Energy in Sweden
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
Energy in Sweden describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Sweden. Electricity sector in Sweden is the main article of electricity in Sweden. The Swedish climate bill of February 2017 aims to make Sweden carbon neutral by 2045. The Swedish target is to decline emission of climate gases 63% from 1990 to 2030 and international transportation excluding foreign flights 70%. By 2014 just over half of the country's total final energy consumption in electricity, heating and cooling and transport combined was provided by renewables, the highest share amongst the then 28 EU member countries. About a third of Sweden's electricity is generated by nuclear power. In generating a year's worth of this energy, Swedes generate about 4 tonnes of CO2 emissions each. Since 2010, sustainability measures have reduced total emissions even as the population has increased.
As of 2017[update] the Swedish government climate and environment investment budget was about 1.3 billion euros for the 4 years 2017 - 2020 in non fossil travel, renewable energy and international (Annually in Swedish krona: 1.8 billion 2017, 1.5 billion 2018, 4.5 billion 2019 & ca 5 billion 2020.) 
In 2011, the World Energy Council gave Sweden, France, and Switzerland top marks for their energy sustainability. In 2017 the share of energy from renewable sources in Sweden was 55% in energy use, 69% in heating and cooling, 66% in electricity and 27% in transports. In 2019, 97% of the energy used for public transport was renewable.
|Primary energy supply[a] |
|Energy production |
|Net energy imports |
|Electricity consumption[b] |
|Energy figures converted from Mtoe using conversion factor 1 Mtoe = 11.63 TWh. |
Sweden's energy plan is to have 65% of energy produced by renewables by 2030 and 100% by 2040.
Renewable energy includes wind, solar, biomass and geothermal energy sources.
Within the context of the European Union's 2009 Renewables Directive, Sweden was working towards reaching a 49% share of renewable energy in gross final consumption of energy - electricity, heating/cooling, and transportation - by 2020. Eurostat reported that Sweden had already exceeded the Directive's 2020 target in 2014 reaching 52.6% of total final energy consumption provided by renewables, up from 38.7% in 2004. This makes Sweden the leading country within the EU-28 group in terms of renewable energy use by share, followed by Finland and Latvia at 38.7%, Austria at 33.1% and Denmark on 29.2%. The two other signatories of the directive, Iceland and Norway, remain ahead of Sweden at 77.1% and 69.2% respectively.
The 2014 52.6% overall share of final energy consumption in Sweden breaks down as renewable energy providing the following shares to each sector: 68.1% of the heating and cooling sector, 63.3% of the electricity sector and 19.2% of the transport sector.
The share of renewable electricity use is high in Sweden. Hydro, wind, and solar power together accounted for 49.8% of the electricity produced in the country in 2014. When measured against national electricity consumption, the share rises to 55.5%. Since 2003, Sweden has supported renewable energy in the electricity sector with a "green electricity certificate" obligation for retail power suppliers. As of 2015[update] the plan of the certificate system was to support 25 TWh of new renewable electricity generation by 2020.
In June 2016, the Swedish center-left minority coalition government reached a cross-party energy deal with three opposition parties (the Moderate Party, Centre Party (Sweden), and Christian Democrats (Sweden)), with the agreement targeting 100% renewable electricity production by 2040.
In 2013 renewable energy investment was more than US$1 billion in Sweden.
In 2013 Sweden was second top country for wind power capacity per inhabitant in the world: 488 W per person, only surpassed by Denmark (863 W per person). In correlation one must note that Swedish use of energy per inhabitant is much higher than average in Europe.
While installations have historically been minimal, solar power has been growing quickly in Sweden with the country's cumulative PV capacity nearly doubling in 2014 to 79 MW. Capacity rose further to 205 MW at the end of 2016, and 411 MW at the end of 2018. Market research firm GlobalData predicted in 2019 that Sweden's solar power capacity could rise to 3.2 gigawatts (GW) in 2030. As of 2023, Sweden's largest solar park is an 18MW facility in Skurup built by solar developer Alight AB, which produces energy for Martin & Servera.
Solar power accounted for roughly 0.3% of the nation's total electricity consumption in 2018.
Sweden has a wave power station outside Lysekil run by Uppsala University. The wave energy research group at Uppsala University study and develop all different aspects of wave energy, ranging from power systems and generators, to hydrodynamical modelling, and environmental impact of wave energy parks.
