XFL (2020–2023)

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

Most recent season or competition:
2023 XFL season
ClassificationSpring football league
SportAmerican football
FoundedJanuary 25, 2018
FounderVince McMahon
First season2020
CeasedDecember 31, 2023
(Merged into UFL)
PresidentRuss Brandon
No. of teams8
CountryUnited States
HeadquartersCenterfield Office Building
Arlington, Texas
Most recent
Arlington Renegades
(1st title)
Most titlesArlington Renegades
(1 title)
TV partner(s)
Direct: USFL, UFL, TSL
Affiliated: IFL
Other: NFL, CFL, AAF
Official websiteXFL.com

The XFL was a professional American football minor league[2][3][4] consisting of eight teams located across the United States in mid-sized to major markets. It is now one of the two-component conferences of the United Football League (UFL), along with the United States Football League (USFL). The XFL league headquarters were in Arlington, Texas.

The league was founded by WWE executive Vince McMahon in 2018, as a continuation successor to the league of the same name he founded in 2001. McMahon founded the new XFL to create a league with fewer off-field controversies and faster, simpler play compared to the bigger National Football League (NFL), and one without the features inspired by professional wrestling or entertainment elements of its predecessor. The league and its eight teams were originally owned by McMahon's Alpha Entertainment.[5] Seasons ran from February to May, with each of the league's teams playing a ten-game regular season, and four progressing to the playoffs to crown a season champion.

After only five weeks of play in its inaugural 2020 season, the league abruptly ceased play due to the COVID-19 pandemic,[6] and filed for bankruptcy on April 13.[7] In August 2020, actor and professional wrestler Dwayne Johnson, along with longtime business partner and ex-wife Dany Garcia, led a consortium to purchase the XFL for $15 million.[8][9] The league returned to play on February 18, 2023, positioned as a minor league.[2][10][4]

The XFL operated in the winter and early spring months, after the end of the NFL season and before the start of the USFL season. The league had a player personnel partnership with the Indoor Football League (IFL), with the IFL functioning as the XFL's de facto minor league.[11]

On September 28, 2023, the XFL announced its intention to merge with the USFL.[12] On November 30, 2023, the leagues issued a statement that they "completed the antitrust review process in connection with the proposed merger of the XFL and USFL and intend to play a combined season this spring kicking off on Saturday, March 30. We are now finalizing terms of the definitive agreement".[13] On December 31, the name of the combined league was confirmed as the United Football League, with each component league surviving as a conference within the UFL.[14]


Original XFL (2001)[edit]

Vince McMahon, the founder of Alpha Entertainment, LLC

The original XFL ran for a single season in 2001, as a joint venture between the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) and NBC spearheaded by Vince McMahon and NBC executive Dick Ebersol. The league attempted to be a competitor to the National Football League (NFL)—the predominant professional league of American football in the United States (and where NBC had lost its broadcast rights to CBS three years earlier), running during the late winter and early spring to take advantage of lingering desire for football after the end of the NFL season. It featured various modifications to the rules of football in order to increase its intensity, as well as on-air innovations such as Skycams, placing microphones on players, and in-game interviews with players. The league was criticized for relying too heavily on "sports entertainment" gimmicks similar to professional wrestling. Despite strong ratings for its first games, viewership eventually nosedived, and the league folded after the conclusion of the inaugural season.[15][16][17] Both partners lost $35 million on the XFL,[18] and McMahon eventually conceded that the league was a "colossal failure".[19][20]


In the 2017 ESPN 30 for 30 documentary This Was the XFL, McMahon openly mused about reviving the XFL, noting that changes would need to be made compared to 2001 to make it viable and relevant in the modern era.[21] McMahon had purchased the trademarks of the defunct United Football League (UFL) and an alternative brand, "UrFL" (Your Football League), in early 2017.[22] The following year, the director of the documentary, Charlie Ebersol (son of Dick Ebersol), would go on to help form the Alliance of American Football (AAF) in 2018, hoping to beat the revived XFL in being the first to play (by a year).[23] While the league was able to launch in 2019, a year before the XFL's first season, it went bankrupt before its first season finished after it twice lost its major investors.[24] On December 15, 2017, Bleacher Report columnist Brad Shepard reported that McMahon was seriously considering a revival of the XFL, with an expected announcement on January 25, 2018. In a statement to Deadspin, WWE did not confirm or deny the rumors, but did state that McMahon was establishing a new company known as Alpha Entertainment, which would "explore investment opportunities across the sports and entertainment landscapes, including professional football."[16] On December 21, 2017, WWE issued a filing to the Securities and Exchange Commission, stating that McMahon had sold $100 million worth of WWE stock to fund Alpha Entertainment.[25] Alpha Entertainment was headquartered next door to WWE headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut.[26]

On January 25, 2018, Alpha Entertainment announced a new incarnation of the XFL, which would begin with a 10-week inaugural season beginning in January or February 2020. In a press conference, McMahon stated that the new XFL would be dissimilar to its previous incarnation, stating that "There's only so many things that have 'FL' on the end of them and those are already taken. But we aren't going to have much of what the original XFL had." McMahon stated that the league would feature eight teams as a single entity owned by Alpha (the previous XFL was also a single-entity league), which had been revealed in 2019. Alpha Entertainment was established to keep the league's management and operations separate from that of WWE.[20][27] McMahon is prepared to invest as much as $500 million, five times as much as his investment in the 2001 XFL.[28] He liquidated an additional $270 million in WWE stock (representing a 4% stake in WWE) in March 2019 to provide additional funding for the league.[29]

Oliver Luck, former commissioner of the XFL

The XFL under McMahon discouraged political gestures by players during games such as, for example, taking a knee in protest. McMahon also planned to forbid any player with a criminal record from participating. Commissioner Oliver Luck later walked back the latter decision, noting that the policy had not yet been finalized,[26] and stated in April 2019 that it would allow its teams to sign Johnny Manziel, who was convicted of domestic violence in 2016.[30] Manziel nonetheless was excluded from the inaugural draft and player allocations, with the league later stating that it had "no interest" in him.[31] Felony convictions are still a disqualification.[32] McMahon justified his intentions by stating that the XFL would be "evaluating a player based on many things, including the quality of human being they are", and that "people don't want social and political issues coming into play when they are trying to be entertained". He suggested that players who wish to express political opinions should do so on their time.[27][20] Luck stated in October 2018 that the ban on protesting during the national anthem would be written into player contracts as a condition of employment and that the stipulation was McMahon's idea; Luck agreed that the league aimed to be as non-political as possible. Players were not barred from using cannabis, as the league did not test for the drug.[33]

McMahon did not initially reveal any specific details on rule changes that the new XFL would feature but did state that he aimed to reduce the length of games to around two hours (in contrast to the standard in American football, which generally runs slightly over three hours). The league later revised this to a two-and-a-half-hour target length.[34] Later, when announcing new changes to overtime rules, it was implied that television broadcasts would have three-hour time slots, into which the entire game and overtime would fit.[35] Test games resulted in an average game time of 2 hours and 40 minutes with a comparable number of plays to an NFL game.[36] Halfway through the first season, the average length of a regular-season game clocked in at 2 hours, 50 minutes,[37] the same as the Canadian Football League.[38] He also noted that by announcing it two years in advance (unlike the original XFL, which was only announced one year in advance), there would also be more time to prepare the league to deliver a more desirable product.[39][27] McMahon said the timing of the announcement was not meant to coincide with a recent ratings downturn being experienced by the NFL, adding, "What has happened there is their business, and I'm not going to knock those guys, but I am going to learn from their mistakes as anyone would if they were tasked with reimagining a new football league."[27]

On June 5, 2018, Oliver Luck was named the league's commissioner and chief executive officer. Luck left his previous positions with the NCAA to take over the operations of the XFL.[40] Doug Whaley, most recently general manager of the Buffalo Bills, was hired as the league's senior vice president of football operations on November 8, 2018.[41] On January 22, 2019, Jeffrey Pollack was named the president and chief operating officer, coming from his previous role as the chief marketing and strategy officer and special adviser for the Los Angeles Chargers.[42]

McMahon stated that he wanted to play in existing NFL markets but did not identify potential cities specifically and did not rule out any specific cities. McMahon also did not rule out playing on artificial turf. The original XFL avoided artificial playing surfaces (as most such surfaces then were more carpet-like); however, the technology advanced considerably since 2001, with modern artificial turfs mimicking real grass more closely. John Shumway from KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh and local media from Orlando and San Diego both inquired about potential teams in their respective cities, but McMahon (while stating that "I love Pittsburgh") declined to name any cities for teams. McMahon also stated that teams would have new identities compared to recycling old identities from the old league.[43] The league sent solicitations to thirty metropolitan areas as potential locations for a team.[44]

Commissioner Luck announced the eight host cities and stadiums for the first franchises on December 5, 2018, and also announced the starting date of February 8, 2020, the weekend after Super Bowl LIV,[45] the date on which its first two games were later played.[46] Its first head coach and general manager, Dallas's Bob Stoops, was announced February 7, 2019,[47] with the coaches for Seattle (Jim Zorn), DC (Pep Hamilton), and Tampa Bay (Marc Trestman) following later in the month. The last of the inaugural head coaches, Houston's June Jones, was hired May 13 and introduced May 20.[48] The emergence of the Alliance of American Football created issues selecting cities to host XFL teams, as many potential candidates became home to AAF teams (notably Orlando, the next largest city without an NFL team and an acceptable stadium. Orlando was also one of the original XFL's most successful markets and second in attendance for the 2019 AAF season). Not wanting teams to compete against other spring football teams in the same market, the XFL chose different cities than the AAF.

The league chose to focus on placing teams in large media markets, selecting five of the top seven largest media markets in the U.S.; based on 2017 census bureau estimates, all eight 2020 XFL markets had over 2.9 million residents each (the smallest being St. Louis).[49] This was seen as a stark contrast to the other emerging spring football league, the Alliance of American Football, which primarily chose markets without NFL teams, seen as a decision to avoid competing with existing fan bases; two of the AAF's markets (Birmingham and Memphis, which both had teams in the first XFL) had populations less than half that of St. Louis's.[50] The only 2020 XFL market that did not host an NFL team was St. Louis, which in 2015 saw its NFL team (the Rams) return to Los Angeles.[51]

In May 2019, the XFL placed a bid on some of the AAF's former assets as part of that league's bankruptcy proceedings.[52] The league was outbid by former Arena Football League executive Jerry Kurz.[53] Several months earlier in December 2018, Charlie Ebersol asked Vince McMahon about merging the AAF (which had then yet to start its ultimately-aborted sole season) with the XFL. McMahon turned him down.[54]

The league signed its first player, quarterback Landry Jones, on August 15, 2019. The XFL revealed team names and logos on August 21, 2019.[55] Players were assigned to each team in the 2020 XFL Draft from October 15 to 16, with schedules released October 22 and ticket sales opening to the general public October 24. Uniforms were revealed December 3.[56][57]

In the week leading up to the kickoff, the XFL secured sponsorships from Gatorade and Anheuser-Busch.[58] The Anheuser-Busch sponsorship was used to promote Bud Light Seltzer; the "seltzer chug" became a postgame locker room tradition in part because of the product placement deal.[59] After averaging 3.1 million viewers in its first week,[60] average ratings for the XFL would drop to 1.5 million viewers during its fifth and final week.[61]

Former logo of the XFL, used for their 2020 season

Mid-season cancellation[edit]

On March 12, 2020, the league canceled the remainder of its regular-season games over concerns related to the COVID-19 pandemic; similar concerns led other major sports leagues, including the NBA, NHL, MLS, MLB, MLR seasons and NCAA to suspend or cancel games.[62] The announcement came after a Seattle Dragons player, who self-reported symptoms to his team's medical staff, had been tested for coronavirus but had not yet received his results (the unnamed player eventually tested positive).[63] Although teams only played five games, the league announced it would pay all players their base salary for the rest of the season; players who received legitimate offers from the NFL or Canadian Football League (CFL) would be allowed to sign with those teams but with a clause requiring them to return to their XFL teams if the league were able to hold its championship game.[64] At the time, the league still planned on having a 2021 season; it was exploring relocating as many as three of its teams, with the league contacting authorities in San Antonio, Texas, in early April about potentially placing a franchise there.[65] Other potential 2021 actions included moving the Tampa Bay Vipers to Orlando and the New York Guardians to a smaller New Jersey stadium, Red Bull Arena.[66]

