Religion and alcohol

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

A monk samples wine

The world's religions have had differing relationships with alcohol. Many religions forbid alcoholic consumption or see it as sinful or negative. Others have allocated a specific place for it, such as in the Christian practice of using wine during the Eucharist rite.

Throughout history, alcohol consumption has been intertwined with several aspects of life, encompassing cultural, social, and religious practices. From ancient rituals to contemporary religious ceremonies, the relationship between alcohol and religion is multifaceted and often complex. Much research has attempted to clarify the relationship between religious affiliation, religiosity, and alcohol intake to aim for a better understanding of how the two interact.

Religion and Alcohol share a long history as two fundamental components of human culture and experiences. These complexities touch on issues of faith, morality, health, and cultural norms. Alcohol is a part of some religious rituals and gatherings, while in other contexts, it advocates for withdrawal as a means of achieving spiritual purity. Understanding the complex and the border between religion and alcohol use is important for public health initiatives, social cohesion, and individual well-being. The relationship between alcohol and religion exhibits variations across cultures, geographical areas, and religious denominations. Some religions emphasize moderation and responsible use as a means of honoring the divine gift of life, while others impose outright bans on alcohol as a means of honoring the divine gift of life. Moreover, within the same religious tradition, there are many adherents that may interpret and practice their faith's teachings on alcohol in diverse ways. Hence, a wide range of factors, such as religious affiliation, levels of religiosity, cultural traditions, family influences, and peer networks, collectively influence the dynamics of this relationship.

In Vajrayana Buddhism, particularly in Tibetan Buddhist practices, alcohol may be used during specific rituals, such as the Ganachakra feast. This ritual involves the consumption of alcohol in a controlled manner, symbolizing the transformation of negative emotions and attachments into wisdom and compassion.

In the Shinto religion of Japan, sake, a rice wine, plays a significant role in religious ceremonies and rituals. Sake is often used as an offering to the kami (gods) during Shinto rituals, symbolizing purification and the establishment of a sacred space. Additionally, the sharing of sake between participants in a Shinto ceremony is seen as a means of fostering friendship and strengthening the bonds within the community.

In Jewish tradition, wine holds an essential place in various religious rituals and celebrations. Many Jews embrace a moderate and responsible approach to alcohol, often emphasized during religious observances and social gatherings. While alcohol is integral to these sacred rituals, Jewish teachings also promote moderation and temperance, encouraging individuals to avoid excessive drinking.[1] This approach aligns with a broader commitment to health and well-being. Wine is used during the Sabbath and festival meals as part of the Kiddush blessing, which sanctifies the day and acknowledges the sanctity of the occasion. Wine also plays a prominent role in the Passover Seder, where participants drink four cups of wine to symbolize the four expressions of redemption mentioned in the Torah. Moreover, wine is used in the Jewish wedding ceremony, where the bride and groom share a cup of wine under the chuppah (wedding canopy) as a symbol of their union and commitment to one another. Additionally, Jewish communities may provide support and resources for those struggling with alcohol-related issues, reflecting a compassionate and community-centered approach to addressing alcohol problems.[2]

In Taoist rituals and practices, alcohol also plays a role as an offering and a means of connecting with the divine. An alcoholic beverage is often used in religious ceremonies and as an offering to the ancestors. The use of alcohol in Taoist rituals can symbolize purification, blessings, and the establishment of a sacred space. In these instances, the consumption of alcohol is done in a controlled and mindful manner, reflecting the Taoist emphasis on balance and harmony.

Hinduism which is a diverse and multifaceted religion that encompasses a broad spectrum of philosophies, beliefs, and practices. Unlike some religious traditions that have clearly defined legal systems or strict regulations, Hinduism offers a more flexible and varied approach to matters such as alcohol consumption. Generally, alcohol is regarded as unhealthy and potentially leading to violent behavior in many Hindu sects. However, some Hindu sects incorporate alcohol into their rituals and practices, reflecting the diversity of perspectives within the faith.

