Honorific nicknames in popular music

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

When describing popular music artists, honorific nicknames are used, most often in the media or by fans, to indicate the significance of an artist, and are often religious, familial, or most frequently royal and aristocratic titles, used metaphorically. Honorific nicknames were used in classical music in Europe even in the early 19th century, with figures such as Mozart being called "The father of modern music" and Bach "The father of modern piano music".[1] They were also particularly prominent in African-American culture in the post-Civil War era, perhaps as a means of conferring status that had been negated by slavery,[2] and as a result entered early jazz and blues music, including figures such as Duke Ellington and Count Basie.[3]

In U.S. culture, despite its republican constitution and ideology,[4] royalist honorific nicknames have been used to describe leading figures in various areas of activity, such as industry, commerce, sports, and the media; father or mother have been used for innovators, and royal titles such as king and queen for dominant figures in a field.[5][6] In the 1930s and 1940s, as jazz and swing music were gaining popularity, it was the more commercially successful white artists Paul Whiteman and Benny Goodman who became known as "the King of Jazz" and "the King of Swing" respectively, despite there being more highly regarded contemporary African-American artists.[7]

These patterns of naming were transferred to rock and roll when it emerged in the 1950s. There was a series of attempts to find—and a number of claimants to be—the "King of Rock 'n' Roll", a title that became most associated with Elvis Presley.[8] This has been characterized as part of a process of the appropriation of credit for innovation of the then new music by a white establishment.[9] Different honorifics have been taken or given for other leading figures in the genre, such as "the Architect of Rock and Roll", by Little Richard from the 1990s;[10] this term, like many, is also used for other important figures, in this case including pioneer electric guitarist Les Paul.[11]

Similar honorific nicknames have been given in other genres, including Aretha Franklin, who was crowned the "Queen of Soul" on stage by disk jockey Pervis Spann in 1968.[12] Michael Jackson and Madonna have been closely associated with the terms "King and Queen of Pop" since the 1980s.[13][14][15] Some nicknames have been strongly promulgated and contested by various artists,[16] and occasionally disowned or played down by their subjects.[17] Some notable honorific nicknames are in general usage and commonly identified with particular individuals.

Individual titles


American singer Aaliyah is known as the "Princess of R&B".
American singer Christina Aguilera is known as the "Voice of a Generation".
Artist Title Country Source
Aaliyah Princess of R&B United States [18][19]
Queen of Urban Pop [20]
Lee Aaron Queen of Heavy-Metal Rock Canada [21]
Abrar-ul-Haq King of Pakistani Pop Pakistan [22]
Christina Aguilera Voice of a Generation United States [23]
Nancy Ajram Queen of Arab Pop Lebanon [24]
Sezen Aksu Queen of Turkish Pop Turkey [25]
Rauw Alejandro King of Modern Reggaeton Puerto Rico [26]
A-Mei Queen of Mandopop Taiwan [27][28]
Amr Diab The Father of Mediterranean Music Egypt [29]
Namie Amuro Queen of J-pop Japan [30]
Anitta Queen of Brazilian Pop Brazil [31]
Anna Carina Queen of Peruvian pop Peru [32][33][34]
Louis Armstrong King of Jazz United States [35]


American singer Beyoncé is frequently referred to as "Queen Bey".
South Korean singer BoA is known as the "Queen of K-pop".
American musician James Brown was known as the "Godfather of Soul".
Artist Title Country Source
Erykah Badu First Lady of Neo-Soul United States [36]
Queen of Neo-Soul [37]
Bad Bunny King of Latin Trap Puerto Rico [38][39]
Joan Baez Queen of Folk United States [40][41]
J Balvin Prince of Reggaeton Colombia [42][43]
Šaban Bajramović King of Romani Music Serbia [44][45]
Harry Belafonte King of Calypso United States [46][47]
Mordechai Ben David King of Jewish Music United States [48]
Chuck Berry King of Rock and Roll United States [49]
Father of Rock and Roll [50]
Beyoncé Queen Bey United States [51]
Justin Bieber Prince of Pop Canada [52][53]
King of Teen Pop [54][55][56]
Mary J. Blige Queen of Hip Hop Soul United States [57][58]
BoA Queen of K-pop South Korea [59][60]
David Bowie Chameleon of Rock United Kingdom [61]
Brandy The Vocal Bible United States [62][63]
Chris Brown King of R&B United States [64][65][66]
Chuck Brown Godfather of Go-Go United States [67]
Dennis Brown Crown Prince of Reggae Jamaica [68][69]
James Brown Godfather of Soul United States [70][71]
Solomon Burke King of Rock 'n' Soul United States [72]
Michael Bublé King of Christmas Canada [73][74][75]


