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Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Varidnaviria
Kingdom: Helvetiavirae
Phylum: Dividoviricota
Class: Laserviricetes
Order: Halopanivirales
Family: Simuloviridae
Genus: Yingchengvirus

Yingchengvirus is a genus of double stranded DNA viruses that infect haloarchaea.[1] The genus was previously named Betasphaerolipovirus.[2]


The genus contains the following species:[3]


Viruses of this genus have tailless icosahedral virions with an internal lipid membrane located between the protein capsid and the circular double stranded DNA genome.


The temperate haloarchaeal virus SNJ1 displays lytic and lysogenic life cycles. During the lysogenic cycle, the virus resides in its host in the form of an extrachromosomal circular plasmid. Upon mitomycin C induction, large amounts of SNJ1 virions can be produced.[4] SNJ1 genome replicates by the rolling-circle mechanism and is initiated by the virus-encoded RepA protein, which is homologous to the replication-initiation proteins of archaeal plasmids and bacterial transposases of the IS91 family insertion sequences.[5][6] The virus is released by lysis of the infected cells.


  1. ^ Pawlowski A, Rissanen I, Bamford JK, Krupovic M, Jalasvuori M (2014). "Gammasphaerolipovirus, a newly proposed bacteriophage genus, unifies viruses of halophilic archaea and thermophilic bacteria within the novel family Sphaerolipoviridae". Arch Virol. 159 (6): 1541–1554. doi:10.1007/s00705-013-1970-6. PMID 24395078.
  2. ^ "ICTV Taxonomy history: Yingchengvirus". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  3. ^ "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021.
  4. ^ Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Wang, S; Yang, D; Cheng, Y; Hu, J; Chen, J; Mei, Y; Shen, P; Bamford, DH; Chen, X (2012). "Temperate membrane-containing halophilic archaeal virus SNJ1 has a circular dsDNA genome identical to that of plasmid pHH205". Virology. 434 (2): 233–41. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2012.05.036. PMID 22784791.
  5. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Chen, Beibei; Cao, Mengzhuo; Sima, Linshan; Prangishvili, David; Chen, Xiangdong; Krupovic, Mart (2018). "Rolling-circle replication initiation protein of haloarchaeal sphaerolipovirus SNJ1 is homologous to bacterial transposases of the IS91 family insertion sequences" (PDF). Journal of General Virology. 99 (3): 416–421. doi:10.1099/jgv.0.001009. PMID 29458508.
  6. ^ Wang, Y; Sima, L; Lv, J; Huang, S; Liu, Y; Wang, J; Krupovic, M; Chen, X (2016). "Identification, Characterization, and Application of the Replicon Region of the Halophilic Temperate Sphaerolipovirus SNJ1". Journal of Bacteriology. 198 (14): 1952–64. doi:10.1128/JB.00131-16. PMC 4936101. PMID 27137505.