Baháʼí Faith[edit]

The teachings of the Baháʼí Faith forbids the consumption of alcohol and other drugs unless prescribed by a physician. Intoxicants take away reason, interfere with making moral decisions, and harm the mind and body. Baháʼís are also encouraged to avoid jobs related to the production or sale of alcohol and are forbidden from involvement in the drug trade. Those addicted to alcohol or other drugs should seek medical assistance from doctors and/or support from organizations dedicated to curing addiction.[3]


Christian views on alcohol are varied. Throughout the first 1,800 years of Church history, Christians generally consumed alcoholic beverages as a common part of everyday life and used "the fruit of the vine"[4] in their central rite—the Eucharist or Lord's Supper.[5][6] They held that both the Bible and Christian tradition taught that alcohol is a gift from God that makes life more joyous, but that over-indulgence leading to drunkenness is sinful or at least a vice.[7][8]

In the mid-19th century, some Protestant Christians moved from a position of allowing moderate use of alcohol (sometimes called moderationism) to either deciding that not imbibing was wisest in the present circumstances (abstentionism) or prohibiting all ordinary consumption of alcohol because it was believed to be a sin (prohibitionism).[9] Many Protestant churches, particularly Methodists and other Evangelical groups, advocate for abstentionism and prohibitionism, being early leaders in the temperance movement of the 19th and 20th centuries; the Book of Discipline of the Evangelical Methodist Church Conference, for example, teaches:[10]

Intemperance is excess of any kind of action, or indulgence, or exertion of body or mind, or any indulgence of appetites or passions which are injurious to the person, or contrary to morality. The scriptures teach us to be temperate in all things (I Cor. 9:25), this includes total abstinence from all that has the appearance of evil. No member shall be permitted to use, manufacture or sell intoxicating liquors, tobacco, or recreational drugs. ... The use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage, or trafficking therein; giving influence to, or voting for, the licensing of places for the sale of the same; using tobacco in any of its forms, or trafficking therein, is forbidden.[10]

Churches in the Methodist tradition (inclusive of those aligned with the holiness movement) require that "pure, unfermented juice of the grape" be used in the sacrament of Holy Communion.[11]

Today, these positions exist in Christianity, but the position of moderationism remains the most common worldwide, due to the adherence by the largest bodies of Christians, namely Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Anglicanism.

In the Catholic Church, the Eucharistic wine becomes the Blood of Jesus Christ through transubstantiation.[12] In Lutheran theology, the blood of Christ is in, with and under the sacramental wine (cf. sacramental union).[13] The Plymouth Brethren teach that the wine is a symbol of the blood of Christ. Monastic communities like Trappists have brewed beer and made wine.

However, the attempt has often been made to prove that the wine referred to in the Bible was non-alcoholic. As the Bible had written in Genesis 9:21, the story of Noah's first experience with the wine he had made shows that it was intoxicating.[14]

Genesis 9: 21. "And he drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered within his tent."[15]

In this chapter, it is apparent that the wine Noah drank had an intoxicating effect on him since he became drunk. Scholars and theologians have used this incident to argue that alcoholic wine existed in biblical times.[14] The allusion to Noah's intoxication emphasizes the presence of fermented and alcoholic drinks, opposing theories that biblical wine could have been substituted with non-alcoholic beverages. The interaction of these stories in the Bible continues to be a source of controversy and discussion over the nature and significance of alcoholic beverages in biblical theology and history.


Hinduism does not have a central authority which is followed by all Hindus, though religious texts generally discourage the use or consumption of specific types of alcohol for specific castes while some texts refer to alcohol with a more positive opinion.

In Śruti texts such as Vedas and Upanishads which are the most authoritative texts in Hinduism and considered apauruṣeya, which means "authorless", intoxication is considered as a recipe of sinfulness, weakness, failure and violent behaviour in several verses:

One becomes sinful if he or she crosses even one of the 7 restraints. Yaskacharya defines these 7 sins in his Nirukta as: Theft, Adultery, Murder of a noble person, Jealousy, Dishonesty, Repeating misdeeds and consumption of alcohol.

— Rigveda 10.5.6[16]

Those who consume intoxicants lose their intellect, talk rubbish, get naked and fight with each other.

— Rigveda 8.2.12[16]

An action performed as per the inner voice does not lead to sins. Dumb arrogance against inner voice, however, is source of frustration and miseries in same manner as intoxication and gambling destroy us. Ishwar inspires those with noble elevated thoughts towards progress and propels down those who decide to think lowly. Lowly acts performed even in dreams cause decline.

