From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Twindemic is a term used during the COVID-19 pandemic, referring to the possibility of a severe flu season happening alongside an increase in cases of COVID-19 during the fall and winter of 2020 and 2021.[1][2][3][4][5] A consequence of a twindemic may be a mixture of two different infections in the same person at the same time.[6] The term twindemic is a portmanteau of "twin" and "pandemic".[3]


The term was popularized by an August 2020 article from The New York Times written by Jan Hoffman.[1][2][3] In the article, Hoffman credited Dr. L.J. Tan of the Immunization Action Coalition as an "early promoter" of the possibility of a twindemic.[3] After the publication of The Times' article, several media outlets began to report on the possibility of a twindemic.[3] Health experts responded to the threat of a possible twindemic by encouraging more people to get the flu vaccine.[1][2]

A twindemic did not occur during the flu season in late 2020 due to cases of the seasonal flu being at historic lows in the United States and globally.[7] These low amount of flu cases were attributed to measures put in place to prevent COVID-19 from spreading, including face masks, social distancing, and hand washing.[7]

Health experts have renewed concerns of a possible twindemic happening during the fall and winter of 2021 due to loosening restrictions.[4][5]


On 1 January 2022, Israel reported, for the first time, a case of flurona, a rare mixture of COVID-19 and influenza infections.[8][9][10][11] In Brazil, four cases of the double infection have been identified, including a 16 year-old male from Rio de Janeiro. Having a fever and runny nose, he decided to take a test on 29 December 2021, which came back positive to the two diseases. His mother, doubting the result, had the boy tested in another laboratory, which confirmed again the double infection. In Fortaleza of Ceará state, two children, including a 1 year-old child tested positive without complications, and also a 52 year-old man who did not need hospitalization.[12] In São Paulo, the Secretariat of Health announced that its state had 110 cases of flurona in 2021.[13]

Flurona infections have also been reported in the United States, the Philippines and Hungary.[10]


  1. ^ a b c Hoffman, Jan (16 August 2020). "Fearing a 'Twindemic,' Health Experts Push Urgently for Flu Shots". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  2. ^ a b c Miller, Korin (18 August 2020). "Experts Warn of a Possible 'Twindemic'—Here's What That Means". Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e "twindemic". 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  4. ^ a b Rodriguez, Adrianna (25 August 2021). "Experts renew warnings of 'twindemic' as US enters flu season amid rising COVID-19 cases: 'We face the same threat this year'". USA Today. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  5. ^ a b Scribner, Herb (30 August 2021). "Doctors warn this 'twindemic' will threaten everyone this fall and winter". Deseret News. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  6. ^ Khamsi, Roxanne (17 November 2021). "The Double-Whammy COVID-Flu". The Atlantic. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  7. ^ a b Sepkowitz, Kent (7 February 2021). "Opinion: The mystery of the flu-Covid 'twindemic' that never happened". CNN. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  8. ^ Dasgupta, Sravasti (1 January 2022). "Israel reports first case of 'flurona' – rare double infection of Covid and influenza - Doctors say it was diagnosed in young pregnant woman but suspect there are more cases in country". The Independent. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  9. ^ Nadeau, Barbie Latza (3 January 2022). "2022's Hottest New Illness: Flurona". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 3 January 2022.
  10. ^ a b Hassan, Jennifer (5 January 2022). "What is 'flurona'? Coronavirus and influenza co-infections reported as omicron surges. - Cases have been detected in countries including United States, Israel, Brazil, the Philippines and Hungary". The Washington Post. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  11. ^ Nierenberg, Amelia (7 January 2022). "Can You Get the Flu and Covid at the Same Time? - Yes, you can get "flurona." But it's probably not as bad as it sounds". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  12. ^ Rocha, Matheus (3 January 2022). "Rio e Ceará registram casos de 'flurona', coinfecção por Covid e influenza" (in Portuguese). Folha da Manhã S.A. - Grupo Folha. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  13. ^ Baptista, Sara (4 January 2022). "Estado de São Paulo teve 110 casos de 'flurona' ao longo de 2021" (in Portuguese). Universo Online. Retrieved 5 January 2022.