Yaba monkey tumor virus

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Yaba monkey tumor virus
SpecialtyInfectious disease

The Yaba monkey tumor virus is a type of poxvirus.[1][2] The first case of the virus was obtained from a colony of rhesus monkeys in Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.[3][4] The virus caused the formation of tumors on the bodies of the monkeys. From these tumors the virus was isolated and determined to be its own species of virus. It is a species of the Yatapoxvirus genus and is closely related to the tanapox. The virus gets its name from the suburb of Yaba, Lagos.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

The Yaba monkey tumor virus is characterized by the formation of cutaneous histiocytomas.[4][5] These cutaneous histiocytomas may form on the face, palms, digits, forearm, surfaces of the nose, sinuses, lips, palate.[3] The tumors are visible within 4–5 days after infection of the virus.[3][6] In rhesus monkeys the virus has a tendency to affect the face and sinuses causing large tumors to form. In general the only symptoms of the virus will be the formation of tumors.[citation needed]


Yaba monkey tumor virus
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Varidnaviria
Kingdom: Bamfordvirae
Phylum: Nucleocytoviricota
Class: Pokkesviricetes
Order: Chitovirales
Family: Poxviridae
Genus: Yatapoxvirus
Yaba monkey tumor virus

The Yaba monkey tumor virus (YMTV) is considered a chordopoxvirus due to its ability to infect vertebrates and consists of linear double-stranded DNA.[4] Being a part of the genus Yatapoxvirus, the YMTV is only able to infect primates – which includes humans.[3][4][5] The virus can be transmitted by direct contact on the skin or by transmission from mosquitos.[7] The vaccinia virus is a known prevention method for the Monkey Poxvirus through intradermal inoculation; however, it has been found that intradermal inoculation of the vaccinia virus does not provide resistance to the Yaba monkey tumor virus.[5]

For more information on the virus the Tanapox virus similar.


The tumors are known to resolve on their own after between 2–3 months after infection.[3] Currently the best known treatment for the virus is the removal of the cutaneous tumors and subsequent treatment with antibiotics to prevent infection of the open wounds.[citation needed]

The best method of preventing infection is to wear gloves and protective clothing while handling infected primates.[citation needed]

Epidemiology and history[edit]

The virus was first visualized after an outbreak of cutaneous histiocytomas in rhesus monkeys which were kept outdoors in 1956 Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.[3][4] The virus has not been yet been observed in wild animals.[3] This virus is transmittable to humans and has been transmitted in the past through handling of the monkeys, the symptoms are generally the same observed in the monkeys.[5] There have only been a few cases of the virus transmitting to humans, with little documentation.[citation needed]


  1. ^ "Yaba monkey tumor virus". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  2. ^ Nazarian, Steven H.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Werden, Steven J.; Villeneuve, Danielle; Meng, Xiangzhi; Brunetti, Craig; Valeriano, Chalice; Wong, Christina; Singh, Rajkumari (2008-01-01). "Yaba Monkey Tumor Virus Encodes a Functional Inhibitor of Interleukin-18". Journal of Virology. 82 (1): 522–8. doi:10.1128/JVI.00688-07. PMC 2224402. PMID 17959666.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Williams, Elizabeth S.; Barker (2008). Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals. Wiley. pp. 181–2. ISBN 978-0470344811.
  4. ^ a b c d e Brunetti, Craig R.; Amano, Hiroko; Ueda, Yoshiaki; Qin, Jing; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Li, Xing; Barrett, John W.; McFadden, Grant (2003-12-15). "Complete Genomic Sequence and Comparative Analysis of the Tumorigenic Poxvirus Yaba Monkey Tumor Virus". Journal of Virology. 77 (24): 13335–47. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.24.13335-13347.2003. PMC 296094. PMID 14645589.
  5. ^ a b c d Cho, Cheng T.; Wenner, Herbert A. (1973). "Monkeypox Virus". Bacteriol Rev. 37 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1128/br.37.1.1-18.1973. PMC 413801. PMID 4349404.
  6. ^ de Harven E, Yohn DS (May 1966). "The Fine Structure of the Yaba Monkey Tumor Poxvirus". Cancer Res. 26 (5): 995–1008. PMID 4286870.
  7. ^ Pauli, G.; Blümel, J.; Burger, R.; Drosten, C.; Gröner, A.; Gürtler, L.; Heiden, M.; Hildebrandt, M.; Jansen, B.; Montag-Lessing, T.; Offergeld, R.; Seitz, R.; Schlenkrich, U.; Schottstedt, V.; Strobel, J.; Willkommen, H.; von König, C. H. (2010). "Orthopox Viruses: Infections in Humans". Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy. 37 (6): 351–364. doi:10.1159/000322101. PMC 3048946. PMID 21483466.

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