— Rigveda 7.86.6[16]

Weak minds are attracted towards meat, alcohol, sensuality and womanizing. But O non-violent mind, you focus your mind towards the world in same manner as a mother cares for her child.

— Atharvaveda 6.70.1[16]

A person who steals gold, or drinks liquor, or goes to bed with his teacher's wife, or kills a brāhmin—these four are lost. Also lost is the fifth—one who keeps company with such people.

— Chandogya Upanishad 5.10.9[17]

In Smriti texts which are considered less authoritative than Sruti, the verses contradict each other and encourage the use of alcohol but remind of abstention being better. In Hindu texts, particularly the Dharma Shastras, the consumption of alcohol is addressed with varying levels of restriction based on caste. The Manu Smriti, a key text outlining the norms and codes of conduct for various social classes, prescribes different regulations for alcohol consumption among castes. While the Kshatriya caste, comprising warriors and rulers, is allowed to consume alcohol in moderation as part of their social and ceremonial functions, the Brahmin caste, consisting of priests, scholars, and teachers, is generally discouraged from consuming alcohol due to their spiritual and religious responsibilities. For the Vaishya caste, which includes merchants and traders, and the Shudra caste, comprising laborers and service providers, the Manu Smriti lays down specific rules and restrictions regarding alcohol consumption. It is important to note that the caste-based rules on alcohol consumption, like many other aspects of the caste system, have been subject to criticism and reinterpretation in modern times. Contemporary Hinduism has seen a shift towards a more egalitarian perspective, emphasizing individual choice and responsibility in matters such as alcohol consumption, rather than strict adherence to caste-based rules.

A twice-born person, having, through folly, drunk wine, shall drink wine red-hot; he becomes freed from his guilt, when his body has been completely burnt by it.

— Manusmriti 11.90, Gautama 23.1, Baudhāyana 2.1.18, Āpastamba 1.25.3, Vaśiṣtha 20.19, Yājñavalkya 3.253[18]

There is no sin in the eating of meat, nor in wine, nor in sexual intercourse,
Such is the natural way of living beings; but abstention is conducive to great rewards.

— Manusmriti 5.56[19]

The ten intoxicating drinks are unclean for a Brahmana; but a Kshatriya and a Vaishya commit no wrong in drinking them.

— Vishnu Smrti 22:84

Any brāhmaṇa or brāhmaṇa's wife who drinks liquor is taken by the agents of Yamarāja to the hell known as Ayaḥpāna. This hell also awaits any kṣatriya, vaiśya, or person under a vow who in illusion drinks soma-rasa. In Ayaḥpāna the agents of Yamarāja stand on their chests and pour hot melted iron into their mouths.

— Bhāgavata Purāṇa 5.26.29[20]

The hell named Kaṣmala is full of phlegm and nasal mucus. The man who takes interest in wine and flesh is cast into that hell and kept there for the period of a Kalpa.

— Brahma Purana 106.127 [21]

The wretched Brahmana who from this day, unable to resist the temptation, will drink wine shall be regarded as having lost his virtue, shall be reckoned to have committed the sin of slaying a Brahmana, shall be hated both in this and the other worlds. I set this limit to the conduct and dignity of Brahmanas everywhere. Let the honest, let Brahmanas, let those with regard for their superiors, let the gods, let the three worlds, listen!.

— Mahabharata Adi Parva Sambhava Parva LXXVI[22]

In Adi Shankara's Shankara Bhashya[23] and Ramanuja's Sri Bhasya[24] on Brahma Sutras, they quote Kathaka Samhita against drinking alcohol while some sects, like the Aghori, use it as part of their ritual.

