22 nm process

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The "22 nm" node is the process step following 32 nm in CMOS MOSFET semiconductor device fabrication. The typical half-pitch (i.e., half the distance between identical features in an array) for a memory cell using the process is around 22 nm.[citation needed] It was first demonstrated by semiconductor companies for use in RAM memory in 2008. In 2010, Toshiba began shipping 24 nm flash memory chips, and Samsung Electronics began mass-producing 20 nm flash memory chips. The first consumer-level CPU deliveries using a 22 nm process started in April 2012 with the Intel Ivy Bridge processors.

Since at least 1997, "process nodes" have been named purely on a marketing basis, and have no relation to the dimensions on the integrated circuit;[1] neither gate length, metal pitch or gate pitch on a "22nm" device is twenty-two nanometers.[2][3][4][5]

The ITRS 2006 Front End Process Update indicates that equivalent physical oxide thickness will not scale below 0.5 nm (about twice the diameter of a silicon atom), which is the expected value at the 22 nm node. This is an indication that CMOS scaling in this area has reached a wall at this point, possibly disturbing Moore's law.

The 20-nanometre node is an intermediate half-node die shrink based on the 22-nanometre process.

TSMC began mass production of 20 nm nodes in 2014.[6] The 22 nm process was superseded by commercial 14 nm FinFET technology in 2014.

Technology demos[edit]

On August 18, 2008, AMD, Freescale, IBM, STMicroelectronics, Toshiba, and the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) announced that they jointly developed and manufactured a 22 nm SRAM cell, built on a traditional six-transistor design on a 300 mm wafer, which had a memory cell size of just 0.1 μm2.[7] The cell was printed using immersion lithography.[8]

The 22 nm node may be the first time where the gate length is not necessarily smaller than the technology node designation. For example, a 25 nm gate length would be typical for the 22 nm node.

On September 22, 2009, during the Intel Developer Forum Fall 2009, Intel showed a 22 nm wafer and announced that chips with 22 nm technology would be available in the second half of 2011.[9] SRAM cell size is said to be 0.092 μm2, smallest reported to date.

On January 3, 2010, Intel and Micron Technology announced the first in a family of 25 nm NAND devices.

On May 2, 2011, Intel announced its first 22 nm microprocessor, codenamed Ivy Bridge, using a FinFET technology called 3-D tri-gate.[10]

IBM's POWER8 processors are produced in a 22 nm SOI process.[11]

Shipped devices[edit]

  • Toshiba announced that it was shipping 24 nm flash memory NAND devices on August 31, 2010.[12]
  • In 2010, Samsung Electronics began mass production of 64 Gbit NAND flash memory chips using a 20 nm process.[13]
  • Also in 2010, Hynix introduced a 64 Gbit NAND flash memory chip using a 20 nm process.[14]
  • On April 23, 2012, Intel Core i7 and Intel Core i5 processors based on Intel's Ivy Bridge 22 nm technology for series 7 chipsets went on sale worldwide.[15] Volume production of 22 nm processors began more than six months earlier, as confirmed by former Intel CEO Paul Otellini on October 19, 2011.[16]
  • On June 3, 2013, Intel started shipping Intel Core i7 and Intel Core i5 processors based on Intel's Haswell microarchitecture in 22 nm tri-gate FinFET technology for series 8 chipsets.[17] Intel's 22nm process has a transistor density of 16.5 million transistors per square milimeter (MTr/mm2).[18]


  1. ^ "No More Nanometers – EEJournal". July 23, 2020.
  2. ^ Shukla, Priyank. "A Brief History of Process Node Evolution". design-reuse.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  3. ^ Hruska, Joel. "14nm, 7nm, 5nm: How low can CMOS go? It depends if you ask the engineers or the economists..." ExtremeTech.
  4. ^ "Exclusive: Is Intel Really Starting To Lose Its Process Lead? 7nm Node Slated For Release in 2022". wccftech.com. September 10, 2016.
  5. ^ "Life at 10nm. (Or is it 7nm?) And 3nm - Views on Advanced Silicon Platforms". eejournal.com. March 12, 2018.
  6. ^ "20nm Technology". TSMC. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
  7. ^ "TG Daily news report". Archived from the original on August 19, 2008. Retrieved August 18, 2008.
  8. ^ EETimes news report
  9. ^ Intel announces 22nm chips for 2011
  10. ^ Intel 22nm 3-D Tri-Gate Transistor Technology
  11. ^ IBM opens Power8 kimono (a little bit more)
  12. ^ Toshiba launches 24nm process NAND flash memory
  13. ^ "History". Samsung Electronics. Samsung. Retrieved June 19, 2019.
  14. ^ "History: 2010s". SK Hynix. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  15. ^ Intel launches Ivy Bridge...
  16. ^ Tom's Hardware: Intel to Sell Ivy Bridge Late in Q4 2011
  17. ^ "4th Generation Intel Core Processors Coming Soon". Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  18. ^ "Intel's 10nm Cannon Lake and Core i3-8121U Deep Dive Review".
Preceded by
32 nm (CMOS)
MOSFET manufacturing processes Succeeded by
14 nm (FinFET)