Zen 2

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AMD Zen 2
General information
Launched7 July 2019; 4 years ago (7 July 2019)[1]
Designed byAMD
Common manufacturer(s)
Cache
L1 cache64 KB (per core)
L2 cache512 KB (per core)
Architecture and classification
Technology nodeTSMC N7[2][3]
TSMC N6[4]
Instruction setAMD64 (x86_64)
Physical specifications
Cores
  • Up to 64
Socket(s)
Products, models, variants
Product code name(s)
  • Matisse (desktop)
  • Rome (server)[3]
  • Castle Peak (HEDT)
  • Renoir (Desktop APU, mobile and embedded)
  • Mendocino (mobile and embedded refresh)
History
Predecessor(s)Zen+
Successor(s)Zen 3
Support status
Supported

Zen 2 is a computer processor microarchitecture by AMD. It is the successor of AMD's Zen and Zen+ microarchitectures, and is fabricated on the 7 nm MOSFET node from TSMC. The microarchitecture powers the third generation of Ryzen processors, known as Ryzen 3000 for the mainstream desktop chips (codename "Matisse"), Ryzen 4000U/H (codename "Renoir") and Ryzen 5000U (codename "Lucienne") for mobile applications, as Threadripper 3000 for high-end desktop systems,[5][6] and as Ryzen 4000G for accelerated processing units (APUs). The Ryzen 3000 series CPUs were released on 7 July 2019,[7][8] while the Zen 2-based Epyc server CPUs (codename "Rome") were released on 7 August 2019.[9] An additional chip, the Ryzen 9 3950X, was released in November 2019.[7]

At CES 2019, AMD showed a Ryzen third-generation engineering sample that contained one chiplet with eight cores and 16 threads.[5] AMD CEO Lisa Su also said to expect more than eight cores in the final lineup.[10] At Computex 2019, AMD revealed that the Zen 2 "Matisse" processors would feature up to 12 cores, and a few weeks later a 16 core processor was also revealed at E3 2019, being the aforementioned Ryzen 9 3950X.[11][12]

Zen 2 includes hardware mitigations to the Spectre security vulnerability.[13] Zen 2-based EPYC server CPUs use a design in which multiple CPU dies (up to eight in total) manufactured on a 7 nm process ("chiplets") are combined with a 14nm I/O die (as opposed to the 12nm IOD on Matisse variants) on each multi-chip module (MCM) package. Using this, up to 64 physical cores and 128 total compute threads (with simultaneous multithreading) are supported per socket. This architecture is nearly identical to the layout of the "pro-consumer" flagship processor Threadripper 3990X.[14] Zen 2 delivers about 15% more instructions per clock than Zen and Zen+,[15][16] the 14- and 12-nm microarchitectures utilized on first and second generation Ryzen, respectively.

The Steam Deck,[17][18] PlayStation 5, Xbox Series X and Series S all use chips based on the Zen 2 microarchitecture, with proprietary tweaks and different configurations in each system's implementation than AMD sells in its own commercially available APUs.[19][20]

Design[edit]

Two delidded Zen 2 processors designed with the multi-chip module approach. The Ryzen 5 3600 CPU on the left/top (used for mainstream Ryzen CPUs) uses a smaller, less capable I/O die and up to two CCDs (only one is used on this particular example), while the Epyc 7702 on the right/bottom (used for high-end desktop, HEDT, Ryzen Threadripper and server Epyc CPUs) uses a larger, more capable I/O die and up to eight CCDs.

Zen 2 is a significant departure from the physical design paradigm of AMD's previous Zen architectures, Zen and Zen+. Zen 2 moves to a multi-chip module design where the I/O components of the CPU are laid out on its own, separate die, which is also called a chiplet in this context. This separation has benefits in scalability and manufacturability. As physical interfaces don't scale very well with shrinks in process technology, their separation into a different die allows these components to be manufactured using a larger, more mature process node than the CPU dies. The CPU dies (referred to by AMD as core complex dies or CCDs), now more compact due to the move of I/O components onto another die, can be manufactured using a smaller process with fewer manufacturing defects than a larger die would exhibit (since the chances of a die having a defect increases with device (die) size) while also allowing for more dies per wafer. In addition, the central I/O die can service multiple chiplets, making it easier to construct processors with a large number of cores.[14][21][22]

Simplified illustration of the Zen 2 microarchitecture
On the left (top on mobile): Die shot of a Zen 2 Core Complex Die. On the middle: Die shot of a Zen 2 EPYC/Threadripper I/O die, On the right (bottom): I/O die of a Zen 2 mainstream Ryzen I/O die.