On April 10, 2020, league president Jeffrey Pollack informed employees on a conference call that the league was suspending operations and that all employees would be terminated.[6] Three days later, on April 13, the league filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, stating that the coronavirus pandemic had deprived the league of tens of millions of dollars in revenue.[67] With the bankruptcy filing, the league put itself up for sale and began the process of seeking a buyer to maximize the value of its assets to pay off creditors.[7] Luck, who had returned home to Indiana March 13,[68] was fired from his position before the bankruptcy filing, which led him to sue McMahon personally for wrongful termination on April 21.[69]

On May 20, 2020, the league made its first actions toward resuming operations by asking authorities in St. Louis, Houston and Seattle to reinstate stadium lease agreements that it had previously been attempting to discharge in the bankruptcy.[70][71]

On May 26, 2020, court filings in the XFL bankruptcy case revealed key dates surrounding the possible sale of the league. As part of the bankruptcy agreement, McMahon agreed not to buy back the XFL.[72] The deadline to file as a bidder was set for July 30, the auction was scheduled to take place August 3 and the sale hearing was set for August 7 at 10 am.[73] However, court documents which were made public on July 28, 2020, revealed that the XFL would not sell unless they successfully negotiated a new broadcasting agreement.[74]

On July 1, 2020, ESPN filed a motion in court stating that they would be willing to consider broadcasting the XFL again under new ownership, but also made clear they would not hold any stake in XFL assets.[75] ESPN even stated that the XFL's "services, skills and talents are not fungible."[75] On July 23, 2020, Fox also filed a motion in court which signaled a willingness to broadcast the XFL as well, but only under the condition that a new league owner could negotiate a new broadcasting agreement.[76] Fox described the XFL as a "Debtor".[76] On July 28, 2020, it was revealed that ABC had joined Fox and ESPN in calling for new television deals via the court system.[77] It was also reported that ESPN, which is also connected to ABC,[77] wanted to sever ties with the XFL.[78] However, Fox was still open to continuing negotiations with the XFL, but wanted new terms for any future broadcasting agreement and was noncommittal.[78] Fox briefly considered purchasing the XFL in partnership with RedBird Capital Partners, but ultimately decided to instead launch the United States Football League in 2022.[79]

Sale and relaunch[edit]

Dany Garcia and Dwayne Johnson led the consortium that purchased the XFL out of bankruptcy in August 2020.

On August 3, 2020, it was reported that a consortium led by Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson, Dany Garcia, and Gerry Cardinale (through Cardinale's fund RedBird Capital Partners) purchased the XFL for $15 million just hours before an auction could take place; the purchase received court approval on August 7, 2020.[8][9] The XFL's parent company originally listed the league with assets and liabilities in the range of $10 million to $50 million.[61][80] Johnson, who previously worked for McMahon as WWE wrestler The Rock, played collegiate football with the Miami Hurricanes in the 1990s and as a professional with the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League; he and Garcia were married from 1997 to 2007 and have remained business partners since their divorce. Cardinale's previous investments included the New York Yankees' side projects (such as YES Network and Legends Hospitality) and Suddenlink Communications.[81] On August 21, 2020, the transition of ownership was completed, with Johnson stating "The deal is officially closed and 'the keys' to the XFL have been handed over."[82] On October 1, 2020, the XFL announced its return in spring 2022.[83] Johnson and Garcia both stated that they would rescind the policy forbidding kneeling during the national anthem and would instead openly support and encourage such behavior in an October 14 interview with Vice.[84]

CFL merger talks[edit]

On March 10, 2021, it was announced that the XFL and CFL had entered into formal talks ahead of "opportunities for the leagues to collaborate, innovate, and grow the game of football". According to XFL President & CEO Jeffrey Pollack, the league had decided to hit the pause button on their planned 2022 season, so they could focus on talks with the CFL. Both sides have declined to rule out any particular outcome from their talks which could have theoretically included a merger or acquisition.[85][86] On July 7, 2021, both leagues ended the discussions with no agreement; in the same statement, the XFL cancelled its 2022 season, intending to return in "Spring 2023".[87]

On October 14, 2021, it was revealed that the XFL and Jeffrey Pollack had parted ways, leaving the role as president vacant.[88] On November 8, 2021, in its first substantial public actions since its sale, the league announced the hiring of an executive team; five of the nine hires, including Doug Whaley, returned from the McMahon era. The league named NFL Network Analyst Marc Ross as its new EVP, as well as Russ Brandon, under whom Whaley had worked in the Buffalo Bills organization, as its new president, replacing the outgoing Pollack.[89] On December 21, 2021, the XFL announced six new additions to the football operations department; two of the six hires returned from the McMahon era.[90]

2023 season[edit]

On December 2, 2021, it was revealed on Dany Garcia's Instagram page that the 2023 XFL Season would start on February 18, 2023. It was later revealed on January 4, 2022, on Dwayne Johnson's and Dany Garcia's social media pages that training camp was set to begin on January 4, 2023.[91][92][93]

On March 11, 2022, multiple news reports indicated that the XFL had hired Reggie Barlow away from the Virginia State Trojans to serve as a head coach.[94] Virginia State confirmed Barlow had taken a job with the XFL.[95] On April 6, 2022, multiple news reports indicated that the XFL had hired their second head coach in former NFL defensive back Terrell Buckley. The reports indicated Buckley would coach a team in Orlando, Florida; Orlando was not among the eight cities that hosted an XFL team in 2020[94] but had begun discussions with the XFL during the 2020 season about relocating the Tampa Bay Vipers there.[65] Orlando had hosted the Orlando Apollos, the second top-attended team in the Alliance of American Football in 2019 and the Orlando Rage, one of the most successful teams in the original XFL in 2001.

On April 6, 2022, a report came out that sources close to the league had mentioned that XFL would be keeping five teams in their original 2020 locations (DC Defenders, St. Louis BattleHawks, Dallas Renegades, Houston Roughnecks and Seattle Dragons), following through with the Vipers proposed move to Orlando, and adding two new teams in San Antonio and Las Vegas.[96] The teams in San Antonio and Las Vegas would replace the New York Guardians and the Los Angeles Wildcats, respectively.[97] According to the same report, the league was looking to re-hire Renegades head coach Bob Stoops and potentially bring back former Vipers head coach Marc Trestman in another capacity, while noting that in regard to coaches, "the situation (was) fluid" at the time and that several other former NFL players were being considered for coaching positions.[98] Seattle and St. Louis, the XFL's two highest-attended teams in 2020, were long expected to return.[71]

On April 6, 2022, the XFL announced a new brand identity from a partnership with R/GA, including streamlining its logo to distance itself from the original XFL even more; the X in the logo represents the "intersection of dreams and opportunity".[99] Togethxr, a media and commerce company founded by athletes Alex Morgan, Sue Bird, Chloe Kim, and Simone Manuel, issued a legal notice to the XFL over similarities between Togethxr's logo and a promotional image that the XFL produced with the word "together" between a vertically split letter X. Both Togethxr's company name and the word "together" in the XFL image are rendered in all caps.[100]

On April 13, 2022, the XFL confirmed the hirings of Stoops, Buckley and Barlow, along with the league's five other head coaches, without identifying which teams they would coach. The other head coaches hired were Wade Phillips, Rod Woodson, Anthony Becht, Jim Haslett and Hines Ward.[101]

On May 17, 2022, the official kickoff date for the 2023 season was announced to be on February 18. It was also announced that all XFL games would be broadcast on ABC as well as the networks of ESPN, ESPN2 and FX as part of a deal with The Walt Disney Company that lasts until 2027.[102]

On May 18, 2022, two separate reports indicated that The Dome at America's Center had left 5 open dates anticipating the BattleHawks' return,[103] and that TDECU Stadium would host XFL games in 2023.[104]

On June 9, 2022, directors of player personnel and offensive and defensive coordinators were announced. Among the announcements was the confirmation of June Jones joining Haslett's staff, as well as Gregg Williams on Barlow's staff.[105]

A game between the DC Defenders and St. Louis BattleHawks in 2023

On July 18, 2022, Kevin Seifert announced that cities and stadiums, which would largely be on the same scale as college, NFL, and Major League Soccer (MLS) venues the league had used in 2020, would be announced by the end of July, and implied that teams that did not have trademark disputes and were returning from their home cities would retain their 2020 brands.[106]

On July 25, 2022, Johnson and Garcia held an XFL Townhall at Texas Live! where they confirmed team locations, venues, and staff allocation. All 2020 XFL teams except the Los Angeles Wildcats would return. They would be replaced by a team in San Antonio, with the Tampa Bay Vipers and New York Guardians relocating to Las Vegas and Orlando respectively.[107]

On August 8, 2022, it was first reported that the XFL was looking for new equity investors in the league. The league had retained PJT Partners to help with the search and raise $125 million in equity funding, while new investors could own up to 35%-45% of the XFL.[108]

Forbes reported in June 2023 that the XFL had spent approximately $140 million in expenses over the course of the 2023 season and earned $80 million in gross revenue, roughly $20 million of which came from its broadcast contract with ESPN. The league estimated an increase in revenue to $100 million for the 2024 season and profitability by 2026.[109] Johnson confirmed that ESPN had become a "stakeholder" in the league after sports journalist Andrew Marchand claimed the XFL was not receiving a rights fee, which Johnson stated was "not true."[110] The XFL also revealed they have capital commitments through Year 4, including ESPN's annual rights payment and sponsorship deals with Progressive Corporation and Under Armour.[111][112]

XFL–USFL merger[edit]

On March 27, 2023, Garcia said in a USA Today interview that XFL started planning for the 2024 season and declared: "absolutely, there will be a 2024 XFL football season."[112]

In May 2023, the XFL made league-wide cuts affecting up to 30 people, including key personnel CMO Janet Duch and VP of Marketing Anthony Zucconi. The league would later state it was part of a restructuring strategy "to transition into a dual full-time and seasonal-based employment model to improve efficiency and drive sustainable business performance across all markets, given the seasonal nature of the business".[113] In July 2023, league President Russ Brandon also assumed the role of CEO of the organization.[114]

In September 2023, Axios reported that the XFL was in advanced talks with the USFL to merge the two leagues prior to the start of their 2024 seasons.[115] On September 28, 2023, the XFL and USFL announced their intent to merge with details surrounding the merger to be announced at a later date.[116] The merger would also require regulatory approval.[117] In October 2023 the XFL filed a trademark application for the name "United Football League".[118] On November 30, 2023, Garcia announced via her Instagram page that the leagues had received regulatory approval for the merger and were finalizing plans for a "combined season" to begin March 30, 2024.[119] The merger was formally announced on Fox NFL Sunday on December 31, 2023,[120] with both leagues cancelling their planned season while surviving teams will play the 2024 season in the newly formed United Football League.[121]


On July 25, 2022, Johnson and Garcia held a XFL Townhall at Texas Live! in Arlington where they confirmed all 2020 XFL markets except Los Angeles, Tampa Bay, and New York would return. Los Angeles, Tampa Bay, and New York would be replaced by teams in San Antonio, Las Vegas, and Orlando respectively.[122][123]

Club[55] City/State Stadium[45] Surface Capacity† 1st season Head coach Ultimate Fate
North Division
DC Defenders Washington, D.C. Audi Field Grass 20,000 2020 Reggie Barlow Joined UFL
Seattle Sea Dragons Seattle, Washington Lumen Field Turf 68,740† 2020 Jim Haslett Folded
St. Louis BattleHawks St. Louis, Missouri The Dome at America's Center Turf 67,277† 2020 Anthony Becht Joined UFL
Vegas Vipers Las Vegas, Nevada Cashman Field Grass 12,500 2020 Anthony Blevins Folded
South Division
Arlington Renegades Arlington, Texas Choctaw Stadium Grass 25,000 2020 Bob Stoops Joined UFL
Houston Roughnecks Houston, Texas TDECU Stadium Turf 40,000† 2020 Wade Phillips Branding transferred
Orlando Guardians Orlando, Florida Camping World Stadium Turf 60,219† 2020 Terrell Buckley Folded
San Antonio Brahmas San Antonio, Texas Alamodome Turf 64,000† 2023 Hines Ward Joined UFL
Defunct Franchises
Club City/State Stadium Surface Only season Head coach
Los Angeles Wildcats[55] Carson, California Dignity Health Sports Park[45] Grass 2020 Winston Moss
Team 9[a] Arlington, Texas Globe Life Park in Arlington Grass Bart Andrus[124]

†Full stadium capacity. The large stadiums with multiple decks only open the lower bowl for XFL games, similar to the former AAF games and MLS matches played in large stadiums. The XFL has a target stadium size of 30,000 seats so that in the event of playoff games, the upper decks can be opened to increase capacity.[125]

Locations of current & former teams for the 2024 XFL season, (South Division – red; North Division – blue; Former – black)


" * " indicates Championship Season
Deactivated Teams in grey

Rule changes[edit]

The XFL ran test games with community colleges in Mississippi, Your Call Football, and The Spring League during their spring 2019 seasons, to experiment with rule changes. It hired Dean Blandino as its head of officiating.[126][127] On December 7, 2022, the league confirmed it would be keeping the rulebook used in 2020.[128]


First ever XFL kickoff between the DC Defenders and Seattle Dragons at Audi Field.

