SHC014-CoV

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SHC014-CoV
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Genus: Betacoronavirus
Subgenus: Sarbecovirus
Species:
Strain:
SHC014-CoV
Synonyms[1]
  • Bat SARS-like coronavirus RsSHC014

SHC014-CoV is a SARS-like coronavirus (SL-COV) which infects horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae). It was discovered in Kunming County in Yunnan Province, China. It was discovered along with SL-CoV Rs3367, which was the first bat SARS-like coronavirus shown to directly infect a human cell line. The line of Rs3367 that infected human cells was named Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV1.[2]

Discovery

From April 2011 to September 2012, researchers from the Wuhan Institute of Virology collected 117 anal swabs and fecal samples of bats from a Chinese rufous horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) colony in Kunming City (Yunnan Province in south-western China). 27 out of 117 samples (23%) contained seven different isolates of SARS-like coronaviruses, among which were two previously unknown, called RsSHC014 and Rs3367.[2]

Virology

In 2013, bat SARS-like coronavirus Rs3367 was shown to be able to directly infect the human HeLa cell line. It was the first time that human cells had been infected with a bat SARS-like coronavirus in the lab. The strain of Rs3367 that infected the human cells was named “Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV”.[2]

In 2015, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Wuhan Institute of Virology conducted research showing that SHC014 could be made to infect the human HeLa cell line, through the use of reverse genetics to create a chimeric virus consisting of a surface protein of SHC014 and the backbone of a SARS corona-virus.[3][4]

The SL-SHC014-MA15 version of the virus, primarily engineered to infect mice, has been shown to differ by over 5,000 nucleotides from SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic.[5]

Phylogenetic

A phylogenetic tree based on whole-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-1 and related coronaviruses is:

SARS‑CoV‑1 related coronavirus

16BO133 [zh], 82.8% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, North Jeolla, South Korea[6]

Bat SARS CoV Rf1, 87.8% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Yichang, Hubei[7]

BtCoV HKU3, 87.9% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus, Hong kong and Guangdong[8]

LYRa11 [zh], 90.9% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus affinis, Baoshan, Yunnan[9]

Bat SARS-CoV/Rp3, 92.6% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus pearsoni, Nanning, Guangxi[7]

Bat SL-CoV YNLF_31C, 93.5% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Lufeng, Yunnan[10]

Bat SL-CoV YNLF_34C, 93.5% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Lufeng, Yunnan[10]

SHC014-CoV, 95.4% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus, Kunming, Yunnan[11]

WIV1, 95.6% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus, Kunming, Yunnan[11]

WIV16, 96.0% to SARS-CoV-1, Rhinolophus sinicus Kunming, Yunnan[12]

Civet SARS-CoV, 99.8% to SARS-CoV-1, Paguma larvata, market in Guangdong, China[8]

SARS-CoV-1

SARS-CoV-2, 79% to SARS-CoV-1[13]


See also

References

  1. ^ "Taxonomy browser (Bat SARS-like coronavirus RsSHC014)". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2021-01-05.
  2. ^ a b c Ge XY, Li JL, Yang XL, Chmura AA, Zhu G, Epstein JH, et al. (November 2013). "Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor". Nature. 503 (7477): 535–8. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..535G. doi:10.1038/nature12711. PMC 5389864. PMID 24172901.
  3. ^ Menachery VD, Yount BL, Debbink K, Agnihothram S, Gralinski LE, Plante JA, et al. (December 2015). "A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence". Nature Medicine. 21 (12): 1508–13. doi:10.1038/nm.3985. PMC 4797993. PMID 26552008.
  4. ^ Butler D (12 November 2015). "Engineered bat virus stirs debate over risky research". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2015.18787. S2CID 182338924.
  5. ^ Liu SL, Saif LJ, Weiss SR, Su L (26 February 2020). "No credible evidence supporting claims of the laboratory engineering of SARS-CoV-2". Emerging Microbes & Infections. 9 (1): 505–507. doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1733440. PMC 7054935. PMID 32102621.
  6. ^ Kim Y, Son K, Kim YS, Lee SY, Jheong W, Oem JK (2019). "Complete genome analysis of a SARS-like bat coronavirus identified in the Republic of Korea". Virus Genes. 55 (4): 545–549. doi:10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w. PMC 7089380. PMID 31076983.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b Li, W. (2005). "Bats Are Natural Reservoirs of SARS-Like Coronaviruses". Science. 310 (5748): 676–679. doi:10.1126/science.1118391. ISSN 0036-8075.
  8. ^ a b Xing‐Yi Ge, Ben Hu, and Zheng‐Li Shi (2015). "BAT CORONAVIRUSES". In Lin-Fa Wang and Christopher Cowled (ed.). Bats and Viruses: A New Frontier of Emerging Infectious Diseases, First Edition. John Wiley & Sons.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ He B, Zhang Y, Xu L, Yang W, Yang F, Feng Y; et al. (2014). "Identification of diverse alphacoronaviruses and genomic characterization of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus from bats in China". J Virol. 88 (12): 7070–82. doi:10.1128/JVI.00631-14. PMC 4054348. PMID 24719429.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; et al. (2015). "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination". Journal of Virology. 89 (20): 10532–10547. doi:10.1128/JVI.01048-15. ISSN 0022-538X.
  11. ^ a b Xing-Yi Ge; Jia-Lu Li; Xing-Lou Yang; et al. (2013). "Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor". Nature. 503 (7477): 535–8. Bibcode:2013Natur.503..535G. doi:10.1038/nature12711. PMC 5389864. PMID 24172901.
  12. ^ Yang XL, Hu B, Wang B, Wang MN, Zhang Q, Zhang W; et al. (2016). "Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus". J Virol. 90 (6): 3253–6. doi:10.1128/JVI.02582-15. PMC 4810638. PMID 26719272.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ Ben, Hu; Hua, Guo; Peng, Zhou; Zheng-Li, Shi (2020). "Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19". Nature Reviews Microbiology (19): 141–154. doi:10.1038/s41579-020-00459-7.

References