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Amoeba proteus with many pseudopodia.jpg
Amoeba proteus
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
Phylum: Amoebozoa
Subphylum: Lobosa
Class: Tubulinea
Smirnov et al. 2005
Subclasses & Orders

The Tubulinea are a major grouping of Amoebozoa, including most of the more familiar amoebae genera like Amoeba, Arcella, Difflugia and Hartmannella.


During locomotion most Tubulinea have a roughly cylindrical form or produce numerous cylindrical pseudopods. Each cylinder advances by a single central stream of cytoplasm, granular in appearance, and has no subpseudopodia. This distinguishes them from other amoeboid groups, although in some members this is not the normal type of locomotion.


This class was anticipated by some biologists like Jahn, who grouped all amoebae with granular pseudopodia together,[1] but most split the lobose amoebae into testate Testacealobosia and naked Gymnamoebia. These latter are polyphyletic, but molecular trees by Bolivar et al.[2] identified a core monophyletic subgroup. Subsequent studies showed the testate lobose amoebae belong to the same group, which was thus renamed Lobosea sensu stricto[3] or Tubulinea.[4]


Class Tubulinea Smirnov et al. 2005 stat. nov. Adl et al. 2018[5][6][7]


  1. ^ Jahn; Bovee; Jahn (1979). How to know the protozoa. Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers. ISBN 0-697-04759-8.
  2. ^ Bolivar, I.; Fahrni, J.F.; Smirnov, A. & Pawlowski, J. (2001). "SSU rRNA-based Phylogenetic Position of the Genera Amoeba and Chaos (Lobosea, Gymnamoebia): The Origin of Gymnamoebae Revisited". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18 (12): 2306–2314. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003777. PMID 11719580.
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T.; Chao, E.-Y; Oates, B. (2004). "Molecular phylogeny of the Amoebozoa and evolutionary significance of the unikont Phalansterium". European Journal of Protistology. 40: 21–48. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2003.10.001.
  4. ^ Smirnov, A.V.; Nassonova, E.S.; Berney, C.; Fahrni, J.; Bolivar, I. & Pawlowski, J. (2005). "Molecular phylogeny and classification of the lobose amoebae". Protist. 156 (2): 129–142. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2005.06.002. PMID 16171181.
  5. ^ Kang S, Tice AK, Spiegel FW, Silberman JD, Pánek T, Cepicka I, et al. (September 2017). "Between a Pod and a Hard Test: The Deep Evolution of Amoebae". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 34 (9): 2258–2270. doi:10.1093/molbev/msx162. PMC 5850466. PMID 28505375.
  6. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Bass, David; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Schoch, Conrad L.; Smirnov, Alexey; Agatha, Sabine; Berney, Cedric; Brown, Matthew W. (2018-09-26). "Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 66 (1): 4–119. doi:10.1111/jeu.12691. PMC 6492006. PMID 30257078.
  7. ^ Lahr, Daniel J.G.; Kosakyan, Anush; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A.D.; Morais, Luana; Porfirio-Sousa, Alfredo L.; Ribeiro, Giulia M.; Pánek, Tomáš; Kang, Seungho; Brown, Matthew W. (2019). "Phylogenomics and Morphological Reconstruction of Arcellinida Testate Amoebae Highlight Diversity of Microbial Eukaryotes in the Neoproterozoic". Current Biology. 29 (6): 991–1001. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2019.01.078.