The league has an active interest in reviving the kickoffs as an element of the game, in contrast to the former AAF, which eliminated kickoffs outright, and the NFL and college football, both of which imposed rules minimizing the impact of the kickoff in the mid-2010s to improve player safety.[129] Many of these kickoff rules were adapted from rules created by The Spring League's predecessor, the Fall Experimental Football League:[130]

  • The spot of the kickoff is set at the kicking team's 30-yard line.[131] (The NFL used the 30-yard line as its standard from 1994 to 2010; the current NFL and college standard is the 35-yard line.) However, members of the kicking team (excluding the kicker) line up at the receiving team's 35-yard line and blockers on the receiving team must line up at their 30-yard line. Only the kicker and returner(s) can move until the ball is either caught or three seconds after it hits the ground.
  • Kickoffs that go out of bounds, or fall short of the receiving team's 20-yard line,[132] come to the kicking team's 45-yard line.[133] (The NFL and NCAA only require a kick travel 10 yards; kicks out of bounds are placed at the receiving team's 40-yard line.)
  • The XFL uses two different types of touchbacks. A major touchback occurs when a kick travels into the end zone in the air, which results in the receiving team taking possession at the 35. A minor touchback occurs when the ball bounces into the end zone, which results in the receiving team taking possession at the 15. These rules discourage either team from purposefully taking a touchback.
  • Teams can request to attempt an onside kick under more conventional kickoff rules. If a team opts for an onside kick, the ball must travel at least ten yards before it can be recovered by the kicking team (as with other leagues) but may not travel more than 20 yards downfield in the air from the spot of the kick, to prevent the formation from being used as a loophole.[134] Beginning in 2023, a team that scores in the fourth quarter has the option of taking the "Fourth and 15" option in lieu of a kickoff, retaining the ball on their own 25-yard line and having one opportunity to reach their 40 and get a new first down.[128]


  • The XFL does not allow gunners; all players on a punting team must remain on or behind the line of scrimmage until the ball is kicked.[135] (This is a carryover from the original XFL, although that league had scrapped the rule midway through its only season.)
  • The coffin corner punt is treated as a touchback and brought to the 35-yard line. The attempts to neutralize punt coverage are made to encourage more fourth-down conversions; Luck conceded halfway through the inaugural season that the effort was largely unsuccessful, as coaches continued to punt as usual.[37]
  • The same touchback rules for kickoffs also apply to punts.

Points after touchdown[edit]

The conventional extra point kick was replaced with a scrimmage play, varying in point value depending on how far the touchdown-scoring team chooses to take the snap from the goal line: a two-yard attempt scores a single point, a five-yard attempt two points, and a ten-yard attempt three points.[136] (This rule is also a carryover from the original XFL, which added the rule only for the playoffs. The Stars Football League also used the rule during its existence.) In the event the defense secures a turnover and returns the ball for a touchdown, the defensive team scores the same number of points as the offense was aiming to score. In the event of a defensive penalty during the conversion attempt, the defense is penalized half the distance to the goal but the value of the attempt remains the same as it was prior to the penalty being enforced.

Double-forward pass[edit]

Teams can attempt two forward passes on the same play, so long as the ball never crosses the line of scrimmage before the second pass. This also means that if a pass is batted back towards the quarterback, he is eligible to throw it again; Landry Jones of Dallas successfully utilized this rule in a game.

Fumbles into the defensive end zone[edit]

Beginning in 2023, if an offensive player fumbles the ball from outside the end zone and it goes through the end zone without being recovered, the offense retains possession at the point of the fumble (if the fumble occurred on fourth down, final possession is determined by whether the ball carrier reached the line to gain before the fumble), consistent with the rule for other forward fumbles. At most other levels (except the USFL, which adopted the same rule at the same time), the team on offense loses possession of the ball and the opponent is awarded possession at its own 20-yard line.[137]


Overtime is decided by a three-round shootout of two-point conversions similar to a penalty shootout in soccer or ice hockey. Such a shootout had never been attempted in organized football at the time the rule was proposed; in April 2019, the NCAA adopted a similar concept for games that reach a fifth overtime starting with the 2019 FBS season.[138][139] Unlike other football leagues, a coin toss is not used to determine who is on offense first; instead, the visiting team is on offense first and home team on defense first for each round, similar to baseball. The defense is not able to score, as should a turnover occur, the play would be dead.[132] Defensive penalties result in the ball moving up to the 1-yard line, while any subsequent defensive penalty on any play, even in future rounds, result in a score awarded to the offensive team. Pre-snap offensive penalties result in the ball being respotted under regular rules, while post-snap offensive penalties result in a loss of down and no score. If both teams remain tied after three rounds, multiple rounds of conversions will be played until one team succeeds, thus ensuring that no game can end in a draw.[132] The overtime procedure was originally to be five rounds in 2020 had it been needed (none of the 20 games that season ended regulation with both teams tied) before it was reduced to three rounds prior to 2023.[128]

Clock changes[edit]

  • Outside of the two-minute warning, the clock runs continuously. During this time, the clock only stops during a change of possession.[140] This reverses after the two-minute warning (which the XFL uses), after which the clock stops after all plays from scrimmage[141] until the ball is spotted and reverts to NFL timing rules otherwise, stopping after incomplete passes, advancing the ball out of bounds and spiking the football. (Arena football has long used a continuous clock with even fewer stoppages; Canadian football does not use a continuous clock but stops the clock after all plays from scrimmage following that code's three-minute warning.)
  • As of 2023, the play clock is 35 seconds from the end of the previous play, same as the 2001 XFL and AAF.[128] In 2020, the XFL play clock ran 25 seconds long measured from the spotting of the ball, roughly the same as the NCAA rule for plays when the clock is stopped. (This is five seconds longer than the CFL rule, which is 20 seconds from the spotting of the ball. The XFL's efforts to speed up spotting were aimed to make the two lengths of time nearly the same, 30 to 32 seconds overall.) The NFL standard is 40 seconds from the end of the previous play, also used during the NCAA during plays when the clock is running.[136] In conjunction with this rule, the XFL has a one-way radio in all offensive players' helmets to allow the offensive coordinator to run a no-huddle offense and call plays directly to all of the players from the sidelines. This eliminates the need for a huddle.[142]
  • Instant replay reviews are limited to 60 seconds.[143] In 2020, there were no coach's challenges; the sky judge originated all reviews automatically. In 2023, as an experiment, the league allowed a single coach's challenge for each team, which can challenge any ruling or penalty, including those that cannot be challenged in college or other professional leagues.[128] They risk losing a timeout if the call stands; they get an extra challenge if call is reversed.

Officiating changes[edit]

  • The XFL expands on the NCAA system of eight on-field officials (which includes the center judge not used professionally in either the NFL or CFL) including a ninth official — a specialized "ball judge" whose only duty is to quickly spot the ball after the end of the previous play. By utilizing the ball judge, who wears a red hat to differentiate himself from the other officials, the league aims to have a ball-spotting time of between five and seven seconds.[31][131]
  • A new rule proposal would add a "tap penalty", imposed on individual players instead of entire teams.[144] Players who commit a foul which is not serious enough to warrant a penalty flag will be sent off the field for one play. This type of enforcement will keep the game moving quickly without allowing players to break the rules. Unlike the almost analogous power play used in ice hockey, the offending team would be allowed to substitute another player.
  • The defunct Alliance of American Football introduced the sky judge, an additional official in the press booth for the sole purpose of reviewing on-field decisions. Luck had said he thought this was a great innovation to the game and, in December 2019, confirmed the XFL would use the sky judge.[143] Robert Lu, who served as the AAF's sky judge in 2019, continues in that capacity with the new UFL.[145]
  • Penalty enforcement placed priority on fouls that pose a threat to player safety, with less emphasis on procedural violations so as not to slow down the game with unnecessary penalty calls.[32] Officials also had access to both teams' play calls.[142] The sky judge had full access to the officials' microphones.[143]
  • All six of the XFL's officiating crews had at least one woman.[146]
  • The league used Lazser Down chain crew equipment, which uses wideband radio waves to precisely measure the spotting of the ball.[147]


The football used in XFL games is the traditional brown color used in most other leagues, in contrast to the 2001 XFL's black and red ball. Each team has its own balls for use in home games, marked with the XFL and home team logo.[148] For the 2020 XFL season, a two-tone "X" in the home team's colors adorned each point and runs through the middle of each panel of the ball, intended to allow the receivers to track the ball easily in lieu of striping. Five balls, each with a different texture of leather, were tested during the Summer Showcases and The Spring League.[149] The winning texture, a custom patent-pending design known as "X-Pebble", was released November 25, 2019.[150] The design was created and is manufactured by Team Issue of Dallas, Texas, in what became their first professional football contract.[151]

The XFL announced in November 2022 that it would no longer use the "X-Pebble" ball, and debuted a new official league ball, which uses the Horween leather used in other professional leagues and features the signature of Dany Garcia, XFL Chairwoman. The ball continues to be manufactured in Dallas.[152]


The league used the amateur football (high school and college) and CFL standard of one foot in bounds for a complete forward pass.[153]

  • Offensive linemen are allowed to advance up to two yards downfield on a forward pass.[131]
  • At the start of the game, the designated home team automatically got to choose to kick off, receive, or defer to the second half. There was no coin toss traditionally seen in other football leagues, or any opening scramble that was a hallmark of the original XFL. In the event of overtime, the visiting team was given the choice of going first or second or selecting which end zone to attack (with the home team getting the other choice).
  • Players were allowed to wear colored or decorated visors.[154]
  • There was a 10-minute halftime. Only the Championship Game had a 30-minute halftime.


