Pleural disease

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Pleural disease

Pleural disease occurs in the pleural space, which is the thin fluid-filled area in between the two pulmonary pleurae in the human body. There are several disorders and complications that can occur within the pleural area, and the surrounding tissues in the lung. [1]

Pleural content anomalies[edit]

  • Pneumothorax: a collection of air within the pleural cavity, arising either from the outside or from the lung. Pneumothoraces may be traumatic, iatrogenic, or spontaneous. A tension pneumothorax is a particular type of pneumothorax where the air may enter (though a defect of the chest wall, lung, or airways) on inspiration, but cannot exit on expiration. Each breath increases the amount of trapped air in the chest cavity, leading to further lung compression. This is often an urgent situation and may progress to a medical emergency if there is compromise of the venous return to the heart causing hypotension and rarely shock.[2][1]
  • Pleural effusion: a fluid accumulation within the pleural space. Abnormal collections of pleural fluid may be due to excessive fluid volume (i.e. excess intravenous fluids, kidney failure), decreased fluid protein (e.g. cirrhosis, proteinuria), heart failure, bleeding (hemothorax), infections (parapneumonic effusions, pleural empyema), inflammation, malignancies, or perforation of thoracic organs (i.e. chylothorax, esophageal rupture).[3][1]

Pleural tumors[edit]

Pleural tumors may be benign (i.e. solitary fibrous tumor) or malignant in nature. Pleural mesothelioma is a type of malignant cancer associated with asbestos exposure. Under most other circumstances, pleural cancers are secondary malignancies associated with lung cancer due to its nearby location or as metastasis such as with breast cancer. [4]

Other pleural diseases[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Karkhanis, Vinaya S; Joshi, Jyotsna M (2012-06-22). "Pleural effusion: diagnosis, treatment, and management". Open Access Emergency Medicine. 4: 31–52. doi:10.2147/OAEM.S29942. ISSN 1179-1500. PMC 4753987. PMID 27147861.
  2. ^ McKnight, Catherine L.; Burns, Bracken (2024), "Pneumothorax", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 28722915, retrieved 2024-03-17
  3. ^ "A Fancy Name for Fluid Around Your Lungs". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2024-03-17.
  4. ^ "Pleural Tumors - Health Encyclopedia - University of Rochester Medical Center". URMC. Retrieved 22 July 2019.

External links[edit]