Porvoo

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Porvoo
PorvooBorgå
City
Porvoon kaupunki
Borgå stad
A view of buildings in the Porvoo Old Town, including the Porvoo Cathedral
A view of buildings in the Porvoo Old Town, including the Porvoo Cathedral
Coat of arms of Porvoo
Location of Porvoo
Coordinates: 60°23′40″N 25°39′50″E / 60.39444°N 25.66389°E / 60.39444; 25.66389
Country Finland
RegionUusimaa
Sub-regionPorvoo sub-region
City rights1347[1] or c. 1380[2]
Government
 • City managerJukka-Pekka Ujula
Area
 (2018-01-01)[3]
 • Total2,139.81 km2 (826.19 sq mi)
 • Land654.56 km2 (252.73 sq mi)
 • Water1,484.49 km2 (573.16 sq mi)
 • Rank131st largest in Finland
Population
 (2023-12-31)[4]
 • Total51,289
 • Rank19th largest in Finland
 • Density78.36/km2 (203.0/sq mi)
Population by native language
 • Finnish63.7% (official)
 • Swedish27.8% (official)
 • Others8.5%
Population by age
 • 0 to 1416.7%
 • 15 to 6461.5%
 • 65 or older21.8%
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+03:00 (EEST)
ClimateDfb
Websitewww.porvoo.fi/en/

Porvoo (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈporʋoː]; Swedish: Borgå [ˈborːɡo] ; Latin: Borgoa) is a city in Finland. It is located on the south coast of the country, on the Gulf of Finland. Porvoo lies in the eastern part of the Uusimaa region. The population of Porvoo is approximately 51,000, while the sub-region has a population of approximately 59,000. It is the 19th most populous municipality in Finland, and the 15th most populous urban area in the country.

Porvoo is located on the southern coast of Finland, approximately 35 kilometres (22 mi) east of the city border of Helsinki and about 50 kilometres (30 mi) from the city centre. Porvoo was one of the six medieval towns of Finland, along with Turku, Ulvila, Rauma, Naantali and Vyborg, and is first mentioned as a city in texts from the 14th century. Porvoo is the seat of the Swedish-speaking Diocese of Borgå of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Porvoo briefly served as the capital of the former Eastern Uusimaa region.[8]

Porvoo Old Town (Finnish: Porvoon vanhakaupunki; Swedish: Borgås gamla stan) is a popular tourist destination,[9] known for its well-preserved 18th- and 19th-century buildings, and the 15th-century Porvoo Cathedral. The Old Town and the Porvoonjoki River Valley are recognized as, together, one of the National landscapes of Finland. [10]

Porvoo is a bilingual municipality with Finnish and Swedish as its official languages. The population consists of 64% Finnish speakers, 28% Swedish speakers, and 8% speakers of other languages.

The municipalities neighbouring Porvoo are Askola, Loviisa, Myrskylä, Pornainen, and Sipoo; and the sub-region maintained by Porvoo includes Askola, Myrskylä and Pukkila.

Etymology

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The town received its name from a Swedish medieval fortress near the river Porvoonjoki, which flows through the town. The name Porvoo is the Fennicised version of the Swedish name Borgå, which is derived from borg, meaning "castle" and å, "river".[11]

Heraldry

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The coat of arms of Porvoo, based on the medieval seal of the city, is "Azure [blue], a tulip-shaped letter C argent [silver]." The main object in the arms has been interpreted as either a fire iron or the letter C, referring to the Latin word for "castle" (Latin: castrum). A version of the arms redrawn by Gustaf von Numers was approved for official use by the Porvoo City Council on March 23, 1960, and the Ministry of the Interior confirmed the use of the coat of arms on June 1 the same year.[12][13]