These were rule changes which the league had considered using, though they were either not officially tested or were discarded in preseason testing:

  • Previous proposals for the kickoff had the ball moved as far back as the 15-yard line, to make touchbacks all but impossible.[32]
  • The original proposal for the multiple forward pass rule would have treated any pass behind the line of scrimmage as a lateral pass. Luck stated that this would also have the added benefit of simplifying officiating, as he surmised it would be easier to judge whether a person was behind a fixed line of scrimmage compared to whether a pass thrown by a moving player was traveling along a parallel line.[155] The XFL ran test plays with double forward passes during its rules testing in Mississippi. Under this rule, all players behind the line of scrimmage would have been eligible receivers, including those on the offensive line, and thus it would eliminate the "illegal touching of a forward pass" penalty at other levels of the game.[36] Offensive linemen would still have been prohibited from advancing downfield before a forward pass that crosses the line of scrimmage is in the air. (McMahon had proposed a similar but broader rule change during the run of the original XFL, which would have made all players eligible receivers, but the league's coaches rejected the proposal as too radical of a change to make mid-season.)[156] It also would have had the intended consequence of employing utility players who play multiple positions and have a broader range of skills.[141] In November 2019, an ESPN.com article noted that the rule had been thrown out before the season began, and that offensive linemen would still not be allowed to touch forward passes, regardless of where the ball was.[31]
  • The league proposed using a wider one-yard neutral zone used by the CFL. (The NFL, college, and high school standard is the length of the football, approximately 11 inches.) This rule became less likely after testing, as the league feared it would make short-yardage situations too easy to convert for the offensive team.[36]
  • The original XFL allowed for forward motion by a single backfield player (normally, American football allows for only lateral or backward motion by one backfielder, and the CFL allows all backfielders to move wherever they desire). The XFL had briefly mentioned they might use this rule again.
  • During the announcement of the league, McMahon suggested the XFL may eliminate halftime completely. This was eventually abandoned, and instead, there is, as mentioned in the rules above, a ten-minute halftime period.
  • A proposed rule used in the earliest preseason tests would have prohibited offensive linemen (excluding the snapper) from putting their hand on the ground, outlawing the three-point stance used at all other levels of the game.[127]
  • The XFL had announced that there would be no fair catches and that a five-yard halo rule would instead be used; both of these rules are used in the CFL and were prominent rules in the original XFL.[127] The XFL legalized the fair catch in the official rulebook while noting that the other rule changes were intended to make its use uncommon.[157] The league did allow the use of a fair catch kick.[158]



The 2020 XFL Draft was held October 15 and 16, 2019, via conference call. Seventy-one players were allocated to each team in separate position drafts: one marquee quarterback allocated by the league to each team, ten skill positions, ten offensive linemen, ten defensive linemen and/or linebackers, ten defensive backs, and thirty players of any position. Due to the structure of the draft, there was no true first overall selection. A supplemental draft was held in late November.[159]


The XFL 2023 draft took place at the UFC Apex in Enterprise, Nevada,[160] while the player pool consisted of 1,700 eligible players, after XFL personnel have evaluated nearly 6,000 players in seven XFL showcases,[161][162][163] NFL training camps and tryouts.[164] Of those, 528 players advanced to the preseason rosters.[165]

The 2023 XFL Draft followed the same basic layout as the 2020 XFL Draft: starting quarterbacks were allocated in a separate process and revealed November 15, while the remaining positions were separated by position.[166] It followed a "snake" format, with each position phase following a random order set prior to the draft, and that order reversing between odd and even rounds of the phase.[167][168]

2023 offseason (pre-merger)[edit]

In an interview after the 2023 season, XFL's Senior Vice President of Player Personnel Doug Whaley disclosed that the league planned a "rookie" draft scheduled for June 16, 2023, and would conduct "multiple drafts" in the fall of 2023.[169]

Season structure[edit]

The XFL has a 10-week regular season, with each team hosting 5 home games, and no bye week.[170] This is followed by a two-week post-season, featuring the top two teams in each division competing in a single-elimination bracket. The league is split into two divisions of four teams. Each team plays all three teams in their division twice, once each of home and road. Each team also plays the remaining teams in the league once. This is the same schedule model used by the original XFL and by the former AAF. Both leagues followed an Eastern/Western division,[136] which the XFL also confirmed during its Summer Showcase in Dallas. The XFL East includes New York, DC, Tampa, and St. Louis while the West includes Seattle, Los Angeles, Dallas, and Houston.[171]

Four games are played per week during the regular season, consisting mainly of afternoon/primetime doubleheaders played on Saturdays and Sundays. One game per week in the final two weeks of the regular season is tentatively scheduled to be played on Thursday night instead of Saturday. The playoffs, despite initial reports stating they would use the same crossover approach used by the 2001 XFL, with each division's regular-season winner facing the other division's runner-up,[171] instead use a division championship model, with the top two teams in the division playing each other. The 2020 XFL Championship Game was scheduled to be played at TDECU Stadium in Houston.


Each XFL team in 2020 had 52 players regular-season roster, far more than the 38 in the original XFL and comparable to the size of the 53-man NFL rosters; 46 of those 52 are active on any given game day.[172] The league carried 51 players, with 46 active on game day in 2023.

XFL did not have the same eligibility requirements for players as the NFL.[173] Currently the NFL requires all players to be at least 3 years removed from high school to be eligible for a team's roster.[174] Almost all prospects then participate in NCAA football for the 3-year waiting period. This eligibility requirement is an agreement between the NCAA and the NFL. The NFL, in exchange for not signing young players who would ordinarily play in the NCAA, is allowed nearly unlimited access to scout and recruit college players. With the XFL not using the same set of requirements for players, there was the possibility the league would sign players who are less than 3 years out of high school. The XFL also did not rule out signing players who play college football when it was first announced in 2019, something the NFL has not done since 1925, which (former commissioner) Luck said was to be considered on a case-by-case basis;[32] In the league's inaugural season, safety Kenny Robinson, who had run into eligibility issues that led to him being expelled from college, chose to play in the XFL instead of transferring to another college; Robinson was a success in the XFL and was ultimately selected in the 2020 NFL Draft.[175]

In 2020 the league's primary target for players was veteran backups (such as the kind Luck developed in his time in NFL Europe, citing Kurt Warner, Brad Johnson and Jake Delhomme as examples) who may not be getting the repetitions needed to develop properly on NFL scout teams and practice squads.[32] Due to budget concerns and an unwillingness to antagonize the NFL, it did not get into bidding wars for marquee players, but didn't intend to be just a "developmental" league to the NFL, rather a "'standalone' and 'complement' league".[32][176] In contrast, the 2023 season of the XFL saw the league take a much lower emphasis on professional experience when selecting its quarterbacks, as it noted that the veterans "washed out early" compared to the younger, less experienced talent and that its 2020 breakout star—P. J. Walker—was better known at the time for bouncing on and off the Indianapolis Colts practice squad before joining the XFL and ultimately landing the starting position with the Carolina Panthers.[165] The new ownership also embraced more of a "developmental" mentality when they signed a collaboration agreement with the NFL[177] and introduced the "54th man" slogan, which refer to the NFL 53-men roster limit.[178][179]

The XFL did not employ separate general managers for each team; instead, each team's head coach doubled as his team's respective general manager. Each team had a team president.[129] The league did not use a territorial draft and teams were not restricted to the locations from which they could select players; this differs from the Alliance of American Football and other alternative football leagues.[180]

Current NFL players[edit]

Notable players[edit]


2020 season[edit]

In 2020, the XFL used a standard form contract paying $2,725 per week for each player on the active roster, $1,040 of which is guaranteed. A $2,222 victory bonus is paid to the players on each game's winning team; this feature is a carryover from the original XFL. The contracts expire at the end of the season, freeing players to sign with any other league.[181] Players are also paid $1,040 per week during the preseason and through the playoffs if their team does not qualify.[172] Starting quarterbacks make an annual salary of up to $495,000,[172] with the average XFL quarterback earning $125,000.[182]

Plans were for the league to offer contracts between one and three years in length. Signing for a longer term would make the player eligible for a loyalty bonus above and beyond their tiered salary; in return, the player would not be allowed to play in any other league during the spring, summer, or autumn months, nor was the contract guaranteed.[183] The overall salary cap was approximately $4,000,000 per team.[32] The XFL chose a more flexible salary structure so as not to overpay for the lower ends of the roster and to be more competitive for better starting quarterbacks.[129]

Head coaches were eligible for up to a $500,000 salary, with each team having a football operations staff of 25 people.[184] In contrast to the original XFL, players' health insurance is covered by the league.[28] Players did not form a labor union by the time play commenced, thus league policies are not subject to collective bargaining, which could have helped prevent work stoppages like a lockout or strike.

2023 season[edit]

In 2023, the XFL used a standard form contract paying $800 per week in training camp, $1,500 per game week where the player is inactive, and $5,000 per game week where the player is active. A $1,000 victory bonus is paid to the players on each game's winning team, including inactive players. The active roster is 51,[185] with 45 being active on game day. Starting quarterbacks were again be eligible for a higher salary, which was yet to be determined as of July 2022; the highest paid quarterback in the league for 2023 was reputed to be Vegas Vipers quarterback Brett Hundley, who was paid $200,000 for his time with the Vipers,[186] while AJ McCarron and Jordan Ta'amu both made over $100,000.[187] The average annual salary for a season long active XFL player was thus $59,000, plus free health insurance including vision and dental, as well as room and board in the league's hub at Arlington, Texas throughout the season, valued at approximately $20,000.[188] Players also won $8,000 for winning their conference championship and $12,500 for winning the league championship.[187]

On March 10, 2023, the United Steelworkers announced that it had received a petition from players in the XFL for a vote on unionizing the league's players. The USW has an affiliation with the United Football Players Association, whose founder Kenneth Farrow II plays for the Arlington Renegades.[189][190] On April 19, the XFL players decided against joining the union by vote of 124 to 73.[191]

2024 planned season[edit]

After the 2023 season concluded, Doug Whaley, XFL's Senior Vice President of Player Personnel, said in an interview that the league delaying contracts for 2024 season due to a potential unionization of players from "another entity" (not the USW),[169] later revealed to be the National Football League Players Association.[192] Russ Giglio, Senior Director, Player Administration and Officiating Operations, also mentioned that 2023 season players has a mutual 'opt-in' agreement: "The players that finish the season have a mutual option with the team to sign back. The team wants the player back, the player wants to come back, we’ll sign a contract".[169] On December 29, 2023, XFL players were notified by Whaley that their current contracts and health benefits would expire on December 31, 2023.[193]


2020 season[edit]

The XFL ran test games with community colleges in Mississippi, Your Call Football (YCF), and The Spring League (TSL) during their spring 2019 seasons, to experiment with rule changes.[194] The XFL even had a preliminary discussion with TSL about their league becoming an "Official 'D-League' of the XFL".[195]

In 2019, Stephen Austin's American National Combines conducted the league's "Summer Showcase combines". Austin directed eight Showcases in each of the league's eight team locations in June and the second week of July 2019.[196][197]

2023 season[edit]

Under McMahon's ownership, the XFL explicitly avoided any minor league developmental partnership with the NFL or any other league, so as not to lose control of its personnel decisions.[176] This policy changed in 2022 when the XFL signed a collaboration agreement with the NFL to "experiment with proposed rules, test new equipment and develop prospective officials and coaches and explore new ways to address player safety".[198][199] Johnson also said that "the XFL specifically designed its schedule to give its players the best chance of latching on with an NFL team in May",[112] while Cardinal stated that "the minor league analogy is valid, that's an important part of this."[2]

The league had a player personnel partnership with the Indoor Football League, with the IFL functioning as its de facto minor league,[11][200] while it also has a partnership with the NFL Alumni Academy[201] to develop potential players which state that every player graduated from the program has an "opt-in" option for XFL contract.[202] In an interview after the 2023 season Senior Vice President of Player Personnel, Doug Whaley, said the XFL don't know if the partnership with the NFLAA will continue: "We haven’t heard if they’re going to do it again. So we’re waiting to see what they said".[169]

The XFL used American National Combines (ANC) for "supplemental showcase" for players on the "XFL waitlist" for the 2023 season.[203] On March 20, 2023, the league announced it has named ANC as the "official regional combines partner", with the ANC running a year-round scouting event, allowing the XFL to "identify more high-quality and talented players".[204][205]

The XFL also had a partnership agreement with the Under the Lights Flag Football,[206] an international youth flag football league for boys and girls from kindergarten through 12th grade. The two entities also co-hosted the first-ever Youth Flag Football World Championship in San Antonio, Texas on December 27–30, 2022.[207]


