankenstein[24]
1952 Tales of Tomorrow: "Frankenstein" (TV series episode)
Bela Lugosi 1943 Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man
Glenn Strange 1944 The House of Frankenstein
1945 House of Dracula
1948 Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein
Gary Conway 1957 I Was a Teenage Frankenstein
Christopher Lee The Curse of Frankenstein
Gary Conway 1958 How to Make a Monster
Michael Gwynn The Revenge of Frankenstein
Mike Lane Frankenstein 1970
Harry Wilson Frankenstein's Daughter
Don Megowan Tales of Frankenstein (TV pilot)
Danny Dayton 1963 Mack and Myer for Hire: "Monstrous Merriment" (TV series episode)
Kiwi Kingston 1964 The Evil of Frankenstein
Fred Gwynne The Munsters (as "Herman Munster")
Koji Furuhata 1965 Frankenstein Conquers the World
John Maxim Doctor Who: "The Chase" (TV series episode)
Yû Sekida and Haruo Nakajima 1966 The War of the Gargantuas
Allen Swift 1967 Mad Monster Party?
1972 Mad Mad Mad Monsters
Susan Denberg 1967 Frankenstein Created Woman
Robert Rodan Dark Shadows
David Prowse 1967 Casino Royale
1970 The Horror of Frankenstein
1974 Frankenstein and the Monster from Hell
Freddie Jones 1969 Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed
Manuel Leal Santo y Blue Demon contra los monstruos (as "Franquestain")
Howard Morris 1970 Groovie Goolies (as "Frankie")
John Bloom and Shelley Weiss 1971 Dracula vs. Frankenstein
Xiro Papas 1972 Frankenstein 80
Bo Svenson 1973 The Wide World of Mystery "Frankenstein" (TV series episode)
José Villasante The Spirit of the Beehive
Michael Sarrazin Frankenstein: The True Story
Srdjan Zelenovic 1974 Flesh for Frankenstein
Peter Boyle Young Frankenstein
Per Oscarsson 1976 Terror of Frankenstein
Peter Cullen 1984 The Transformers
David Warner Frankenstein (TV movie)
Clancy Brown 1985 The Bride
2020 DuckTales
Tom Noonan 1987 The Monster Squad
Paul Naschy El Aullido del Diablo
Chris Sarandon Frankenstein (TV movie)
Phil Hartman 1987–1996 Saturday Night Live[25][26]
Zale Kessler 1988 Scooby-Doo and the Ghoul School
Jim Cummings Scooby-Doo! and the Reluctant Werewolf
Craig Armstrong 1989 The Super Mario Bros. Super Show!
Nick Brimble 1990 Frankenstein Unbound
Randy Quaid 1992 Frankenstein
Robert De Niro 1994 Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
Deron McBee 1995 Monster Mash: The Movie
Peter Crombie 1997 House of Frankenstein
Thomas Wellington The Creeps
Frank Welker 1999 Alvin and the Chipmunks Meet Frankenstein
Shuler Hensley 2004 Van Helsing
Luke Goss Frankenstein
Vincent Perez Frankenstein
Joel Hebner 2005 Frankenstein Reborn
Julian Bleach 2007 Frankenstein
Shuler Hensley Young Frankenstein
Scott Adsit 2010 Mary Shelley's Frankenhole
Benedict Cumberbatch 2011 Frankenstein
Jonny Lee Miller
Tim Krueger Frankenstein: Day of the Beast
David Harewood Frankenstein's Wedding
Kevin James 2012 Hotel Transylvania
David Gest A Nightmare on Lime Street[27]
Mark Hamill Uncle Grandpa
Roger Morrissey 2013 The Frankenstein Theory
Chad Michael Collins Once Upon a Time
Aaron Eckhart 2014 I, Frankenstein
Rory Kinnear Penny Dreadful
Dee Bradley Baker Winx Club (in "A Monstrous Crush")
Kevin James 2015 Hotel Transylvania 2
Michael Gladis The Librarians (in "And the Broken Staff")
Spencer Wilding Victor Frankenstein
Xavier Samuel Frankenstein
Kevin Michael Richardson Rick and Morty
Brad Garrett 2016 Apple holiday commercial
John DeSantis 2017 Escape from Mr. Lemoncello's Library
Grant Moninger Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
Kevin James 2018 Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation
Skylar Astin 2019 Vampirina
Will Ferrell Drunk History
Brad Abrell[28] 2021 Hotel Transylvania: Transformania

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carroll, Joseph; Gottschall, Jonathan; Johnson, John A.; Kruger, Daniel J. (2012). Graphing Jane Austen: The Evolutionary Basis of Literary Meaning. London, England: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1137002402.