Sutra 3.4.31 "And hence the scriptural text prohibiting license. (For this reason also the scripture is against doing according to desire)"
There are scriptural passages prohibiting one from doing everything just as one pleases. License freedom from all discipline, cannot help us to attain Knowledge. "Therefore a Brahmana must not drink liquor" (Kathaka Sam.). Such Sruti texts are meant for this discipline.[23]


Observant Buddhists typically avoid consuming alcohol (surāmerayamajja, referring to types of intoxicating fermented beverages), as it violates the 5th of the Five Precepts, the basic Buddhist code of ethics and can disrupt mindfulness and impede one's progress in the Noble Eightfold Path.[25]


In Jainism, no alcohol consumption of any kind is allowed, neither are there any exceptions like occasional or social drinking. The most important reason against alcohol consumption is the effect of alcohol on the mind and soul. In Jainism, any action or reaction that alter or impacts the mind is violence (himsa) towards own self, which is a five-sense human being. Violence to other five sense beings or to own self is violence. Jains do not consume fermented foods (beer, wine and other alcohols) to avoid killing of a large number of microorganisms associated with the fermenting process.[26]


An initiated Sikh cannot use or consume intoxicants, of which wine is one.[27]


The complex interplay between Islam, alcohol, and identity has been a subject of exploration in academic discourse. It raises questions about how religious beliefs and cultural practices shape individuals' relationships with alcohol and, in turn, influence their identity.[28] In the context of Islam, the consumption of alcohol is prohibited in accordance with Islamic teachings, as it is seen as detrimental to both physical and spiritual well-being. This prohibition is often a foundational aspect of Muslim identity, reflecting a commitment to faith and adherence to religious principles. However, the relationship between Islam, and alcohol is multifaceted and influenced by factors such as cultural context, personal beliefs, and degrees of religiosity.

In the Quran, khamr, meaning "wine", is variably referenced as an incentive from Satan, as well as a cautionary note against its adverse effect on human attitude in several verses:

O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone altars [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.

— Surat 5:90

Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist?

— Surat 5:91

Another verse acknowledges the benefit of wine but notes that its harm is bigger.

They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, In them is great sin and benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit." And they ask you what they should spend. Say, "The excess [beyond needs]. Thus Allah makes clear to you the verses [of revelation] that you might give thought.

— Surat 2:219

And from the fruits of the palm trees and grapevines you take intoxicant and good provision. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who reason.

— Surat 16:67

The Quran states that one of the delights of Paradise for the righteous is wine as a promise by God.

Is the description of Paradise, which the righteous are promised, wherein are rivers of water unaltered, rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink, and rivers of purified honey, in which they will have from all [kinds of] fruits and forgiveness from their Lord, like [that of] those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink scalding water that will sever their intestines?

— Surat 47:15

Islamic countries have low rates of alcohol consumption. However, a minority of Muslims do drink and believe consuming alcohol is not Qur'anically forbidden (haram).[29][30]

During the time of Muhammad[edit]

At the beginning of Islam, even during the first battles, Muslims possibly drank alcohol.[31] According to Sunni hadiths (which are not universally accepted by Muslims), the prohibition of alcohol came many years after Muhammad had started his mission. It is reported that Jābir ibn Abd Allah (جابِر بن عَبْد الله) narrated: "Some people drank alcoholic beverages in the morning [of the day] of the 'Uhud battle and on the same day they were killed as martyrs, and that was before wine was prohibited."[32] 'Anas ibn Mālik (أَنَس بن مالِك) narrated that the people said: "...some people [Muslims] were killed in the Battle of 'Uhud while wine was in their stomachs.' [...] So Allah revealed: 'There is not upon those who believe and do righteousness [any] blame concerning what they have eaten [in the past] if they [now] fear Allah and believe and do righteous deeds...'"[33] [sura 5:93[34]]

Some scholars and writers, for example Gerald Drissner, suggested that the fact that the Muslims were sober (and their enemies possibly drunk) led to an advantage in battles.[35] This could have been the reason why the Muslims - although most of the time outnumbered - were advancing so quickly and defeated the enemy (Meccans) with relative ease.[35]

Another significant scholarly work, written by Mustapha Sheikh and Tajul Islam, titled “Islam, Alcohol, and Identity: Towards a Critical Muslim Studies Approach” explores the complex intersection of Islam, alcohol, and identity. It delves into critical Muslim studies to analyze how Muslims negotiate their religious beliefs and cultural practices, particularly in relation to alcohol consumption. They seeks to unravel the nuances of how Muslims navigate their identities in societies where alcohol is prevalent and how they negotiate the intersection of their faith with the broader cultural landscape. Within this work, they highlights that nearly all schools of law in Islam talk about how alcoholic beverages wine from grapes and dates are considered to be absolutely prohibited. However, they are permissible to drink up until the point of intoxication.[36]