All-time XFL leaders
Leader Team Player Record Years in XFL
Passing Yards Seattle Sea Dragons Ben DiNucci 2,671 passing yards 2023
Passing Touchdowns St. Louis Battlehawks A. J. McCarron 24 passing touchdowns 2023
Rushing Yards DC Defenders Abram Smith 791 rushing yards 2023
Rushing Touchdowns DC Defenders

Arlington Renegades

Abram Smith

De'Veon Smith

7 rushing touchdowns 2023


Receiving Yards Seattle Sea Dragons Jahcour Pearson 670 receiving yards 2023
Receiving Touchdowns Houston Roughnecks Cam Phillips 9 receiving touchdowns 2020
Receptions Seattle Sea Dragons Jahcour Pearson 60 receptions 2023
Tackles San Antonio Brahmas Jordan Williams 51 tackles 2023
Sacks Houston Roughnecks Trent Harris 9.5 sacks 2023
Interceptions Houston Roughnecks Ajene Harris 5 interceptions 2020-2023
Coaching wins DC Defenders Reggie Barlow 9 wins 2023
XFL Attendance Records[208]
Year Week Team Attendance
2023 4 St. Louis Battlehawks 38,310
2023 5 St. Louis Battlehawks 35,868
2023 8 St. Louis Battlehawks 35,167
2023 9 St. Louis Battlehawks 33,142
2023 10 St. Louis Battlehawks 33,034
2020 3 St. Louis Battlehawks 29,554
2020 2 Seattle Dragons 29,172
2020 4 St. Louis Battlehawks 27,527
2023 1 San Antonio Brahmas 24,245
2023 Championship XFL Championship in San Antonio 22,754


In February 2020, the XFL announced that DraftKings would be the official daily fantasy sports provider of the league and an "authorized gaming operator".[209] McMahon has a minority investment in the company.[210]

Luck stated he anticipated mobile sports betting to be legal in many states by the 2020 launch date, much like it is in New Jersey, and hoped to integrate legal sports betting as part of the XFL.[211] Every state hosting an XFL team, except Florida which has an existing law banning sports betting, has either introduced or passed legislation for the legalization of sports betting. "California also has a pending voter referendum that could legalize sports betting."[212] In December 2019, Luck stated he was cooperating with the Las Vegas sportsbooks in providing official information for betting purposes.[143]

Both of the XFL's main broadcast partners in 2020 have official partnerships with gambling operators, with ESPN partnered with Caesars Entertainment to use its sportsbook information during telecasts (including displaying lines and the over/under directly on the score bug in-game—a feature that ESPN retained as sole rightsholder in the 2023 season),[213] and Fox being a partner with Flutter Entertainment on Fox Bet.[214][215] The league also announced that it is partnering with Genius Sports on an integrity program to "protect the league from illegal activity". The agreement includes monitoring of all pre-game and live betting markets, including alerts and analysis of odds movements.[216]

The XFL also has an in-house gaming app service called PlayXFL where fans can win cash prizes for correctly predicting the exact score of select XFL games each week. Additionally, fans attending an XFL game can opt-in to play a 4-Question Pick'em contest about the game they are attending for the chance to win prizes, including merchandise and tickets, from the applicable home team.[217]


In January 2019, Sports Business Journal reported that the XFL was desiring that the majority of games air on broadcast television and was in preliminary talks with ABC/ESPN and Fox Sports as potential broadcast partners.[218] The XFL confirmed these arrangements on May 6, 2019, under a three-year deal. XFL games were split primarily among ABC, Fox, ESPN, and FS1.[219] ESPN would broadcast the western division championship and the XFL championship, while one game each was scheduled for ESPN2 and FS2.[219]

The Wall Street Journal reported via inside sources that neither the broadcasters or the league in 2020 made any upfront payments, but that the XFL sold the in-game sponsorship inventory. The networks covered the production costs, held the digital rights to their telecasts, and the right to sell the conventional commercial inventory during their games.[220][221][222] Although the networks had ultimate control over the game presentation, McMahon and his longtime media man Joe Cohen brought back many of the features from the original XFL such as the skycam and the on-field "Bubba Cams", along with some innovations introduced in the AAF.[223] The broadcast partners are given access to all on-field microphones, including the coach-to-player radios, referees and the sky judge.[214] As with the original XFL, sideline reporters are given full access to coaches and players for interviews at all times.[224] In terms of financial investment into the telecast, ESPN lead play-by-play man Steve Levy described it as "not getting the Monday Night Football treatment (...) but it's pretty close."[224] Levy was eventually named the new Monday Night Football play-by-play announcer for the NFL's 2020 season.

Upon the announcement of the new XFL, McMahon stated that he aimed to leverage streaming media as part of broadcasting arrangements and argued that fans wanted "totally different ways" to see the game, rather than having digital streams be only a straight simulcast of the television broadcast. The XFL would not consider viewership to be a metric of its success; McMahon argued that "to me the landscape has changed in so many different ways. Just look at technology and companies like Facebook and Amazon bidding for sports rights. Even if ratings go down, there's no denying that live sports rights continue to be valuable and continue to deliver."[27] Luck stated that broadcasts would not feature the same sports entertainment gimmicks as the original XFL, explaining that "in football, you don't need that bravado and swagger and flair, because it's always there."[220]

Curt Menefee (host of Fox NFL Sunday) and Joel Klatt (lead analyst for Fox's Big Noon Saturday) served as Fox's lead XFL broadcast team in 2020.[225] Fox also auditioned Greg Olsen for the second XFL broadcast team in October 2019 by having him call an NFL game during his bye week from the Carolina Panthers[226] and eventually hired him as color commentator for the second broadcast team, which features Kevin Burkhardt on play-by-play.[227] Brock Huard was the sideline reporter for Fox's lead broadcast while Jenny Taft covered the sidelines for their second broadcast team. In week 5, New Orleans Saints star Cameron Jordan served as a guest sideline reporter for Fox's lead broadcast.[228] ESPN and ABC's top team for 2020 featured Steve Levy (#2 announcer for Monday Night Football and lead studio host/play-by-play man for ESPN's NHL coverage), former Alabama Crimson Tide quarterback Greg McElroy, Tom Luginbill, and Dianna Russini, and their second team included Tom Hart (lead announcer for ESPN's SEC Network) and Joey Galloway.[229] Former Indianapolis Colts punter Pat McAfee served as week 1 sideline reporter for the second team but withdrew after the first week out of discomfort in the role; he was replaced on the sidelines by Cole Cubelic (who works with Hart on SEC Network as a sideline reporter) and Molly McGrath in weeks 2–5. In lieu of network-employed rules analysts, Dean Blandino (one of Fox's NFL and College Football rules expert), head of officiating for the XFL is made available to analyze replay reviews and officials' rulings.[214]

On February 6, 2020, the XFL announced a partnership with iHeartMedia and Vegas Stats & Information Network (VSiN), under which iHeartRadio streams gambling-centric "BetCast" coverage of two games per-week.[230] A league-produced pregame show was released before each game day on the XFL's official YouTube channel. Jonathan Coachman and Alyse Ashton serve as the co-hosts.[231]

On May 17, 2022, it was announced that ESPN parent company The Walt Disney Company had acquired five-years exclusive rights to the XFL beginning in the 2023 season. All games are broadcast by either ESPN, ESPN2, ABC, or FX.[232] The deal is worth between $100 million and $150 million.[233] Some refute the idea and claimed that the XFL is not getting a rights fee from ESPN, and the agreement is a rights agreement for the games to be on the air, but without payment. In a tweet, Dwayne Johnson responded to the claimed and said: "ESPN is a stakeholder in XFL. Long term partners", implying that ESPN are partners in the league.[234] Ben Fischer of Sports Business Journal confirmed in March 2024 that The Walt Disney Company had purchased a stake in the XFL, a stake that carried over after the merger into the UFL.[79]

International broadcasters[edit]

ESPN Latin America simulcasts select ESPN Deportes games through Disney-owned FOX Sports 2, except Argentina.[citation needed] ESPN International's ESPN Player service streams XFL games in Europe and MENA.[235] ESPN's British partner BT Sport also airs XFL games.[209][236][237] In Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, Sport1 and its pay-TV channel Sport1+ is broadcasting the XFL.[238][239]

In Canada, the XFL is broadcast in English solely online through TSN+, a subscription over-the-top service owned by TSN. Games carried on ABC are available on traditional television in portions of the country via antenna, cable and satellite systems.[240]


XFL Champions
Date Winning Team Score Losing Tean Score Stadium Location MVP Attendance Network Viewership
April 26, 2020 Canceled amid the COVID-19 pandemic TDECU Stadium Houston, Texas ESPN
May 13, 2023 Arlington Renegades 35 DC Defenders 26 Alamodome San Antonio, Texas Luis Perez 22,754 ABC 1.40 million

Reception and viewership[edit]

2020 season[edit]

The XFL received mostly positive reviews on opening weekend. Conor Orr of Sports Illustrated credited the league with generating positive social media buzz without relying on a single viral event (as the Alliance of American Football, which Orr had eviscerated in a three-part series for SI less than a year prior, had done with a singular hit on AAF quarterback Mike Bercovici). Orr summarized the XFL as "on-the-rails, appropriately-quirky spring football."[241] Michael David Smith of Profootballtalk.com noted that "there was a lot to like" about the league.[242]

In a mixed review for USA Today, Lorenzo Reyes wrote that "There will be much that the league will want to learn from as it tries to grow."[243] Another mixed review from Ben Kercheval at CBS Sports stated, "While Saturday provided fans with the type of excitement they were hoping to get from the league, Sunday was evidence that start-up leagues still face uphill battles getting watchable football on television."[244]

Viewership for the first week of play averaged 3.1 million, but by Week 4 the average had decreased to 1.4 million.[60] This led Smith of Profootballtalk.com to conclude that if "the XFL settles into the range of around 1 million to 2 million viewers per game and stabilizes throughout the season, the league would seem to be viable. If ratings continue to drop as the season progresses, that would spell trouble for the upstart league."[245]

2023 season[edit]

The XFL's second return to play began with a game between the Vegas Vipers and Arlington Renegades on Saturday, February 18, 2023.[246] The first week of games received tentative praise, with Bill Shea of The Athletic grading the return a B− in an article titled, "I watched the XFL 3.0 so you don't have to (but you should!): The key takeaways."[247] However, TV ratings declined in comparison to the XFL's 2020 debut. 1.54 million people watched the first game in 2023, down from the 3.3 million who watched the first game aired on ABC in 2020.[248] Week 2's ratings again lagged as the games were the first to not air on broadcast television.[249]

On March 12, the St. Louis BattleHawks eclipsed their own previously set attendance record from 2020 with 38,310 spectators at their first home game of the season, a game against the Arlington Renegades.[250]

After the 2023 XFL Championship Game ESPN's vice president of programming and acquisitions, Tim Reed, expressed satisfaction with the viewership results.[251]


  1. ^ Team 9 was a specialized team acting as a hybrid farm team and practice squad for the league, and was inspired by a similar scheme employed by NFL Europe. It held a maximum of 40 players at a time and was meant to prepare players for calling up to one of the XFL's 8 teams to fill roster vacancies due to injuries of other players or if the teams see a player as a "hidden gem". The team shared practice facilities and support staff with the Dallas Renegades but maintained its own coaching staff; its head coach was Bart Andrus.