History

[edit]
The old Porvoo Town Hall, which is now a museum

The area of Porvoo has been inhabited since the Stone Age.[14] In prehistoric times, the river Porvoonjoki was a route of commerce for Finnish tribal Tavastians who primarily inhabited the inland regions. The Tavastians also had some permanent settlements in the area, such as the village of Hattula (later Strömsberg), which was named after an inland Tavastian village. The original name of the river Porvoonjoki was possibly Kukinjoki. The name derives from the name of the trade vessel cog which was a common merchant ship in the Baltic Sea in medieval times. The early center of the area was Saksala, meaning "the place of the Germans", and deriving from the merchants who were trading in Saksala.[15][16]

Porvoo was colonised by Swedes in the 13th and 14th centuries after the so-called Second Crusade against Tavastians in 1249–1250. The colonisation was led by the Catholic Church and the kingdom of Sweden. The colonists originated from Svealand, and were provided with seeds, cattle and, tax exemption for four years.[16]

The oldest known written mentions of Porvoo are from the early 14th century. In circa 1380, Porvoo became the third town in Finland to be granted official town rights, after Turku in 1229 and Ulvila in 1365.[2] However, it is also claimed to have been founded as early as 1347, which would make it the second oldest after Turku.[1] Due to land rise and loss of shipping access, Ulvila lost town rights to nearby Pori in 1558.[2]

When Sweden lost the city of Vyborg to Russia in 1721, the episcopal see was moved to Porvoo in 1723.[17][18] At this time, Porvoo was the second largest city in Finland.

In 1760, roughly two-thirds of all buildings in Porvoo burned to the ground in a conflagration. During rebuilding, the city planning wasn't altered, instead new buildings were built upon the existing medieval foundations.

Illustration of Borgå in Finland framstäldt i teckningar edited by Zacharias Topelius and published 1845-1852.

After the conquest of Finland by Russian armies in 1808, Sweden had to cede Finland to Russia in 1809 (the Treaty of Fredrikshamn). The Diet of Porvoo in 1809 was a landmark in the History of Finland as tsar Alexander I made Finland an autonomous Grand Duchy. In 1923, six years after Finland's independence, the former Diocese of Vyborg, which operated in Porvoo, was replaced by a current Swedish-speaking diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Diocese of Porvoo.[18]

The Porvoo Common Statement is a report issued at the conclusion of theological conversations by official representatives of four Anglican churches and eight Nordic and Baltic Lutheran churches in 1989–1992. It established the Porvoo Communion, so named after the Porvoo Cathedral where the Eucharist was celebrated on the final Sunday of the conversations leading to the Statement.

The old city of Porvoo was formally disestablished and the new city of Porvoo founded in 1997, when the city of Porvoo and the rural municipality of Porvoo were consolidated.[19]

Urban development

[edit]

Old Town

[edit]
The Porvoo Cathedral prior to the fire in May 2006
Old wooden warehouses alongside the Porvoo River is one of the famous sights of town.[20][21]

The town is famed for its "Old Town" (Vanhakaupunki in Finnish, Gamla Stan in Swedish), a dense medieval street pattern with predominantly wooden houses from the 17th and 18th centuries. The Old Town came close to being demolished in the 19th century by a new urban plan for the city, but the plan was canceled due to a popular resistance headed by Count Louis Sparre. With the need for growth, a plan was envisioned for a new town built adjacent to the Old Town, following a grid plan, but with houses also built of wood. Jokikatu (located eastside of the Porvoonjoki River) is one of Porvoo's pedestrian streets, and like the other similar streets of the Old Town, it also includes a variety of restaurants, coffeehouses, antique shops and other stores.[22]

The central point of the old town is the medieval, stone and brick Porvoo Cathedral. The cathedral gave its name to the Porvoo Communion, an inter-church agreement between a number of Anglican and Lutheran denominations. The cathedral is reminiscent of similarly aged churches across Finland, such as the Church of St. Lawrence, Vantaa, as they were designed by the same person, the anonymous German architect Pernajan mestari. The Diocese of Borgå that unites the Swedish speaking lutheran congregations, resides here. The cathedral has burned down 5 times.[23] The latest fire happened on 29 May 2006; the roof was totally destroyed but the interior is largely intact. A drunken youth had started a fire at the church, unaware of recent tar work and nearby tar containers, accidentally causing a large conflagration. He was later sentenced to a short prison term and restitutions of 4.3 million euro.[24]

The Old Town is a significant source of tourism in the area. Visitors to the capital Helsinki can embark on day trips to visit the older city. The Old Town also hosts various events, such as an annual Christmas market.

