Oral contraceptive pill
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Oral contraceptives, abbreviated OCPs, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth for the purpose of birth control. The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. 
Two types of female oral contraceptive pill, taken once per day, are widely available:
- The combined oral contraceptive pill contains estrogen and a progestin. Colloquially known as "The Pill".
- The progestogen-only pill, colloquially known as "minipill".
- Ormeloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which offers the benefit of only having to be taken once a week.
Emergency contraception pills ("morning after pills") are taken at the time of intercourse, or within a few days afterwards:
- Levonorgestrel, sold under the brand name Plan B
- Ulipristal acetate
- Mifepristone and misoprostol, when used in combination, are more than 95% effective during the first 50 days of pregnancy.
- Male oral contraceptives are currently not available commercially, although several possibilities are in various stages of research and development.