American singer-songwriter Mariah Carey is known as the "Songbird Supreme" and "the Queen of Christmas".
American entertainer Cher is referred to as the "Goddess of Pop".
Cuban singer Celia Cruz is referred to as the "Queen of Salsa".
Artist Title Country Source
Montserrat Caballé La Superba (English: The Superb One) Spain [76][77]
Clarence Wijewardena Father of Sinhala Pop Sri Lanka [78]
Maria Callas La Divina (The divine one) United States/Italy/Greece [79][80][81]
Laura Canales Queen of Tejano United States [82]
Mariah Carey Songbird Supreme United States [83][84]
Queen of Christmas [85]
Cher Goddess of Pop United States [86][87]
Jay Chou King of Mandopop Taiwan [88]
Kelly Clarkson The Original American Idol United States [89][90]
Sam Cooke King of Soul United States [91]
Alice Cooper Godfather of Shock Rock United States [92]
Celia Cruz Queen of Salsa Cuba [93]


Puerto Rican singers Don Omar (left) and Daddy Yankee (right) are both referred to as the "King of Reggaeton".
Canadian singer Céline Dion is referred to as the "Queen of Power Ballads" and "Queen of Adult Contemporary".
American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan has been called the "Crown Prince of Folk" and "King of Folk".
Artist Title Country Source
Daddy Yankee King of Reggaeton Puerto Rico [94][95]
Ray Davies Godfather of Britpop United Kingdom [96]
Amr Diab Father of Mediterranean Music Egypt [97][98]
Lana Del Rey Queen of Alternative Music United States [99]
Celine Dion Queen of Power Ballads Canada [100][101]
Queen of Adult Contemporary [102][103]
Nate Dogg King of Hooks United States [104][105]
Fats Domino King of Rock and Roll United States [106]
Don Omar King of Reggaeton Puerto Rico [107]
Lonnie Donegan King of Skiffle United Kingdom [108]
Doro Metal Queen Germany [109][110]
Thomas A. Dorsey Father of Gospel Music United States [111]
Gord Downie Canada's Unofficial Poet Laureate Canada [112][113]
Dr. Dre Father of G-Funk United States [114]
Rocío Dúrcal Queen of Ranchera Spain [115]
Bob Dylan Crown Prince of Folk United States [116][117]
King of Folk [118][119]


American rapper Eminem has gone by multiple honorifics, such as "King of Hip-Hop" and "King of Rap".
Artist Title Country Source
Eazy-E Godfather of Gangsta Rap United States [120]
Missy Elliott Queen of Hip Hop United States [121]
Queen of Rap [122][123][124]
Eminem King of Hip-Hop United States [125]
King of Rap [126]
Gloria Estefan Queen of Latin Pop Cuba/United States [127]
Elvy Sukaesih Queen of Dangdut Indonesia [128][129]


American singer Ella Fitzgerald is known as the "Queen of Jazz" and "First Lady of Song".
American singer Aretha Franklin is known as the "Queen of Soul".
Artist Title Country Source
Vicente Fernandez King of Ranchera Mexico [130]
Ella Fitzgerald First Lady of Song United States [131][132]
Queen of Jazz [133]
Lita Ford Queen of Heavy Metal United States [134]
Zucchero Fornaciari Father of Italian Blues Italy [135]
Stephen Foster Father of American Music United States [136]
Aretha Franklin Queen of Soul United States [137][138][139]
Alan Freed King of Rock and Roll United States [140]