Later developments

[edit]
A modern city view of Porvoo
New housing designed to match older storage buildings across the river

By the end of the 20th century, there was pressure to develop the essentially untouched western side of the river. There was concern that growth would necessitate the construction of a second bridge across the river into the town, thus putting further strain on the aging wooden town. An architectural competition was held in 1990, the winning entry of which proposed building the second bridge. Plans for the western side of the river have progressed under the direction of architect Tuomas Siitonen, and both a vehicle bridge and a pedestrian bridge have been built. The design for new housing is based on a typology derived from the old storehouses on the opposite side of the river. Yet another new development entails the construction of a large business park called King's Gate (Finnish: Kuninkaanportti, Swedish: Kungsporten), which is under construction.

The Porvoo railway station does not have a regular train service, but special museum trains from Kerava (either with steam locomotives or former VR diesel railcars from the 1950s) operate on summer weekends.[25]

The new hotel called Runo Hotel was opened in the old town of Porvoo on May 31, 2021.[26][27]

Subdivisions

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Districts

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Hornhattula, Joonaanmäki (Jonasbacken), Jernböle, Kaupunginhaka (Stadshagen), Keskusta (Centrum), Etelä-Kevätkumpu (Södra Vårberga), Pohjois-Kevätkumpu (Norra Vårberga), Myllymäki (Kvarnbacken), Näsi (Näse), Pappilanmäki (Prästgårdsbacken), Skaftkärr, Suistola, Vanha Porvoo (Gamla Borgå).

Suburbs

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Hamari (Hammars), Aunela (Ånäs), Eestinmäki (Estbacka), Gammelbacka, Huhtinen (Huktis), Katajamäki (Ensbacka), Kevätkumpu (Vårberga), Kokonniemi (Uddas), Kuninkaanportti (Kungsporten), Pappilanpelto, Peippola (Pepot), Tarkkinen (Tarkis), Tarmola (Östermalm).

Villages

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Jackarby Manor in the Jakari village

Suomenkylä

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Suomenkylä (Swedish: Finnby) is a village north of the centre of Porvoo and beside the Porvoo river. Suomenkylä has an old school founded by Johannes Linnankoski in 1898. The village of Suomenkylä also has two burial places from the Bronze Age.

Kerkkoo

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Kerkkoo (Swedish: Kerko) is a village north of the centre of Porvoo and beside the Porvoo river. It has an active school that is over 100 years old. In the village of Kerkkoo, archeologists and townspeople found a stone axe from the Bronze Age.

Other

[edit]

Ali-Vekkoski (Söderveckoski), Anttila (Andersböle), Baggböle, Bengtsby (Pentinkylä), Bjurböle, Boe (Häihä), Bosgård, Brattnäs, Eerola (Eriksdal), Eestinmäki (Estbacka), Emäsalo (Emsalö), Epoo (Ebbo), Fagersta, Gammelbacka, Grännäs, Gäddrag, Haikkoo (Haiko), Henttala, Hinthaara (Hindhår), Hommanäs, Huhtinen, Hummelsund, Ilola (Illby), Jakari (Jackarby), Järnböle, Kaarenkylä (Karsby), Kalax (Kaalahti), Kallola, Kardrag, Karleby (Kaarlenkylä), Kiiala (Kiala), Kilpilahti (Sköldvik), Klemetti (Klemetsby), Kortisbacka, Kreppelby, Kroksnäs, Kråkö, Kulloo (Kullo), Kurböle, Kuris, Londböle, Mickelsböle, Munkkala (Munkby), Mustijoki (Svartså), Myllykylä (Molnby), Norike, Nygård, Onas, Orrby (Orrenkylä), Pappilanmäki (Prästgårdsbacken), Peippola (Pepot), Pellinki (Pellinge), Piirlahti (Pirlax), Ramsholmen, Renum, Saksala (Saxby), Sannainen (Sannäs), Seitlahti (Seitlax), Sikilä (Siggböle), Skavarböle, Sondby, Stensböle, Sundö (Suni)), Svartbäck, Tamminiemi (Eknäs), Tarkkinen (Tarkis), Teissala (Teisala), Tolkkinen (Tolkis), Tirmo (Tirmoo), Treksilä (Drägsby), Tuorila (Torasbacka), Tyysteri (Tjusterby), Vaarlahti (Varlax), Vanhamoisio (Gammelgård), Veckjärvi (Vekjärvi), Virtaala (Strömsberg), Virvik, Voolahti (Vålax), Västermunkby, Ylike, Yli-Vekkoski (Norrveckoski), Åby, Åminsby.