  1. ^ Perry, Mark (August 3, 2020). "More Details On The Rock Purchase Of The XFL, How Many Bidders". XFL News Hub. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "Why this time might be different for the XFL". Axios. March 29, 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2023.
  3. ^ Knowles, Bryan (October 31, 2022). "XFL Announces Teams for 2023 Return". Football Outsiders. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  4. ^ a b Florio, Mike (August 16, 2022). "XFL hires Jordan Paler as league wide director of quarterback development". NBC sports. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  5. ^ Littleton, Cynthia (April 13, 2020). "Vince McMahon's XFL Files for Bankruptcy Amid Pandemic Shutdown". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  6. ^ a b "XFL suspends operations, lays off employees and has no plans for 2021 season". ESPN. April 10, 2020. Retrieved April 10, 2020.
  7. ^ a b "XFL Files for Bankruptcy, Up for Sale". The Hollywood Reporter. April 13, 2020. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  8. ^ a b "THE ROCK BUYS THE XFL FOR $15 MILLION". RingsideNews.com. August 2, 2020. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  9. ^ a b Kerr, Jeff (August 2, 2020). "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson buys XFL for $15 million with partners RedBird Capital and Dany Garcia". CBS Sports. Retrieved August 2, 2020.
  10. ^ Knowles, Bryan (October 31, 2022). "XFL Announces Teams for 2023 Return". Football Outsiders. Retrieved November 21, 2022.
  11. ^ a b "XFL & IFL Announce Player Personnel Partnership" (Press release). XFL. October 12, 2022.
  12. ^ "XFL and USFL Announce Intent to Merge". XFL.com. September 28, 2023. Retrieved September 28, 2023.
  13. ^ "USFL/XFL Merger Has Cleared Federal Review — Announcement Coming Soon". Pro Football Newsroom. November 30, 2023.
  14. ^ "Newly formed United Football League sets 8 markets, tabs coaches". ESPN. January 2024.
  15. ^ ""This Was The XFL" Director Charlie Ebersol On Why The XFL Failed–But Might Work Now". Fast Company. February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  16. ^ a b "Will the XFL actually be making a return? WWE is not exactly denying the rumors". CBS Sports. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  17. ^ "XFL stops going to extremes". NY Daily News. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  18. ^ "XFL Is Down for the Count". ABC News. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  19. ^ Johnson, Mike (May 16, 2013). "5/16 This day in history". PWInsider. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  20. ^ a b c Draper, Kevin (2018). "Vince McMahon Says He Will Revive the X.F.L., With a Very Different Look". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  21. ^ Holloway, Daniel (February 3, 2017). "'This Was the XFL' Director on Vince McMahon, Concussions and Whether League Could Make a Comeback". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
  22. ^ Bixenspan, David (December 19, 2017). "Timing Of Trademarks Suggests "New XFL" May Be A Response To NFL Protests". Deadspin.com. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  23. ^ Eight-Team XFL Competitor Plans to Launch in February 2019, Dan Gartland, Sports Illustrated, March 20, 2018
  24. ^ "AAF operations suspended, future of Alliance in doubt with two weeks left in inaugural regular season". CBS Sports. April 2, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  25. ^ "Vince McMahon sells $100 million of WWE stock as XFL reboot plan continues". ProFootballTalk. NBC Sports. December 21, 2017. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
  26. ^ a b "411MANIA". XFL CEO Recalls First Meeting With Vince McMahon, Says XFL Won't Compete With NFL.
  27. ^ a b c d e "Vince McMahon: XFL to return in 2020 without gimmicks". ESPN. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Vince McMahon expects to spend $500 million on XFL". ESPN. June 29, 2018.
  29. ^ "Form 8-K". Securities and Exchange Commission. March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  30. ^ "Oliver Luck leaves XFL door open for John Manziel". Pro Football Talk. April 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  31. ^ a b c Seifert, Kevin (November 21, 2019). "Can the XFL really make spring football work? How its draft showed the way". ESPN. Retrieved November 21, 2019. Several more radical ideas were shelved, including one that would have made every offensive player an eligible receiver.
  32. ^ a b c d e f g Greene, Dan (May 6, 2019). "The XFL: A Second-Chance League and Its Not-My-First-Rodeo Commish". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  33. ^ Florio, Mike (May 7, 2019). "XFL may not test for marijuana". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved May 7, 2019.
  34. ^ We've got a need for speed. XFL official Facebook page (December 21, 2018). Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  35. ^ "274: Oliver Luck, XFL Commissioner". ART19. Archived from the original on April 12, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  36. ^ a b c Maese, Rick (May 10, 2019). "The XFL doesn't just want to avoid the AAF's fate. It wants to change football". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  37. ^ a b Seifert, Kevin (March 9, 2020). "What have we learned about the XFL? Six midseason takeaways". ESPN. Retrieved March 9, 2020.
  38. ^ "CFL pass interference replay hasn't been a problem". Profootballtalk.com. March 28, 2019. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
  39. ^ "WWE's Vince McMahon looks to start professional football league". ESPN. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  40. ^ "Oliver Luck named commissioner and CEO of XFL". June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  41. ^ "Former Bills GM Whaley hired as XFL senior VP". WIVB-TV. Nexstar Media Group. November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  42. ^ "Jeffrey Pollack Named XFL President & COO". XFL.com. Archived from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  43. ^ XFL. "Official XFL Announcement with Vince McMahon" – via YouTube.
  44. ^ Barron, David (June 6, 2018). "Oliver Luck Q&A: On the XFL, changing football and Houston - HoustonChronicle.com". Houston Chronicle.
  45. ^ a b c Baysinger, Tim (December 5, 2018). "LA Among the 8 Cities to Launch Vince McMahon's New XFL League". www.thewrap.com. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  46. ^ "XFL Schedule". ESPN. February 9, 2020. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  47. ^ "Bob Stoops will coach the Dallas XFL team". WFAA. February 6, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  48. ^ McClain, John (May 13, 2019). "June Jones to coach Houston's XFL team". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  49. ^ Konuwa, Alfred. "WWE's Vince McMahon, Commissioner Oliver Luck Officially Announce 8 XFL Cities". Forbes. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  50. ^ "What is the AAF? Notable players, coaches, teams, schedule for new Alliance of American Football league". CBS Sports. February 9, 2019. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  51. ^ Nocera, Joe (January 15, 2016). "In Losing the Rams, St. Louis Wins". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  52. ^ Danner, Patrick (May 23, 2019). "XFL wants to score bankrupt football league's assets stored in San Antonio warehouse". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
  53. ^ Danner, Patrick (July 3, 2019). "Bankrupt football league's gear sold at San Antonio court auction". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  54. ^ Kaplan, Daniel (April 8, 2019). "XFL rejected merger with AAF, takes lessons from failed league". www.sportsbusinessdaily.com. Sports Business Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2020. In mid-December 2018, Charlie Ebersol and his nascent Alliance of American Football was two months away from the kickoff of its inaugural season — and it was already running out of money. Ebersol had secured limited funding from venture capital firms when he unveiled the league nine months earlier, but the AAF was on life support. So Ebersol approached WWE chairman and XFL kingpin Vince McMahon about a merger, a key source said. McMahon, who is relaunching the XFL next year, turned him down, the source said. The XFL declined to comment.
  55. ^ a b c "XFL reveals names, logos for its eight teams". ESPN. August 21, 2019.
  56. ^ "XFL uniforms ranked: Will the L.A. Wildcats be the best dressed team in the league?". Los Angeles Times. December 4, 2019.
  57. ^ "XFL draft: What we learned about the Tampa Bay Vipers". Tampa Bay Times.
  58. ^ "XFL Brings On Gatorade, A-B InBev As Sponsors Ahead Of Launch". www.sportsbusinessdaily.com.
  59. ^ Steinberg, Brian (February 18, 2020). "XFL, Bud Light Work To Shake Up Football Advertising". Variety. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  60. ^ a b Zucker, Joseph (March 3, 2020). "XFL's Week 4 Games Average 1.4M Viewers as Ratings Drop for 3rd Straight Week". Bleacher Report.
  61. ^ a b Millitzer, Joe (August 3, 2020). "XFL purchased by a group including Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson". Fox 2 Now. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  62. ^ "XFL 2020: Coronavirus forces start-up league to suspend play, but players can sign with NFL teams before FA". CBS Sports. March 13, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  63. ^ Vrentas, Jenny (March 14, 2020). "A Seattle Dragons XFL Player Has Tested Positive for Coronavirus". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  64. ^ Florio, Mike (March 13, 2020). "XFL will release to NFL or CFL players with a credible contractual offer". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved March 14, 2020.
  65. ^ a b Miketniac, Chuck (April 13, 2020). "SOURCES: XFL called about relocating team to San Antonio days before suspending operations". WOAI-TV. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  66. ^ Fischer, Ben (April 17, 2020). "Last Call for the XFL". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved April 18, 2020.
  67. ^ "XFL Files For Bankruptcy, Lost '10s Of Millions' Due To COVID-19". TMZ. April 13, 2020.
  68. ^ Williams, Charean (May 13, 2020). "Vince McMahon lists reasons for Oliver Luck's firing from XFL in court filing". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
  69. ^ Florio, Mike (April 21, 2020). "Oliver Luck sues Vince McMahon". Pro Football Talk. NBC Sports. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  70. ^ Franklin, Tom (May 20, 2020). "REPORT: XFL asks St. Louis about possibly reinstating lease agreement". KMOX. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  71. ^ a b Willeke, Becky (May 20, 2020). "Is the XFL coming back? League looking at reinstating St. Louis Dome lease". KTVI. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  72. ^ Seifert, Kevin (May 26, 2020). "Vince McMahon says in court filing that he won't try to buy back XFL". ESPN. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  73. ^ Rachuk, Stephan (May 27, 2020). "Recent Court Filing Reveal Key XFL Sale Dates". XFL Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  74. ^ Cadeaux, Ethan (July 28, 2020). "Report: ESPN and FOX noncommittal about future involvement with XFL". NBC Sports. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  75. ^ a b Perry, Mark (July 1, 2020). "ESPN Open To Working With New XFL Ownership, But Not Part Of XFL Assets". XFL News Hub. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  76. ^ a b Perry, Mark (July 23, 2020). "FOX Wants To Work With The XFL 3.0, With A Modified Agreement". XFL News Hub. Retrieved July 24, 2020.
  77. ^ a b Florio, Mike (July 26, 2020). "As XFL sale approaches, ABC/ESPN and FOX seek revised TV deals". NBC Sports. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  78. ^ a b Hart, Torrey (July 28, 2020). "Without McMahon at Helm, ESPN Reportedly Wants Out of XFL Deal". Front Office Sports. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  79. ^ a b Fischer, Ben (March 25, 2024). "UFL combines forces to tackle spring football opportunity". www.sportsbusinessjournal.com. Retrieved March 25, 2024.
  80. ^ Seifert, Kevin (August 3, 2020). "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson, investor group agree to buy XFL for $15M". ESPN. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
  81. ^ "Gagnier, Principal Comms. Work RedBird's XFL Deal". O'Dwyers PR.
  82. ^ "THE ROCK XFL DEAL HAS CLOSED... I've Got The Keys Now". TMZ Sports. August 21, 2020. Retrieved August 22, 2020.
  83. ^ "XFL Announces Return to the Field in 2022". www.xfl.com. Retrieved October 3, 2020.
  84. ^ Amore, Samson (October 14, 2020). "The Rock Supports XFL Players Kneeling During the National Anthem (Video)". TheWrap.com. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
  86. ^ Middleton, Marc (March 10, 2021). "XFL and CFL Enter Into Talks, 2022 Relaunch Season Likely To Be Delayed". WrestlingHeadlines.com. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