American singer Gloria Gaynor is known as the "Queen of Disco".
Artist Title Country Source
Lady Gaga Queen of Pop United States [141]
Charly García Godfather of Argentine Rock Argentina [142][143]
Carlos Gardel King of Tango [144][145]
Lucho Gatica King of Bolero Chile [146]
Marvin Gaye Prince of Motown United States [147]
Prince of Soul [148]
Gloria Gaynor Queen of Disco United States [149]
G-Dragon King of K-pop South Korea [150]
Marika Gombitová Queen of Slovak Pop Music Slovakia [151][152][153]
Songstress of the 20th Century [154][155]
Benny Goodman King of Swing United States [156]
Vestal Goodman Queen of Gospel Music United States [157]
Narayan Gopal Emperor of Voice Nepal [158]
Karel Gott Golden Voice of Prague Czechia [159][160]
Ariana Grande Princess of Pop United States [161]
Amy Grant Queen of Christian Pop United States [162][163]
Alejandra Guzmán Queen of Latin Rock Mexico [164]


American rapper and singer Lauryn Hill is known as the "Queen of Hip Hop".
American singer Whitney Houston is referred to as "The Voice".
Artist Title Country Source
Nina Hagen The Mother of Punk Germany [165]
Rob Halford The Metal God United Kingdom [166]
Ayumi Hamasaki Empress of J-pop Japan [167]
Mehdi Hassan Emperor of Ghazal Pakistan [168][169]
Nazia Hassan Queen of South Asian Pop Pakistan [170]
Hana Hegerová Queen of Czechoslovak Chanson Czechia/Slovakia [171][172][173]
Kiyoshi Hikawa Prince of the Enka World Japan [174]
Lauryn Hill Queen of Hip Hop United States [175][176]
Whitney Houston The Voice United States [177]
Al Hurricane Godfather of New Mexico Music United States [178][179]


Spanish singer Enrique Iglesias is known as the "King of Latin Pop".
Artist Title Country Source
Enrique Iglesias King of Latin Pop Spain [180]
La India The Princess of Salsa Puerto Rico [181]
Rhoma Irama King of Dangdut Indonesia [182]
IU Nation's Little Sister South Korea [183][184][185]


American singer and entertainer Michael Jackson is known as the "King of Pop".
Artist Title Country Source
Janet Jackson Queen of Pop United States [186]
Mahalia Jackson Queen of Gospel United States [187]
Michael Jackson King of Pop United States [188][189]
Wanda Jackson Queen of Rockabilly United States [190]
Elmore James King of the Slide Guitar United States [191]
Rick James King of Punk Funk United States [192]
Al Jarreau Acrobat of Scat United States [193]
Jay R Philippines' King of R&B Philippines [194]
Jay-Z King of Rap United States [195]
Jaya Philippine Queen of Soul Philippines [196]
Noor Jehan Queen of Melody Pakistan [197]
Cui Jian Grandfather of Chinese Rock China [198]
Blind Lemon Jefferson Father of the Texas Blues United States [191]
Joan Jett Godmother of Punk United States [199]
Joey Boy Godfather of Thai Hip Hop Thailand [200]
Robert Johnson Grandfather of Rock and Roll United States [201]
Sharon Jones Godmother of Soul United States [202]
Janis Joplin Queen of Rock and Roll United States [203][204]
Scott Joplin King of Ragtime United States [205]
Louis Jordan King of the Jukebox United States [206]
José José The Prince of Song Mexico [207]
Jully Black Queen of Canadian R&B Canada [208]


Artist Title Country Source
Hironobu Kageyama Prince of the Anison World Japan [209][210][211]
R. Kelly King of R&B United States [212]
King of Pop-Soul [213]
Alicia Keys Queen of R&B United States [219]
Khaled King of Raï Algeria [220]
Chaka Khan Queen of Funk United States [221]
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Emperor of Qawwali Pakistan [222]
B.B. King King of the Blues United States [223][224][225]
Gladys Knight Empress of Soul United States [226][227][228]
Frankie Knuckles Godfather of House United States [229]
Joseph Koo Godfather of Cantopop Hong Kong [230]
DJ Kool Herc Founder & Father of Hip Hop Jamaica/United States [231][232][233]
Koda Kumi J-pop Queen Japan [234]
Kyary Pamyu Pamyu J-pop Princess Japan [235][236]