Demographics

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Population

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The city of Porvoo has 51,289 inhabitants, making it the 19th most populous municipality in Finland. The Porvoo region has a population of 59,485. In Porvoo, 8.8% of the population has a foreign background, which is slightly below the national average.[28]

Population size of Porvoo 1990–2020[29]
Year Population
1990
41,930
1995
43,315
2000
44,969
2005
46,982
2010
48,768
2015
49,928
2020
50,619

Languages

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Population by mother tongue (2023)[28]

  Finnish (63.7%)
  Swedish (27.8%)
  Russian (1.3%)
  Estonian (1.2%)
  Arabic (0.8%)
  Albanian (0.7%)
  Vietnamese (0.6%)
  Other (3.9%)

The city of Porvoo is officially bilingual, with both Finnish and Swedish as official languages. The majority of the population - 32,655 people or 63.7% - speak Finnish as their first language. There are 14,281 Swedish speakers in Porvoo, or 27.8% of the population.[28] 8.5% of the population of Porvoo have a mother tongue other than Finnish or Swedish.[28] As English and Swedish - or Finnish for Swedish speakers - are compulsory school subjects, functional bilingualism or trilingualism acquired through language studies is not uncommon.

At least 50 different languages are spoken in Porvoo. The most common foreign languages are Russian (1.3%), Estonian (1.2%), Arabic (0.8%) and Albanian (0.7%).[28]

Immigration

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Population by country of birth (2022)[29]
Nationality Population %
 Finland 47,111 92.0
 Estonia 479 0.9
 Soviet Union 418 0.8
 Sweden 367 0.7
 Vietnam 209 0.4
 Thailand 190 0.4
 Russia 161 0.3
 Yugoslavia 146 0.3
 Syria 130 0.3
 Iraq 113 0.2
 Turkey 97 0.2
Other 1,811 3.5

As of 2023, there were 4,492 persons with a migrant background living in Porvoo, or 8.8% of the population.[note 1] The number of residents who were born abroad was 4,385, or 8.5% of the population. The number of persons with foreign citizenship living in Porvoo was 2,903.[28] Most foreign-born citizens came from the Estonia, former Soviet Union, Sweden and Vietnam.[29]

The relative share of immigrants in Porvoo's population is slightly below the national average. Moreover, the city's new residents are increasingly of foreign origin. This will increase the proportion of foreign residents in the coming years.

Religion

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In 2023, the Evangelical Lutheran Church was the largest religious group with 64.8% of the population of Porvoo. Other religious groups accounted for 2.2% of the population. 33.0% of the population had no religious affiliation.[31]

Economy

[edit]
Neste Oil Porvoo refinery

In 2011, there were 20,312 jobs in Porvoo, distributed as follows: primary production 1.6 per cent, processing 32.5 per cent and services 64.7 per cent. In December 2012, the unemployment rate in Porvoo was 8.4 per cent, compared to an average of 10.7 per cent in the rest of the country. At that time, there were 3,389 business locations in the city.[32] According to Statistics Finland, more companies were established in Porvoo in 2009–2013 than closed down, and the number of companies has increased by about 140 each year.[33] According to the Eastern Uusimaa Viability Survey, in 2013 there were a few large companies and a few medium-sized companies in the Porvoo region, but the majority (86 per cent) were companies with less than five employees.[33]