  87. ^ Seifert, Kevin (July 7, 2021). "XFL planning 2023 return after talks on partnership with CFL tabled". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 7, 2021. Retrieved September 27, 2021. The XFL announced on Wednesday that it is planning to relaunch in 2023 after talks with the Canadian Football League about collaboration between the two leagues were tabled.
  88. ^ Mitchell, Mike (October 14, 2021). "Breaking News: Jeffrey Pollack Departs The XFL As President And CEO". Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  89. ^ Seifert, Kevin (November 8, 2021). "XFL hires former Buffalo Bills CEO Russ Brandon as league president". ESPN. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  90. ^ "XFL Announces Key Football Operations Hires". www.xfl.com. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  91. ^ Miller, Corey (January 4, 2022). "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson says XFL training camps will kick off on Jan. 4, 2023". ksdk.com. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  92. ^ "XFL kickoff set for February 18, 2023". 3DownNation. December 2, 2021. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  93. ^ Perry, Mark (January 3, 2022). "XFL Chairwoman Dany Garcia Talks 2023 XFL Training Camp". xflnewshub.com. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  94. ^ a b PHILLIPS, MICHAEL (March 11, 2022). "Virginia State football coach Reggie Barlow leaving to coach in the XFL". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved March 12, 2022.
  95. ^ "Reggie Barlow Accepts Head Coach Position With XFL". Virginia State University Athletics. March 10, 2022. Retrieved March 21, 2022.
  96. ^ Mitchell, Mike [@bymikemitchell] (April 7, 2022). "#ICYMI My article from yesterday. Although not yet official or confirmed by @XFL2023 The three new #XFL cities that have been mentioned to me recently by sources close to the league are San Antonio, Orlando and Las Vegas. Goodbye Tampa, LA and NY" (Tweet). Retrieved April 7, 2022 – via Twitter.
  97. ^ Mitchell, Mike (April 6, 2022). "XFL 2023: The Pitfalls Of Abandoning What Made The 2020 League Great". xflnewshub.com. Retrieved April 7, 2022.
  98. ^ Mitchell, Mike [@bymikemitchell] (April 7, 2022). "The situation is fluid. But some of the names that I've heard as "potential" head coaches in @XFL2023 to go along with Reggie Barlow and Terrell Buckley are: Bob Stoops, Wade Phillips, Rod Woodson, Hines Ward and Anthony Becht. Jon Kitna and Marc Trestman are also candidates" (Tweet). Retrieved April 9, 2022 – via Twitter.
  99. ^ "XFL Unveils New Brand Identity and Vision: Tomorrow's League Starts Today". XFL. April 6, 2022.
  100. ^ Chavkin, Daniel (April 8, 2022). "Legal Notice Issued Against XFL After Being Called Out for Similar Branding". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 30, 2022.
  101. ^ Seifert, Kevin (April 13, 2022). "Wade Phillips, Jim Haslett, Bob Stoops among eight XFL coaching hires". ESPN. Retrieved April 13, 2022.
  103. ^ Miller, Corey; Cusumano, Frank (May 17, 2022). "Dome at America's Center sets aside dates for possible BattleHawks return". ksdk.com. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
  104. ^ Mark Berman [@MarkBermanFox26] (May 18, 2022). "Source: The University of Houston (@UHouston) and TDECU Stadium will host games in the XFL when the league begins play in 2023. @XFL2023 @UHCougars" (Tweet). Retrieved May 18, 2022 – via Twitter.
  105. ^ Seifert, Kevin (June 9, 2022). "Longtime NFL defensive coordinator Gregg Williams heads XFL's first batch of assistant coach hires". ESPN. Retrieved June 21, 2022.
  106. ^ Seifert, Kevin (July 14, 2022). "Everything we know about the XFL as its player showcases ramp up". ESPN. Retrieved July 16, 2022.
  108. ^ Coffey, Brendan; Soshnick, Scott (August 8, 2022). "XFL Seeking New Equity Investors, Retains PJT Partners For Search". sportico.com. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  109. ^ Young, Jabari. "Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson Says The XFL Will Succeed. Who Wants To Tell Him He's Wrong?". Forbes. Retrieved June 10, 2023.
  110. ^ Keeley, Sean (June 15, 2023). "The Rock refutes Andrew Marchand's report on ESPN's XFL rights fees". Awful Announcing. Retrieved June 16, 2023.
  111. ^ "XFL Owners Optimistic Despite Losses, Declining Viewership". frontofficesports.com. June 12, 2023.
  112. ^ a b c "XFL owners Dany Garcia, Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson take stock at season's midway point". USA Today. March 27, 202.
  113. ^ "Exclusive: Major Changes in XFL As League Makes Widespread Cuts". xflnewshub.com. May 30, 2023.
  114. ^ "The Scoop - Monday July 24, 2023" FootballScoop. Retrieved 2023-07-26.
  115. ^ Baysinger, Tim; Primack, Dan; Fischer, Sara (September 19, 2023). "Scoop: Football leagues XFL and USFL in merger talks". Axios. Retrieved September 19, 2023.
  116. ^ TSN ca Staff (September 28, 2023). "XFL, United States Football League announce intention to merge". TSN. Retrieved September 28, 2023.
  117. ^ Schad, Tom (September 28, 2023). "XFL, USFL confirm intention to merge into single spring football league". USA Today. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  118. ^ Moyle, Nick (October 18, 2023). "XFL files trademark applications for 'United Football League' and 'UFL'". San Antonio Express-News.
  119. ^ "We are pleased to have completed the antitrust review process in connection with the proposed merger of the XFL and USFL and intend to play a combined season this spring kicking off on Saturday, March 30. We are now finalizing terms of the definitive agreement and will share more about this new League in the coming weeks". Instagram.
  120. ^ Russell, Jake (December 31, 2023). "XFL, USFL announce merger to form the United Football League". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 31, 2023.
  121. ^ "United Football League Set to Launch as the Premier Spring Football League". OurSports Central. December 31, 2023.
  122. ^ Williams, Madison. "Report: XFL Assigns Coaches to Franchises for 2023 Season". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 8, 2022.
  123. ^ Perry, Mark (September 23, 2022). "XFL Team Names Leaked Online, Some Old, Some New, Some Surprising Changes". xflnewshub.com. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  124. ^ Barnett, Zach (January 24, 2020). "Source: XFL hires ninth head coach". Footballscoop. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  125. ^ Williams, Bob (March 1, 2020). "Oliver Luck: So far, so good in XFL – but LA and New York crowds need to improve". SportBusiness.com. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  126. ^ Florio, Mike (January 4, 2020). "Dean Blandino is the XFL's head of officiating". Pro Football Talk. Retrieved January 4, 2020.
  127. ^ a b c XFL sends team to Mississippi to explore potential rule changes and What rule changes might be in store for the #XFL2020? YouTube official XFL account (December 6, 2018). Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  128. ^ a b c d e "Unique kickoff, 3-tier PAT structure remain in XFL for 2023". ESPN. December 7, 2022. Retrieved December 7, 2022.
  129. ^ a b c "XFL Hoping Time To Prepare Is A Benefit". Associated Press. May 10, 2019. Archived from the original on May 10, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  130. ^ Seifert, Kevin (October 8, 2014). "Inside Slant: FXFL set to debut, ready or not". ESPN. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
  131. ^ a b c Seifert, Kevin (January 7, 2020). "XFL rule changes to focus on faster pace, more excitement". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
  132. ^ a b c "XFL Rules". XFL.com. Retrieved January 7, 2020.
  133. ^ Traina, Patricia (September 3, 2019). "Why Former Giants Offensive Coordinator Kevin Gilbride Joined The XFL". Forbes.
  134. ^ Rachuk, Stephan (April 24, 2019). "Oliver Luck talks TV deals, Draft and XFL's "Team 9" | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  135. ^ McAfee, Pat. The #XFL said they're going to reimagine football.. @CJ1two breaks down some of the changes #PatMcAfeeShowLIVE. November 21, 2019
  136. ^ a b c Florio, Mike (April 8, 2019). "XFL to use one-, two-, three-point conversions". ProFootballTalk. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  137. ^ Seifert, Kevin (February 16, 2023). "XFL 2023: Rules, player salaries and everything you need to know". ESPN. Retrieved February 16, 2023.
  138. ^ Florio, Mike (April 7, 2019). "Spring League returns with revolutionary overtime idea". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
  139. ^ Johnson, Greg (April 23, 2019). "Targeting protocols approved for football". NCAA. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  140. ^ Rachuk, Stephan (April 12, 2019). "WWE issues fan survey asking fans what they would like to see in the XFL | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  141. ^ a b Bassinger, Thomas (July 1, 2019). "How the XFL will be different from the NFL". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  142. ^ a b "Can XFL 2.0 succeed where the AAF couldn't? Why it already has a jump start". ESPN. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2019.
  143. ^ a b c d "XFL QB Oliver Luck on lessons learned, Colin Kaepernick and sports betting". Tampa Bay Times. December 12, 2019. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  144. ^ "Spring League tests XFL "tap" rule that sends players to sideline". sports.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  145. ^ Cohen, Andrew (March 2, 2020). "The Future of the Replay Booth Is Under Review". SportTechie.com. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  146. ^ THE STORY BEHIND THE XFL'S FEMALE OFFICIALS by Art Garcia, XFL.com, retrieved March 6, 2020
  147. ^ Lawrence, Andrew (January 30, 2020). "Forward Progress? NFL Chain Gangs Are So Low-Tech They Belong in a GEICO Commercial". SportTechie.com. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
  148. ^ Hoyt, Joseph (November 26, 2019). "Dallas manufacturer Team Issue unveils official XFL football designed to increase ball security, enable tighter spirals". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved December 16, 2019. Each of the eight teams in the XFL will have their custom footballs, but they'll all have one thing in common. The official game balls, revealed by the XFL on Monday, were created by Team Issue, a football manufacturer in Dallas. Each team will have its custom balls, featuring the team's name and a color scheme that matches their logo.
  149. ^ XFL Testing New Footballs That Look Noticeably Different From NFL Balls, FanDuel, June 9, 2019
  150. ^ "XFL'S OFFICIAL FOOTBALL ARRIVES WITH 8 CUSTOM LOOKS". XFL. November 25, 2019. Retrieved November 25, 2019.
  151. ^ Hoyt, Joseph (November 25, 2019). "Dallas manufacturer Team Issue unveils official XFL football designed to increase ball security, enable tighter spirals". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  153. ^ @XFLShow (June 23, 2019). "On this week's episode, @OliverLuckXFL confirms conference alignment as well as XFL goals for players invited to NFL camps after 2020" (Tweet). Retrieved June 23, 2019 – via Twitter.
  154. ^ "XFL wide receiver Jeff Badet has a helmet worth keeping an eye on". ESPN. February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  155. ^ Abdeldaiem, Alaa (April 12, 2019). "XFL Considering Allowing Multiple Forward Passes Per Play". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  156. ^ X Years After. Sports Business Journal (May 16, 2011). Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  157. ^ Gartland, Dan. "XFL Announces Set of Rules Designed to Increase Action". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved January 12, 2020.
  158. ^ Garcia, Dany and Dean Blandino. XFL 2023 Rule Book. p. 76
  159. ^ Seifert, Kevin (October 7, 2019). "XFL teams to pick 71 players each in first draft". ESPN.com. Retrieved October 7, 2019.
  160. ^ "XFL Draft & QB Designation Dates Revealed For November". XFL Newsroom. October 31, 2022. Archived from the original on January 26, 2023. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  161. ^ "XFL Showcases; Summer Recap". YouTube. Archived from the original on January 27, 2023. Retrieved January 27, 2023.
  162. ^ "XFL To Host Player Showcase Series In Six Cities Across The United States". XFL. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
  163. ^ "XFL & ANC To Host Supplemental Player Showcase October 22nd". XFL News Hub. September 2022.
  164. ^ "XFL Draft Week To Be Held November 15–17 In Las Vegas". XFL Newsroom. November 10, 2022. Archived from the original on January 26, 2023. Retrieved January 26, 2023.