Judaism relates to consumption of alcohol, particularly of wine, in a complex manner. Wine is viewed as a substance of import and it is incorporated in religious ceremonies, and the general consumption of alcoholic beverages is permitted, however inebriation (drunkenness) is discouraged.[citation needed]

This compound approach to wine can be viewed in the verse in Psalms 104:15, "Wine gladdens human hearts,"[37] countered by the verses in Proverbs 20:1, "Wine is a mocker, strong drink is riotous; and whoever stumbles in it is not wise,"[38] and Proverbs 23:20, "Be not among drunkards or among gluttonous eaters of meat."[39]

The Bible[edit]

The biblical narrative records the positive and negative aspects of wine. Wine is a beverage of significance and import, utilized in ceremonies, for example, celebrating Abraham's military victory and successful liberation of Lot,[40] festive meals,[41][42] and the libations comprising the sacrificial service.[43]

In Gen. 9:20-27, Noah becomes intoxicated from his wine on exiting the ark and lies unclothed in his tent where his youngest son, Ham, discovers Noah asleep, and "views his (Noah's) nakedness." Noah becomes aware of this the following day and curses Ham's son Canaan.[44] In Gen. 19:31-37, in the aftermath of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Lot became inebriated on wine and had sexual intercourse with his two daughters. Moab (the father of the biblical nation by the same name) and Ben-Ammi (the father of the nation of Ammon) were born to Lot of this incest with his daughters.[45] Religious service in the Temple must be void of consumption of alcohol or wine, as the priests are admonished, "Do not drink wine nor strong drink... when you enter the tabernacle of the congregation, lest you die."[46]

In halakha[edit]

Halakha (Jewish law) mandates the use of wine in various religious ceremonies (such as sanctifying the Sabbath and festivals with wine at their start and conclusion, and at circumcision and at marriage ceremonies).[47] The beverage required as "wine" by Jewish law generally permits the use of a non-alcoholic grape extraction (grape juice) for all ceremonies requiring wine .[48][need quotation to verify]

Excessive consumption and drunkenness, however are discouraged. According to the thirteenth century Orchot Chaim, as quoted in Beit Yosef "inebriation is entirely prohibited and there is no greater sin than drunkenness" and it is "the cause of many sins".[49]

A Nazirite voluntarily takes a vow to abstain from grapes or any of their byproducts (including wine), he refrains cutting the hair on his head, and he may not become ritually impure by contact with corpses or graves.[50] While one motivation for becoming a Nazirite may be a reaction to "risky behaviors" associated with alcohol use disorder (Tractate Sotah, BT 2a), the term of the vow of the Nazirite is ordinarily a fixed term, with grapes and wine again permitted at the end of the term.

Contemporary Judaism[edit]

Anecdotal evidence supports that Jewish communities, on the whole, view alcoholic consumption more negatively than Protestant Christian groups. The small sample of Jews viewed alcohol as destructive while a sample of Protestants referred to it as "relaxing".[51] The proliferation of "kiddush clubs" in some synagogues, and the institutional backlash to that proliferation, however, may provide an indication of growing awareness of alcohol use disorder issues in Jewish communities. A number of specifically Jewish non-profit addiction rehabilitation and education programs, such as the Chabad Residential Treatment Center in Los Angeles[52] and Retorno in Israel,[53] provide treatment for alcohol use disorder (and other substance use disorders) within a specifically Jewish framework for recovery. The non-profit Jewish institutions are supplemented by for-profit rehab centers with a Jewish focus.


Sake is often consumed as part of Shinto purification rituals.[54] Sakes served to gods as offerings prior to drinking are called Omiki (お神酒).[55] People drink Omiki with gods to communicate with them and to solicit rich harvests the following year.

Vodou (Voodoo)[edit]

In the Vodou faith of Haiti, alcoholic drinks such as rum are consumed to be able to allow spirits called "lwa" to enter one's body and help them find the motivation for or strength to survive everyday struggles or life.[56]

Historical religions[edit]

Bacchus pours wine from a cup for a panther, while Silenus plays the lyre, circa 30 BC.