American rapper and singer Lil' Kim is known as the "Queen of Rap".
English singer Vera Lynn was known as the "Forces' Sweetheart" for her popularity among the armed forces during World War II.
Artist Title Country Source
La Lupe Queen of Latin Soul Cuba [237][238]
Patti LaBelle Godmother of Soul United States [239]
Kendrick Lamar King Kendrick United States [240]
Queen Latifah Queen of Rap, Hip Hop United States [241]
Avril Lavigne Queen of Pop Punk Canada [242]
Héctor Lavoe El Cantante de los Cantantes (The Singer of the Singers) Puerto Rico [243]
Lil' Kim Queen of Rap United States [244]
Lil' Mo Godmother of Hip-Hop and R&B United States [245]
Lisa Lisa Queen of Latin Hip Hop United States [246]
Little Richard Architect of Rock and Roll United States [247]
Kenny Loggins King of the Movie Soundtrack United States [248][249]
Dave Lombardo The Godfather of Double Bass United States [250]
Jennifer Lopez Queen of Latin Pop United States [251][252]
Vera Lynn Forces' Sweetheart United Kingdom [253][254]


American singer-songwriter Madonna is known as the "Queen of Pop".
Indian singer Lata Mangeshkar is widely acknowledged as the "Queen of Melody".
Jamaican musician Bob Marley is known as the "King of Reggae".
Artist Title Country Source
Madonna Queen of Pop United States [255]
Miriam Makeba Mama Africa South Africa [256]
Lata Mangeshkar Queen of Melody India [257]
Teena Marie Ivory Queen of Soul United States [258]
Bob Marley King of Reggae Jamaica [259][260]
Bruno Mars Prince of Pop United States [261][262]
Ricky Martin King of Latin Pop Puerto Rico [263]
Reba McEntire Queen of Country United States [264]
Lydia Mendoza Queen of Tejano United States [265]
Freddie Mercury The King of Queen United Kingdom [266]
Mighty Sparrow Calypso King of the World Trinidad and Tobago [267]
Luis Miguel The Sun of Mexico Mexico [268][269]
Nicki Minaj Queen of Rap Trinidad and Tobago/United States [270]
Kylie Minogue Princess of Pop Australia [271][272][273]
Ichirō Mizuki Emperor of Anime Songs Japan [274][275]
Bill Monroe Father of Bluegrass United States [276]
Andy Montañez The Godfather of the Salsa Puerto Rico [277]
Rudy Ray Moore Godfather of Rap United States [278]
Giorgio Moroder Father of Disco Italy [279]
Morissette Asia's Phoenix Philippines [280]
Anita Mui Queen of Cantopop Hong Kong [281][282]
Peter Murphy Godfather of Goth United Kingdom [283][284][285]


American singer-songwriter Stevie Nicks has been called the "Queen of Rock and Roll".
Artist Title Country Source
Emilio Navaira King of Tejano United States [286]
Grant Nelson The Godfather of UK Garage United Kingdom [287][288]
Stevie Nicks Queen of Rock and Roll United States [289][290]
Martin Nievera Concert King of the Philippines Philippines [291]
Nike Ardilla Queen of Rock, Lady Rocker Indonesia [292][293]
No I.D. The Godfather of Chicago Hip Hop United States [294][295]
Larry Norman Father of Christian Rock United States [296]


English singer Ozzy Osbourne has been identified as the "Godfather of Heavy Metal" and the "Prince of Darkness".
Artist Title Country Source
Odetta Queen of American Folk Music United States [297]
Nobuyasu Okabayashi God of Folk Japan [298][299][300]
Roy Orbison The Caruso of Rock United States [301]
Ozuna New King of Reggaeton Puerto Rico [302][303]
Ozzy Osbourne Prince of Darkness United Kingdom [304]
Godfather of Heavy Metal [304]
Johnny Otis Godfather of Rhythm and Blues United States [305]


American singer Elvis Presley is known as the "King of Rock and Roll".
American musician Prince has been referred to as "The Artist", "The Purple One" and "His Royal Badness".
Artist Title Country Source
Dolly Parton Queen of Country United States [306]
Abida Parveen Queen of Sufi music Pakistan [307]
Charley Patton Father of the Delta Blues United States [308]
Peret King of Catalan Rumba Spain [309][310]
Ariel Pink Godfather of Chillwave United States [311][312]
Iggy Pop Godfather of Punk United States [313][314]
Elvis Presley King of Rock and Roll United States [315][316][317][8]
King of Pop [318][319][320]
Lisa Marie Presley Princess of Rock and Roll United States [321]
Prince The Artist United States [322]
Alla Pugacheva Queen of Russian Pop Russia [323]