In 2014, the largest employers in Porvoo were Neste (2,000 jobs in Porvoo), Borealis Polymers (962), Ensto (430), Viessman Refrigeration Systems (414), Varuboden-Osla (300) and Bilfinger Industrial Services Finland (299).[33]

The Satakuntaliitto's Satamittari measures the competitiveness of Finnish regions annually. In 2012, the Porvoo region ranked number one. In 2013, there were 70 sub-regions involved, which were assessed using six factors: labor productivity, employment rate, innovation, level of education, business dynamics and industrial dominance. The Porvoo region ranked fourth after Vaasa, Helsinki and Tampere. The region's labor productivity and industrial intensity were the highest in Finland, but the employment rate and level of education were also at the highest level.[34]

Sports

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The local team Borgå Akilles plays the sport of bandy, in the highest division, Bandyliiga, and has become Finnish champions twice.

Sami Hyypiä, a former football player for Liverpool and the Finnish national team, originated from Porvoo.

Lauri Happonen, better known as Cyanide, a retired League of Legends professional player, is from Porvoo.

Culture

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Food

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A well-known Porvoo delicacy, a Runeberg torte, was developed by a local pastry master, and it is said that J. L. Runeberg ate them for breakfast. Fredrika Runeberg, the wife of the national poet also made tortes for her husband using the substances that happened to be found in the cupboards: wheat and breadcrumbs, biscuit crumbs, almonds, apple jam and sugar.[35]

In addition to Runeberg torte, the second parish dish in Porvoo was grilled herring with onion rings and dill in the 1980s. Pellinki's fish soup and nettle soup were chosen as the main dishes of the Porvoo countryside.[36]

Porvoo is also known for its local confectionery and ice cream factories, the most notable being the Brunberg Chocolate Factory[37] and the Old Porvoo Ice Cream Factory (Vanhan Porvoon Jäätelötehdas).[38]

Literature

[edit]

J. L. Runeberg, today known as the "national poet of Finland", lived in Porvoo from 1837 until his death. His home has served as a museum since 1882.[39]

Borgå Gymnasium [fi] in Porvoo is home to Finland's oldest public library from 1728.[40] The oldest works in the library, which consists of rare works, are from the 15th century, and the collection includes, among other things, Mikael Agricola's original Se Wsi Testamenti from 1548. Today it functions as a museum library and is not open to the public.[41]

Transport

[edit]
A ferry connection from Porvoo to the Pellinki Island

Porvoo is on the route of the E18 road from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg, and the Porvoo Highway (part of the Finnish national road 7) along that route is one of the most important transport connections to Helsinki. Other important road connections are the Finnish Regional road 170 going via Sipoo to Helsinki, which continues from the East Helsinki area to the capital under the name Itäväylä, and the main road 55 leading northwest, via Monninkylä of Askola, to the Mäntsälä municipality.

It is currently the largest Finnish municipality without scheduled railway services, since passenger rail services to Porvoo ended in 1981 and freight services in 1990, however proposals exist to link Porvoo to the rail network as part of a new rail line from Helsinki to Kouvola via a tunnel between Pasila and Helsinki Airport, the Itärata.[42] There is no airport at all in Porvoo, but another airport in the Helsinki metropolitan area is planned for the Backas area, which would serve the traffic of cargo and small airlines.[43]

Finland's biggest port by total cargo tonnage is the Port of Kilpilahti (Sköldvik) located on the outskirts of Porvoo.[44] In Porvoo River, on the eastern bank of the river right in the city center, there is a guest marina. In the village of Hamari, there is also an opportunity for visiting boats to anchor in the breakwater.[45] Also, the ferry connection favored by tourism runs between Helsinki and Porvoo on the MS J. L. Runeberg ferry.[46]