In Ancient Egyptian religion, beer and wine were drunk and offered to the gods in rituals and festivals. Beer and wine were also stored with the mummified dead in Egyptian burials.[57] Other ancient religious practices like Chinese ancestor worship, Sumerian and Babylonian religion used alcohol as offerings to gods and to the deceased. The Mesopotamian cultures had various wine gods and a Chinese imperial edict (c. 1,116 B.C.) states that drinking alcohol in moderation is prescribed by Heaven.[57]

In the ancient Mediterranean world, the Cult of Dionysus and the Orphic mysteries used wine as part of their religious practices. During Dionysian festivals and rituals, wine was drunk as way to reach ecstatic states along with music and dance. Intoxication from alcohol was seen as a state of possession by spirit of the god of wine Dionysus. Religious drinking festivals called Bacchanalia were popular in Italy and associated with the gods Bacchus and Liber. These Dionysian rites were frequently outlawed by the Roman Senate.

In the Norse religion the drinking of ales and meads was important in several seasonal religious festivals such as Yule and Midsummer as well as more common festivities like wakes, christenings and ritual sacrifices called Blóts. Neopagan and Wiccan religions also allow for the use of alcohol for ritual purposes as well as for recreation.[58]


Research has been conducted by social scientists and epidemiologists to see if correlations exist between religiosity and alcoholism.[59][60] It showed that, in Ireland, religious teenagers have a more restricted attitude towards alcohol, but the study was limited to Christianity.[59] By contrast, in America, the extent of the correlation between alcohol consumption and religion depended upon religious denomination.[60]

The association between drinking alcohol and one's religious affiliation has been the subject of research, which has shown that it is not always the same across religions. Due to the moral and social precepts of their religion, several religious groups place a strong emphasis in control, which results in lower rates of alcohol consumption among its followers. In contrast, risk factors may support or tolerate excessive alcohol consumption within some religious communities.

In James B. Holt, Jacqueline W. Miller, Timothy S. Naimi and Daniel Z. Sui work, titled "Religious Affiliation and Alcohol Consumption in the United States," provides a comprehensive examination of the relationship between religious affiliation and alcohol consumption within the United States.[61] The study observes the distinct pattern within the religious groups. Some denominations have traditionally upheld temperance as a core value, which results in lower rates of alcohol consumption due to the moral and societal teachings of their faith. On the other hand, they study also underscores the presence of risk factors within certain religious communities where excessive alcohol may be use, tolerates, or even encourages. Understanding these nuances is crucial for public health initiatives and interventions aimed at reducing alcohol related problems within specific religious contexts.

Consumption of alcohol and religious affiliation in the United States[edit]

Alcohol and Usage Literature

Alcohol consumption in America and its connection to religious affiliation is a significant sociological and cultural issue. In the United States, different religious traditions have different views on alcohol, ranging from full abstinence in certain faiths to the promotion of responsible and moderate usage in others. This variety reflects the varied society of the nation, where followers of many faiths deal with alcohol in various ways.

The research article titled "Religious Affiliation and Alcohol Consumption in the United States" by James B. Holt, Jacqueline W. Miller, Timothy S. Naimi, and Daniel Z. Sui, provides a comprehensive analysis of the connection. This study offers important insights on the patterns of alcohol use among people based on their religious affiliations by drawing on vast data. Based on the research, studies have shown that alcohol consumption is greater in the Northeast, the Midwest, and the West and that consumption tends to be greater in metropolitan areas than in nonmetropolitan areas. [62]

In addition, Gayle M. Wells' study titled "The effect of religiosity and campus alcohol culture on collegiate alcohol consumption,"[63] the complex relationship between religiosity, campus culture, and alcohol consumption among college students is meticulously examined. By employing reference group theory as a theoretical framework, Wells explores the ways in which the behavior and attitudes of peers and the broader campus environment impact the alcohol consumption patterns of college students who may hold varying levels of religiosity. The research reveal that students who identify as highly religious (e.g., attending religious services regularly, engaging in religious practices) are less likely to consume alcohol and engage in binge drinking compared to their less religious peers. This outcome could be attributed to the strong moral and religious values held by highly religious students, which discourage alcohol consumption. However, even among highly religious students, those who are exposed to a pervasive campus alcohol culture are more likely to engage in alcohol consumption compared to their counterparts in a more alcohol-restricted campus environment.

See also[edit]


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  37. ^ Psalms 104:15
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