Dominican singer Milly Quezada is known as the "Queen of Merengue".
Artist Title Country Source
Ivy Queen Queen of Reggaetón United States [324][325]
Milly Quezada Queen of Merengue Dominican Republic [326]
A.B. Quintanilla III King of Cumbia
King of Kumbia
United States [327][328][329]


American singer Smokey Robinson has been called the "King of Motown".
Artist Title Country Source
Ma Rainey Mother of the Blues United States [330]
Joey Ramone Godfather of Punk United States [331][332]
Otis Redding King of Soul United States [333]
Lou Reed Godfather of Punk United States [334]
Esma Redžepova Queen of Gypsy Music North Macedonia [335]
Sheryn Regis Crystal Voice of Asia Philippines [336]
Frank Reyes Prince of Bachata Dominican Republic [337]
Rihanna R&B Princess Barbados [338][339][340]
Teddy Riley King of New Jack Swing United States [341]
Ross Robinson Godfather of Nu Metal United States [342]
Smokey Robinson King of Motown United States [343]
Sylvia Robinson Hip-Hop's First Godmother United States [344]
Mother of Hip-Hop [345]
Jimmie Rodgers Father of Country Music United States [346]
Amália Rodrigues Queen of Fado Portugal [347]
Paulina Rubio The Golden Girl Mexico [348]


American singer Britney Spears is known as the "Princess of Pop".
American singer Donna Summer has been referred to as the "Queen of Disco".
American singer-songwriter Taylor Swift has gone by multiple honorifics, such as "America's Sweetheart".
Artist Title Country Source
Lea Salonga Pride of the Philippines Philippines [349]
Šaban Šaulić The King of Folk Serbia [350][351]
Julie Anne San Jose Asia's Pop Sweetheart Philippines [352]
Gilberto Santa Rosa Gentleman of Salsa Puerto Rico [353]
Romeo Santos King of Bachata United States [354]
Tiwa Savage Queen of Afrobeats Nigeria [355]
Lady Saw Queen of Dancehall Jamaica [356]
Chuck Schuldiner Godfather of Death Metal United States [357]
Shirley Scott Queen of the Organ United States [358]
Gil Scott-Heron Godfather of Rap United States [278]
Raul Seixas Pai do rock brasileiro (Father of Brazilian rock) Brazil [359]
Selena Queen of Tejano Music United States [360]
Seo Taiji President of Culture South Korea [361]
Shakira Queen of Latin Music Colombia [362]
Deke Sharon Father of Contemporary A Cappella United States [363][364]
Shin Joong-hyun Korea's Godfather of Rock South Korea [365]
Frank Sinatra The Chairman of the Board United States [366]
Siti Nurhaliza Voice of Asia Malaysia [367]
Bessie Smith Empress of the Blues United States [368]
Britney Spears Princess of Pop United States [369][370]
Spice Queen of Dancehall Jamaica [371]
Bruce Springsteen The Boss United States [372]
Candi Staton First Lady of Southern Soul United States [373]
George Strait King of Country United States [374]
Johann Strauss II The Waltz King Austria [375][376]
Suraphol Sombatcharoen King of Luk Thung Thailand [377]
Donna Summer Queen of Disco United States [369]
Joan Sutherland La Stupenda (The Stupendous One) Australia [378]
Taylor Swift America's Sweetheart United States [379][380][381]


Mexican singer Thalía is known as the "Queen of Latin Pop".
Artist Title Country Source
Tarkan King of Turkish Pop Turkey [382]
Teresa Teng Asia's Eternal Queen of Pop Taiwan [383][384][385]
Takeshi Terauchi God of Electric Guitar Japan [386]
Thalía Queen of Latin Pop Mexico [387]
Tiësto Godfather of EDM Netherlands [388]
Sister Rosetta Tharpe Godmother of Rock and Roll United States [389]
Irma Thomas Soul Queen of New Orleans United States [390]
Justin Timberlake Prince of Pop United States [391][392]
Jolin Tsai Queen of C-pop Taiwan [393]
Ike Turner Father of Rock and Roll United States [394][395]
Tina Turner Queen of Rock and Roll United States [369][396]
Shania Twain Queen of Country Pop Canada [397]