Politics

[edit]

Results of the 2015 Finnish parliamentary election in Porvoo:

Distribution of the city council seats following the 2012 Finnish municipal elections:

Notable people

[edit]
Boys Swimming in the Porvoo River by Albert Edelfelt, 1886
Johan Ludwig Runeberg, 1893

Sport

[edit]
Sami Hyypia, 2012

In media

[edit]

In the 1967 British-American espionage film Billion Dollar Brain, a small part of the plot takes place in Riga, the capital of Latvia, which is actually filmed in Porvoo.[49] Also the 1997 American film The Jackal features scenes depicting Russia, which are partly shot in Porvoo.[50][51]

In the 2021 Disney+ series Loki, Porvoo is listed as a location to which a time reset device was sent.[52]

International relations

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Twin towns – sister cities

[edit]

Porvoo is twinned with the following cities:[53]

See also

[edit]

Notes

[edit]
  1. ^ Statistics Finland classifies a person as having a "foreign background" if both parents or the only known parent were born abroad.[30]

References

[edit]
  1. ^ a b Ulvilan historiaa lyhyesti (in Finnish)
  2. ^ a b c Leena Valkeapää: Käyttökelpoinen keskiaika: Historiakulttuuria nykypäivän Ulvilassa ja Raumalla. Alue ja ympäristö. 2006, volume 35, no. 2, p. 79–91.
  3. ^ "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Population growth biggest in nearly 70 years". Population structure. Statistics Finland. 26 April 2024. ISSN 1797-5395. Retrieved 29 April 2024.
  5. ^ "Population growth biggest in nearly 70 years". Population structure. Statistics Finland. 26 April 2024. ISSN 1797-5395. Retrieved 29 April 2024.
  6. ^ "Population according to age (1-year) and sex by area and the regional division of each statistical reference year, 2003–2020". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  7. ^ a b "Luettelo kuntien ja seurakuntien tuloveroprosenteista vuonna 2023". Tax Administration of Finland. 14 November 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  8. ^ Co-operation between Audio Visual and Travel Industries in Eastern Uusimaa[permanent dead link]
  9. ^ Old Porvoo - An Amazing Summertown Just One Hour from Helsinki
  10. ^ "Porvoo - The Little Fairy tale Town in Finland". Travel Melodies. 24 November 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  11. ^ "Keskiaika - Suomen kaupungit keskiajalla". Katajala.net. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  12. ^ Suomen kunnallisvaakunat (in Finnish). Suomen Kunnallisliitto. 1982. p. 120. ISBN 951-773-085-3.
  13. ^ "Sisäasiainministeriön vahvistamat kaupunkien, kauppaloiden ja kuntien vaakunat I:12 Porvoo". Kansallisarkiston digitaaliarkisto (in Finnish).[permanent dead link]
  14. ^ Pertti Vihtaranta; et al. (1992). Suomalainen tietosanakirja, osa 6. Weilin+Göös ja Almagest Oy. ISBN 951-35-4644-6.
  15. ^ Masonen, Jaakko (1989). Hämeen Härkätie. Tiemuseon julkaisuja 4. Valtion painatuskeskus. Helsinki.
  16. ^ a b Tarkiainen, Kari (2010). Ruotsin itämaa. Helsinki: Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. pp. 132–134.
  17. ^ Mia Korpiola: Legal Literacy in Premodern European Societies. Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. ISBN 978-3-319-96863-6.
  18. ^ a b Borgå svenska domkyrkoförsamling - The Genealogical Society of Finland
  19. ^ Jaakkola, Marianne (19 November 2007). "Yleistä Porvoosta" (in Finnish). Porvoo: City of Porvoo. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  20. ^ Picturesque Medieval Old Town of Porvoo
  21. ^ An Helsinki to Porvoo Day trip
  22. ^ Picture-perfect Porvoo - thisisFINLAND
  23. ^ "Branden i Borgå domkyrka". svenska.yle.fi (in Swedish). 6 December 2006. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  24. ^ "Rikos ja rangaistus". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  25. ^ "Kerava-Porvoo Museum Train Timetable Summer 2009". Porvoo Museum Railway Society. Archived from the original on 1 August 2009. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