  2. ^ Baldick, Chris (1987). In Frankenstein's shadow: myth, monstrosity, and nineteenth-century writing. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780198117261.
  3. ^ Haggerty, George E. (1989). Gothic Fiction/Gothic Form. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0271006451.
  4. ^ Hitchcock, Susan Tyler (2007). Frankenstein: a cultural history. New York City: W. W. Norton. ISBN 9780393061444.
  5. ^ Young, William; Young, Nancy; Butt, John J. (2002). The 1930s. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 199. ISBN 978-0313316029.
  6. ^ Schor, Esther (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Mary Shelley. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0521007702.
  7. ^ Evans, Bergen (1962). Comfortable Words. New York City: Random House.
  8. ^ Garner, Bryan A. (1998). A dictionary of modern American usage. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195078534.
  9. ^ Crow, Dennis (October 19, 2016). "Penny Dreadful: The Most Faithful Version of the Frankenstein Legend". Den of Geek. London, England: Dennis Publishing. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
  10. ^ "Frankenstein". xkcd. Retrieved 2020-08-29.
  11. ^ Teitelbaum, Ilana. "Tales of Monstrous Women: "The Strange Case of the Alchemist's Daughter" and "European Travel for the Monstrous Gentlewoman" by Theodora Goss". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
  12. ^ Mank, Gregory William (2010-03-08). Bela Lugosi and Boris Karloff: The Expanded Story of a Haunting Collaboration, with a Complete Filmography of Their Films Together. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-5472-3.
  13. ^ Weinstein, Simcha (2006). Up, Up, and Oy Vey!: how Jewish history, culture, and values shaped the comic book superhero. Baltimore, Maryland: Leviathan Press. pp. 82–97. ISBN 978-1-881927-32-7.
  14. ^ Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft (1818). "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus". Retrieved 3 November 2012 – via Gutenberg Project.
  15. ^ Irvine, Ian. "From Frankenstein's monster to Franz Kafka: vegetarians through history". Retrieved 2020-10-05.
  16. ^ Shelley, Percy. A Vindication of Natural Diet. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 21 January 2021.
  17. ^ Morton, Timothy (2006-09-21). The Cambridge Companion to Shelley. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139827072.
  18. ^ a b Milner, Andrew (2005). Literature, Culture and Society. New York City: NYU Press. pp. 227, 230. ISBN 978-0814755648.
  19. ^ Coghill, Jeff (2000). CliffsNotes on Shelley's Frankenstein. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 30. ISBN 978-0764585937.
  20. ^ a b Young, Elizabeth (2008). Black Frankenstein: The Making of an American Metaphor. New York City: NYU Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0814797150.
  21. ^ a b c d Malchow, H L. “Frankenstein's Monster and Images of Race in Nineteenth-Century Britain.” Past & Present, No. 139, May 1993, pp. 90–130.
  22. ^ a b Mellor, Anne K. “Frankenstein, Racial Science, and the Yellow Peril” Frankenstein: Second Edition, 2012, pp. 481
  23. ^ Piper, Karen Lynnea. "Inuit Diasporas: Frankenstein and the Inuit in England." Romanticism, vol. 13 no. 1, 2007, p. 63-75. Project MUSE muse.jhu.edu/article/214804.
  24. ^ Chaney also reprised the role, uncredited, for a sequence in Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein due to the character's assigned actor, Glenn Strange, being injured.
  25. ^ "SNL Transcripts: Paul Simon: 12/19/87: Succinctly Speaking".
  26. ^ "Watch Weekend Update: Frankenstein on Congressional Budget Cuts from Saturday Night Live on NBC.com".
  27. ^ "A Nightmare On Lime Street – Royal Court Theatre Liverpool".
  28. ^ Verboven, Jos (May 17, 2021). "Trailer Park: 'Hotel Transylvania: Transformania'". Scifi.radio. Archived from the original on June 2, 2021. Retrieved May 29, 2021.

External links[edit]