American singer Usher is known as the "King of R&B".
Artist Title Country Source
Umm Kulthum The Voice of Egypt Egypt [398]
Hikaru Utada Diva of the Heisei Period Japan [399]
Usher King of R&B United States [400][401]
Uncle Waffles Princess of Amapiano South Africa [402][403]
Carrie Underwood Country Music's Queen United States [404][405]


Artist Title Country Source
Luis Vargas The Original King of Bachata Dominican Republic [406]
The Supreme King
Suzanne Vega Mother of the MP3 United States [407]
Katrina Velarde Asia's Vocal Supreme Philippines [408]
Regine Velasquez Asia's Songbird Philippines [409]
Rui Veloso Father of Portuguese Rock Portugal [410]
Viguen King of Persian Pop Iran [411]
Rhonda Vincent Queen of Bluegrass United States [412]


Artist Title Country Source
Kitty Wells Queen of Country Music United States [413][414]
Wiley Godfather of Grime United Kingdom [415]
Paul Whiteman King of Jazz United States [7][140]
Faye Wong Queen of Cantopop Hong Kong [416][417]
Tammy Wynette First Lady of Country United States [418][419]


Artist Title Country Source
Nikos Xilouris Archangel of Crete Greece [420][421][422]


Artist Title Country Source
Tatsuro Yamashita King of City Pop Japan [423]
Neil Young Godfather of Grunge Canada/United States [424]


Artist Title Country Source
Jane Zhang Dolphin Princess China [425]

Group titles

The Beatles are known as "The Fab Four".
Artist Title Country Source
2NE1 Queens of K-pop South Korea [426]
Los Ángeles Azules Kings of Cumbia Mexico [427][428]
Aerosmith America's Greatest Rock and Roll Band United States [429][430]
Aventura Kings of Modern Bachata Dominican Republic/United States [431][432]
The Beach Boys America's Band United States [433]
The Beatles The Fab Four United Kingdom [434][435]
Bee Gees Disco Kings [436]
BigBang Kings of K-pop South Korea [437]
Blackpink K-pop Queens [438][439]
BTS Kings of K-pop [440]
Five Stairsteps First Family of Soul United States [441][442]
Girls' Generation Nation's Girl Group South Korea [443]
The Jackson 5 First Family of Soul United States [441]
Shinee Princes of K-pop South Korea [444]
Super Junior King of Hallyu Wave [445][446]
Twice Nation's Girl Group [447]

Collective titles for multiple artists

Artists Title Country Source
Buddy Holly The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost United States [448]
Richie Valens
The Big Bopper
Juan Atkins The Belleville Three
Godfathers of Techno
United States [449][450]
Derrick May
Kevin Saunderson
Oasis "Big Four" of Britpop United Kingdom [451]
Black Sabbath Unholy Trinity of British Hard Rock and Heavy Metal United Kingdom [452]
Deep Purple
Led Zeppelin
Jacky Cheung Four Heavenly Kings of Chinese Pop Hong Kong [453]
Aaron Kwok
Leon Lai
Andy Lau
Michael Jackson Holy Trinity of Pop United States [454]
Whitney Houston The Vocal Trinity United States [455]
Mariah Carey
Celine Dion Canada
Metallica "Big Four" of Thrash Metal United States [456]
Nirvana "Big Four" of Grunge United States [457]
Alice in Chains
Pearl Jam
Mỹ Linh Four Divas of Vietnam Vietnam [458]
Thanh Lam
Hồng Nhung
Trần Thu Hà
Aretha Franklin Five Mighty Pop Divas of the Sixties United States [459]
Martha Reeves
Diana Ross
Dusty Springfield United Kingdom
Dionne Warwick United States