  26. ^ Runo Hotel (in Finnish)
  27. ^ Uusimaa: Runo-hotelli vietti avajaisia Porvoossa – "Valtava kulttuuriteko" (in Finnish)
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Population growth biggest in nearly 70 years". Population structure. Statistics Finland. 26 April 2024. ISSN 1797-5395. Retrieved 29 April 2024.
  29. ^ a b c "Number of foreign-language speakers grew by nearly 38,000 persons". Statistics Finland. 31 May 2023. Retrieved 12 September 2023.
  30. ^ "Persons with foreign background". Statistics Finland. Archived from the original on 5 January 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2023.
  31. ^ Key figures on population by region, 1990-2023 Statistics Finland
  32. ^ "Kaupunki lukuina" (in Finnish). City of Porvoo. 8 October 2015. Archived from the original on 26 August 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  33. ^ a b c "Porvoon kaupungin elinkeino- ja kilpailukykyohjelma 2014-2017" (PDF) (in Finnish). City of Porvoo. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  34. ^ "Suomen seutukuntien kilpailukyky 2013". Satamittari (in Finnish). Satakuntaliitto. 25 June 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  35. ^ "Runeberg's cakes – Visit Porvoo". Archived from the original on 25 March 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  36. ^ Kolmonen, Jaakko 1988. Kotomaamme ruoka-aitta: Suomen, Karjalan ja Petsamon pitäjäruoat, s. 61–62. Helsinki: Patakolmonen Ky. (in Finnish)
  37. ^ "Brunberg Chocolate Factory – Visit Porvoo". Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  38. ^ "Vanhan Porvoon Jäätelötehdas - Old Porvoo Ice Cream Factory – Visit Porvoo". Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2020.
  39. ^ "Runeberg's Home". City of Porvoo. Retrieved 3 January 2024.
  40. ^ "Borgå Gymnasiums 300-årsjubileum firas med festligheter och populär utställning" (in Swedish). City of Porvoo. 8 November 2023. Retrieved 3 January 2024.
  41. ^ Itävuori, Marita (1 January 2024). "Kuin Harry Potterista! Tällainen on Suomen vanhin julkinen kirjasto – vastaaviin aarrekammioihin ei Euroopassa pääse edes sisään". Länsiväylä (in Finnish). Retrieved 3 January 2024.
  42. ^ "Helsinki – Kouvola direct link "not economically viable"". International Rail Journal. 5 April 2019.
  43. ^ Hämäläinen, Jyrki (14 March 2012). "Lentokenttäkysymys palaa takaisin lähtöruutuun" (in Finnish). Uusimaa. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
  44. ^ "Traficom International Maritime Statistics 2019" (PDF). Traficom.fi (in Finnish). Finnish Transport and Communications Agency. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  45. ^ Porvoon vierassatama (in Finnish)
  46. ^ Helsinki–Porvoo cruise - MS J. L. Runeberg
  47. ^ Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Sprengtporten, Göran Magnus, Count" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 25 (11th ed.). pp. 737–738.
  48. ^ Bain, Robert Nisbet (1911). "Sprengtporten, Jakob Magnus" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 25 (11th ed.). p. 738.
  49. ^ Kääpä, Pietari (2012). World Film Locations: Helsinki. Intellect. ISBN 978-1841507224.
  50. ^ "Post Office action scene - "The Jackal" - Movie Locations on Waymarking.com". www.waymarking.com. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  51. ^ Suomi Venäjänä elokuvissa Archived 6 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine (in Finnish)
  52. ^ "Loki References Locations From Guardians of the Galaxy, Captain Marvel & More Movies In New Episode". The Direct. 16 June 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  53. ^ "The sister cities of Porvoo" (in Finnish). Porvoo City. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.

Further reading

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