Hydroelectric power accounts for more than half of Sweden's electricity production. More than 1900 hydroelectric power stations operate across the country. Forty-five produce 100 MW and over, 17 produce 200 MW and over, and 5 produce 400 MW and over. The largest station, the Harsprånget hydroelectric power station, is located on the upper Lule River and has a maximum production capacity of 977 MW. The Lule River is also the most productive river, with almost 18% of the Swedish installed capacity. Almost all of the medium to large plants are located in northern Sweden.
Coal ceased to be used for electricity production in 2020.
Most of Sweden, including Stockholm have no piped natural gas.
Sweden aims for a fossil fuel free vehicle fleet by 2030.
Sweden published the sustainability criteria for biofuels (2011) which consider the areas with high biological values to be protected in respect to fuels production. The feedstock origin used for production of bioliquids in Sweden during 2011 was Sweden 49% The Netherlands 17% United States 17% Finland 6% Belgium 3% and other 8% (Brazil, Malaysia and Russia). Palm oil is often pointed out as a dirty feed-stock for biofuels. None of the Swedish companies used palm oil in 2011. The largest share of feedstock for bioliquids comes from the forest industry in the form of tall oil pitch, tall oil and methanol.
In 2013 the bus fleets in more than a dozen cities relied entirely on biomethane, local plants produced more than 60% of the total biomethane used in Swedish natural gas vehicles, and more filling stations were opened in 2012 and 2013. Göteborg Energi (Gothenburg Energy) has a 20 MW facility that gasifies forest residues and then converts the synthesis gases—hydrogen and carbon monoxide—into biomethane.
Thermal and nuclear
Nuclear is dominating in this sector. The other operational plant is, in almost all cases, fueled with renewable fuels. Oil plants are few, and are either decommissioned or used as a reserve,
More than 35% of the Swedish electricity is produced by 6 nuclear reactors, spread out on three power stations:
- Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant - 2 Pressurized Water Reactor, ~3,1 GW
- Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant - 1 BWR (The largest BWR reactor in the world by energy output), ~1,5 GW
- Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant - 3 BWRs, ~3,2 GW
Before 2005, there were 12 reactors, but two BWR reactors (~1,2 GW) at the Barsebäck nuclear power plant were decommissioned in 1999 and 2005, two BWR reactors at the Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant were decommissioned in 2015 and 2017 (~1,1 GW), one PWR reactor was decommissioned at the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant in 2019. (~1,8 GW). On 31 December 2020 the R1 reactor was permanently shut down.
Decommissioning and waste storage
The total cost of spent fuel storage and decommissioning is estimated at SEK147 billion (around €14 billion). About SEK53 billion (around €5 billion) has been spent to date. This excludes the costs of near-surface disposal facilities for very low-level waste at Ringhals, Oskarshamn, and Forsmark.
The majority of low- and intermediate-level waste will be disposed of in a shallow geological repository for short-lived waste at Forsmark. The country is also exploring the use of transmutation to reduce waste radiotoxicity, with little success.
Policies to curb carbon emissions
According to Energy Information Administration the CO2 emissions from energy consumption of Sweden were in 2009 54.77 Mt, slightly below Finland 54.86 Mt, despite the difference in population. The emissions per capita were in Sweden 5.58 and in Finland 9.93 tonnes per capita in 2009.
In January 1991, Sweden enacted a carbon tax of SEK 250 per 1000 kg ($40 at the time, or EUR 27 at current rates) on the use of oil, coal, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, petrol, and aviation fuel used in domestic travel. Industrial users paid half the rate (between 1993 and 1997, 25%), and preferred industries such as commercial horticulture, mining, manufacturing, and pulp and paper were exempted entirely. As a result, the tax only covers around 40% of Sweden's carbon emissions. The rate was raised to SEK 365 ($60) in 1997 and SEK 930 in 2007.
According to a 2019 study, the tax was instrumental in substantially reducing Sweden's carbon dioxide emissions. The tax is also credited by Swedish Society for Nature Conservation climate change expert Emma Lindberg and University of Lund Professor Thomas Johansson with spurring a significant move from hydrocarbon fuels to biomass. Lindberg said, "It was the one major reason that steered society towards climate-friendly solutions. It made polluting more expensive and focused people on finding energy-efficient solutions."
- Electricity sector in Sweden
- Wind power in Sweden
- Biofuel in Sweden
- Sweden National Renewable Energy Action Plan
- Nordic energy market
- Renewable energy in Norway
- Renewable energy in Finland
- Renewable energy in Denmark
- Renewable energy by country
- SYSAV waste-to-energy plant
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