See also


  1. ^ A. R. Frey, Sobriquets and Nicknames (1888, published online by brBiblioBazaar, 2009), p. 115.
  2. ^ S. S. Walker, "What's in a name: Black awareness keeps the African tradition of 'meaningful names' alive", Ebony, vol. 32 (8), (June 1977), pp. 74–8.
  3. ^ D. Evans, "From Bumble Bee Slim to Black Boy Shine: Nicknames of Blues Singers" in D. Evans, ed., Ramblin' on my mind: new perspectives on the blues: African American music in global perspective (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008), pp. 179–222.
  4. ^ S. Deger-Jalkotzy and I. S. Lemos, Ancient Greece: from the Mycenaean palaces to the age of Homer (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006), p. 272.
  5. ^ M. Benoliel and Linda Cashdan, The Upper Hand: Winning Strategies from World-Class Negotiators (Adams Media, 2006), p. 26.
  6. ^ B. G. Rader, Baseball: a history of America's game (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 3rd edn., 2008), p. 140.
  7. ^ a b Y. Bynoe, Stand and deliver: political activism, leadership, and hip hop culture (Soft Skull Press, 2004), p. 155.
  8. ^ a b M. T. Bertrand, Race, Rock, and Elvis: Music in American Life (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000), p. 220.
  9. ^ G. B. Rodman, "A hero to most?; Elvis, myth and the politics of race", Cultural Studies vol. 8 (3), (1994), p. 474.
  10. ^ J. Warner, On this day in black music history (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2006), p. 56,
  11. ^ "Les Paul". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum.
  12. ^ A. Kempton, Boogaloo: the Quintessence of American Popular Music (University of Michigan Press, 2005), p. 58.
  13. ^ Hawes, Alison (2014), Music and Fashion, Badger Learning, p. 23, ISBN 9781781477588, Many of the most successful pop artists of the Eighties were solo singers. Two of them, Michael Jackson and Madonna, were known as the King and Queen of Pop
  14. ^ R Jones and S. Brown, Michael Jackson, the man behind the mask: an insider's story of the king of pop (Select Books, 2005), p. 49.
  15. ^ Moran, Caitlin (April 22, 2008). "Madonna: more clout than the Beatles, all by herself ... and wearing heels". The Times. Retrieved April 17, 2013. she has been referred to habitually as "the Queen of Pop" since the mid-Eighties
  16. ^ "The 'Queen of Soul' is not happy about Grammy incident". NME News. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  17. ^ "What's in a nickname?". BBC Magazine. January 15, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  18. ^ "Overnight the unknown 14-year old became an international star. This earned her the nickname 'Princess of R&B'.", in W. Sutherland, Aaliyah Remembered (Trafford Publishing, 2005), p. 21.
  19. ^ Mamo, Heran (December 17, 2021). "Aaliyah's 'Poison' Collab With The Weeknd Finally Arrives: Stream It Here". Billboard. Retrieved January 20, 2022. The Princess of R&B and the dark prince of R&B join forces on the track...
  20. ^ Queen of Urban Pop:
  21. ^ Niester, Alan (September 22, 2000), "Metal queen slips into something jazzy", The Globe and Mail, p. R.6, ISSN 0319-0714, Recall that throughout most of the eighties and even into the nineties, Aaron was known as the queen of heavy-metal rock, the loudest, brashest and sexiest female rock belter this side of Janis Joplin.
  22. ^ "India Today International". India Today International. Living Media India Limited. 25 (40–52): 16. 2000. King of Pakistani Pop Arad Al Hukh, whose first album sold 10 million copies
  23. ^ Voice of a Generation:
  24. ^ "23 years ago, the queen of Arab pop #NancyAjram debuted her first studio album". Spotify. Archived from the original on December 23, 2021. Retrieved July 11, 2021.
  25. ^ Pride, Dominic (May 23, 1998). "Global Music Pulse: Balkans". Billboard. p. 63. Retrieved August 3, 2023.
  26. ^ Ruggieri, Melissa (May 15, 2022). "Brutally honest rankings of every Billboard Music Awards performance, including MGK, Travis Scott". USA Today. Archived from the original on August 21, 2022. Retrieved September 10, 2022.
  27. ^ "Mandopop queen A-Mei dazzles Singapore crowd with 'Utopia 2.0 Carnival World Tour'". Retrieved October 5, 2021.
  28. ^ "Mandopop diva A-Mei's Auckland one night stand". Retrieved October 5, 2021.
  29. ^ "Egyptian singer Amr Diab recognised by Guinness World Records for Most World Music Awards wins". Guinness World Records. September 28, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  30. ^ Namie Amuro as Queen of J-pop:
  31. ^ Queen of Brazilian Pop:
  32. ^ "Anna Carina, the Queen of Peruvian Pop". Retrieved December 29, 2023.
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