  165. ^ a b "What's next for the XFL? What you need to know about the QBs and this week's draft". ESPN. November 14, 2022. Archived from the original on February 16, 2023. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  166. ^ The Markcast® [@the_markcast] (November 10, 2022). "***Just a reminder! We will be going LIVE and reacting to the @XFL2023's 11/15 QB selection show AND 11/16 day 1 of the #XFL draft. ✅⤵️ http://themarkcast.com/watch to subscribe, will post links/guests soon! Tuesday, 11/15, 11 am PST + Wednesday, 11:16, 8:30 am PST #XFL #XFL2023" (Tweet). Retrieved November 10, 2022 – via Twitter.
  167. ^ "SELECTION ORDER FOR XFL DRAFT REVEALED". XFL. November 14, 2022. Archived from the original on November 27, 2022. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  168. ^ Rachuk, Stephan (November 14, 2022). "Selection Order for the 2023 XFL Draft Revealed". XFL Newsroom. Archived from the original on December 7, 2022. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  169. ^ a b c d "XFL: Preparing for 2024 – Multiple Fall Drafts, Unionization, and the NFL Alumni Academy". xflnewshub.com. May 31, 2023. Retrieved June 1, 2023.
  170. ^ "XFL League - XFL.com - Official home of the XFL". www.xfl.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  171. ^ a b Rachuk, Stephan. Dallas XFL Summer Showcase recap. XFL2K.com. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  172. ^ a b c Manza-Young, Shalise (October 11, 2019). XFL quarterbacks will make 10 times the salary of their teammates. Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved October 13, 2019.
  173. ^ "XFL restates it's not restricted by eligibility rules". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  174. ^ "The rules of the NFL Draft | NFL Football Operations". operations.nfl.com. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  175. ^ Gardner, Steve. "Panthers take former XFL safety Kenny Robinson in Round 5". USA Today. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
  176. ^ a b "XFL statement". New York Business Journal. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  177. ^ "XFL to be 'petri dish' for football innovation, prospect development as part of partnership agreement with NFL". February 21, 2022.
  178. ^ "Player 54 theme continues as XFL owners promote "League of Opportunity"". XFL Board. July 21, 2022.
  179. ^ "XFL In Their Own Words: 11 reasons to be excited for the season". XFL. February 17, 2022.
  180. ^ Rachuk, Stephan (December 19, 2018). "Oliver Luck Talks Locations, Coaches, QB's, Rule Changes and more | XFL2k". XFL2K.com. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  181. ^ Garafolo, Mike (October 11, 2019). "The @xfl2020 sent a memo to agents of prospective players. Players will be paid on a bi-weekly basis at $2,080 per paycheck starting in December. There are activation fees (i.e. game checks) during the season of $1,685 and victory bonuses of $2,222".
  182. ^ Seifert, Kevin (November 22, 2019). "Veteran backup Josh Johnson among three QBs signed by XFL". ESPN. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  183. ^ "Exclusive: XFL Could Target 2019 NFL Rookies With Six-Figure Bonuses | The Action Network". Action Network. February 28, 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2019.
  184. ^ Rachuk, Stephen (February 2, 2019). A quick recap of Oliver Luck on radio row. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  185. ^ Mitchell, Mike (February 9, 2023). "D.C. Defenders Set 51-Player Roster For The 2023 XFL Season, Breakdown/Analysis". xflnewshub.com. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  186. ^ Mosqueda, Justis (February 6, 2023). "Former Packers QB Brett Hundley set to be XFL's highest-paid player". Acme Packing Company. Retrieved March 15, 2024.
  187. ^ a b Mitchell, Mike (January 5, 2024). "D.C. Defenders: Jordan Ta'amu Fate, Changes, Dispersal Draft Options". Sports Illustrated UFL on FanNation News, Analysis and More. Retrieved March 15, 2024.
  188. ^ Parks, Greg (July 26, 2022). "Whaley, Giglio detail XFL player pay and other contract details in call with prospective agents and players". XFL News and Discussion. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  189. ^ XFL players seek NLRB election to join United Steelworkers. Press release. Retrieved March 10, 2023.
  190. ^ "XFL Players Union Vote Info - United Football Players Association". April 5, 2023. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  191. ^ "XFL Players Reject Joining United Steelworkers Union". xflnewshub.com. April 19, 2023.
  192. ^ "QB AJ McCarron Unveils UFL Challenges: Player Pay, Union, Will He Come Back". UFL News Hub. January 31, 2024.
  193. ^ "XFL Players Receive Key Update on Contracts and Merged XFL-USFL League". XFL NEWS HUB. December 30, 2023.
  194. ^ "'More action, less idle time': Inside the XFL's quest to revamp the rules of pro football". USA Today. January 23, 2020.
  195. ^ "The Spring League in talks to become XFL's D-League". usflnewsroom.com. July 31, 2019.
  196. ^ "American National Combines selected to manage XFL Summer Showcases". usflnewsroom.com. June 17, 2019.
  197. ^ "XFL Teams Up With American National Combines". wrestlinginc.com. June 21, 2019.
  198. ^ Seifert, Kevin (February 21, 2022). "XFL to be 'petri dish' for football innovation, prospect development as part of partnership agreement with NFL". ESPN.
  199. ^ "RedBird Capital Partners' Gerry Cardinale Talks XFL-NFL Partnership, Future Of XFL". XFL News Hub. April 8, 2022.
  200. ^ Keilman, Zach (October 6, 2022). "XFL and Indoor Football League Looking to Potentially Team Up".
  201. ^ "NFL Alumni Academy Official Website".
  202. ^ "XFL announces partnership with NFL Alumni Academy to scout, train potential players for XFL's 2023 season". April 11, 2022.
  203. ^ "ANC Reveals Supplemental Showcase for Players on XFL Waitlist". usflnewsroom.com. September 2, 2022.
  204. ^ "American National Combines Selected as the XFL's Official Regional Combines Partner". Our Sports Central. March 20, 2023.
  205. ^ "XFL STL Showcase: Talking with ANC Executive Director Stephen Austin". YouTube. July 12, 2023.
  206. ^ "Under The Lights Flag Football Official Website".
  207. ^ Jr, Sye Bennefield (September 8, 2022). "The Rock's XFL partners with San Antonio to host Youth Flag Football Championship". Mysa.
  208. ^ "XFL Attendance". XFL News and Discussion. Retrieved July 17, 2023.
  209. ^ a b "XFL to be broadcast on TSN in Canada, DraftKings deal announced". SportBusiness. February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  210. ^ "In Merger, DraftKings Announces Plans to Go Public in First Half of 2020". SportTechie. December 23, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  211. ^ Cheddar (December 10, 2018), The XFL is Coming Back, The CEO Details Their New Strategy, archived from the original on October 30, 2021, retrieved February 15, 2019
  212. ^ Rodenberg, Ryan (June 26, 2017). "United States of sports betting: An updated map of where every state stands". ESPN. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  213. ^ Clapp, Matt (February 18, 2023). "XFL on ESPN debuts score bug, crowd-pleasing replay system". Awful Announcing. Retrieved February 22, 2023.
  214. ^ a b c Silverman, Alex (January 30, 2020). "How Broadcasters Plan to Leverage Audio Access in XFL Telecasts". Morning Consult. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  215. ^ Bearman, David (February 6, 2020). "How to bet on the XFL: What you need to know". ESPN. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  216. ^ "XFL, Genius Sports Launch Betting Integrity Program". ggbnews.com.
  217. ^ "XFL, Boom Sports Gets Into Sports Betting With PlayXFL Mobile App". Sports Video Group. February 10, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  218. ^ Ourand, John; Lefton, Terry (January 21, 2019). "Networks seek new football leagues' content". Sports Business Journal. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  219. ^ a b "XFL 2020 Schedule". www.xfl.com. Retrieved February 11, 2020.
  220. ^ a b Steinberg, Brian (May 6, 2019). "XFL Strikes TV-Rights Deal With Fox, Disney". Variety. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  221. ^ "XFL Reaches Deal With Fox, Disney To Broadcast Games". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  222. ^ "Details on XFL Schedule and Financial Arrangement With Fox and Disney". The Big Lead. May 6, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
  223. ^ Hoffarth, Tom (June 16, 2019). "Joe Cohen's expertise helped the WWE succeed. He hopes to do the same for the XFL". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  224. ^ a b Allen, Scott (February 6, 2020). "The XFL's reboot is 'made-for-TV football,' and ESPN's Steve Levy will be its lead voice". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2020.
  225. ^ Marchand, Andrew (October 8, 2019). "ESPN, Fox finalize top XFL broadcast teams". New York Post. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  226. ^ Marchand, Andrew (October 21, 2019). "Greg Olsen raised his broadcasting stock as bye week fill-in".
  227. ^ Stapleton, Art (January 16, 2020). "So this is cool: I'm told NJ natives Kevin Burkhardt and Greg Olsen will be in FOX broadcast booth together as a team for handful of XFL games, per source". Retrieved January 17, 2020.
  228. ^ "Cam Jordan Set to Make Guest Appearance on FOX Sports' XFL Broadcast Saturday, March 7". FOX Sports PressPas. FOX Sports. March 4, 2020.
  229. ^ Hofheimer, Bill (November 6, 2019). "ABC and ESPN Announce Commentator Teams for XFL 2020 Season". ESPNPressRoom.com. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  230. ^ "iHeartMedia, VSiN, XFL To Provide 'BetCasts' For Inaugural Season". Inside Radio. February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
  231. ^ The XFL Pregame: Week 2. XFL official YouTube account (February 15, 2020). Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  232. ^ Steinberg, Brian (May 17, 2022). "Disney Strikes Deal to Put XFL on ESPN, FX, ABC". Variety. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  233. ^ Shea, Bill (March 22, 2023). "XFL midseason TV report card: Ratings have dropped, but is a rebound ahead?". The Athletic.
  234. ^ "Marchand & Ourand respond to The Rock regarding ESPN-XFL financial arrangement". AwfulAnnouncing.com. June 21, 2023.
  235. ^ "ESPN Player to stream every single game of the 2020 XFL season". ESPN. November 5, 2019. Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  236. ^ Williams, Bob (November 5, 2019). "XFL to gain international audience on ESPN Player". SportBusiness. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  237. ^ "ESPN International to Deliver Comprehensive Global Coverage of the XFL to More than 100 Million Households in over 200 Countries". ESPN Press Room U.S. February 5, 2020. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  238. ^ SPORT1 [@sport1] (January 19, 2023). "Neues #USSport-Highlight für alle Fans: @SPORT1 bringt die #AmericanFootball-Liga @XFL2023 nach Deutschland, Österreich und in die Schweiz. Wir präsentieren die #XFL-Saison 2023 ab 18. Februar live und in Highlights. Alle Infos & Statements: http://go.sport1.de/tWIAyk #MITTENDRIN" (Tweet) – via Twitter.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  239. ^ "New US sports highlight for all football fans: SPORT1 brings the XFL Football League to Germany, Austria and Switzerland". Sport1. January 19, 2023.
  240. ^ "TSN acquires media rights to PGA TOUR LIVE; launches TSN+" (Press release). TSN. January 12, 2023.
  241. ^ Orr, Conor (February 10, 2020). "XFL opening weekend showed promise". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  242. ^ Smith, Michael David (February 9, 2020). "XFL draws small but enthusiastic crowds at first two games". Profootballtalk.com. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  243. ^ Reyes, Lorenzo (February 10, 2020). "XFL Week 1 winners and losers: Inaugural weekend good for TV networks, gamblers". USA Today. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  244. ^ Kercheval, Ben (February 10, 2020). "XFL 2020 Week 1 takeaways: From P.J. Walker rising to the Vipers falling flat, opening week's highs and lows". CBS Sports. Retrieved February 10, 2020.
  245. ^ Smith, Michael David (March 3, 2020). "Ratings decline for three of four XFL games". Profootballtalk.com.
  246. ^ "Best of XFL Week 1: Defenders rally in second half to stun Sea Dragons". ESPN. February 20, 2023. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
  247. ^ Shea, Bill. "I watched the XFL 3.0 so you don't have to (but you should!): Some key takeaways". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
  248. ^ "XFL 3.0 off to much slower start than predecessors". Sportsmediawatch.com. February 22, 2023. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  249. ^ "XFL sees big drop in Week 2, but on par with last year's USFL". Sportsmediawatch.com. February 28, 2023. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  250. ^ Gould, Andrew (March 12, 2023). "Look: Football World Reacts To The XFL Attendance News". TheSpun.com. Retrieved March 12, 2023.
  251. ^ Shea, Bill. "XFL title game TV viewership sluggish, but ESPN says season met expectations". The New York Times.

External links[edit]