With Zen 2, each CPU chiplet houses 8 CPU cores, arranged in 2 core complexes (CCXs), each of 4 CPU cores. These chiplets are manufactured using TSMC's 7 nanometer MOSFET node and are about 74 to 80 mm2 in size.[21] The chiplet has about 3.8 billion transistors, while the 12 nm I/O die (IOD) is ~125 mm2 and has 2.09 billion transistors.[23] The amount of L3 cache has been doubled to 32 MB, with each CCX in the chiplet now having access to 16 MB of L3 compared to the 8 MB of Zen and Zen+.[24] AVX2 performance is greatly improved by an increase in execution unit width from 128-bit to 256-bit.[25] There are multiple variants of the I/O die: one manufactured on GlobalFoundries 14 nanometer process, and another manufactured using the same company's 12 nanometer process. The 14 nanometer dies have more features and are used for the EPYC Rome processors, whereas the 12 nm versions are used for consumer processors.[21] Both processes have similar feature sizes, so their transistor density is also similar.[26]

AMD's Zen 2 architecture can deliver higher performance at a lower power consumption than Intel's Cascade Lake architecture, with an example being the AMD Ryzen Threadripper 3970X running with a TDP of 140 W in ECO mode delivering higher performance than the Intel Core i9-10980XE running with a TDP of 165 W.[27]

New features[edit]

  • Some new instruction set extensions: WBNOINVD, CLWB, RDPID, RDPRU, MCOMMIT. Each instruction uses its own CPUID bit.[28][29]
  • Hardware mitigations against the Spectre V4 speculative store bypass vulnerability.[30]
  • Zero-latency memory mirroring optimization (undocumented).[31]
  • Doubled width of the execution units and load store units (from 128-bit to 256-bit) in the floating point coprocessor and significant further throughput enhancements in the multiplication execution unit. This allows the FPU to perform single-cycle AVX2 calculations.[32]

Feature tables[edit]

CPUs[edit]

APUs[edit]

APU features table

Products[edit]

On 26 May 2019, AMD announced six Zen 2-based desktop Ryzen processors (codenamed "Matisse"). These included 6-core and 8-core variants in the Ryzen 5 and Ryzen 7 product lines, as well as a new Ryzen 9 line that includes the company's first 12-core and 16-core mainstream desktop processors. [33]

The Matisse I/O die is also used as the X570 chipset.

AMD's second generation of Epyc processors, codenamed "Rome", feature up to 64 cores, and were launched on 7 August 2019.[9]

Desktop CPUs[edit]

3000 series (Matisse)[edit]

Common features of Ryzen 3000 desktop CPUs:

  • Socket: AM4.
  • All the CPUs support DDR4-3200 in dual-channel mode.
  • L1 cache: 64 KB (32 KB data + 32 KB instruction) per core.
  • L2 cache: 512 KB per core.
  • All the CPUs support 24 PCIe 4.0 lanes. 4 of the lanes are reserved as link to the chipset.
  • No integrated graphics.
  • Fabrication process: TSMC 7FF.
Branding and Model Cores
(threads)
Thermal Solution Clock rate (GHz) L3 cache
(total)
TDP Chiplets Core
config[i]
Release
date
MSRP
Base Boost
Ryzen 9 3950X 16 (32) N/A 3.5 4.7 64 MB 105 W[ii] 2 × CCD
1 × I/OD
4 × 4 Nov 25, 2019 US $749
3900XT 12 (24) 3.8 4 × 3 Jul 7, 2020 US $499
3900X Wraith Prism 4.6 Jul 7, 2019
3900[a] OEM 3.1 4.3 65 W Oct 8, 2019 OEM
Ryzen 7 3800XT 8 (16) N/A 3.9 4.7 32 MB 105 W 1 × CCD
1 × I/OD
2 × 4 Jul 7, 2020 US $399
3800X Wraith Prism 4.5 Jul 7, 2019
3700X[a] 3.6 4.4 065 W[iii] US $329
Ryzen 5 3600XT 6 (12) N/A 3.8 4.5 95 W 2 × 3 Jul 7, 2020 US $249
3600X Wraith Spire (non-LED) 4.4 Jul 7, 2019
3600[a] Wraith Stealth 3.6 4.2 65 W US $199
3500X[36] 6 (6) 4.1 Oct 8, 2019 China
¥1099
3500 OEM 16 MB Nov 15, 2019 OEM (West)
Japan
¥16000[37]
Ryzen 3 3300X 4 (8) Wraith Stealth 3.8 4.3 1 × 4 Apr 21, 2020 US $119
3100 3.6 3.9 2 × 2 US $99
  1. ^ Core Complexes (CCXs) × cores per CCX
  2. ^ Ryzen 9 3900X and Ryzen 9 3950X may consume over 145 W under load.[34]
  3. ^ Ryzen 7 3700X may consume 90 W under load.[35]
  1. ^ a b c Model also available as PRO 3600, PRO 3700, PRO 3900, released on September 30, 2019 for OEMs.

Common features of Ryzen 3000 HEDT/workstation CPUs:

  • Socket: sTRX4 (Threadripper), sWRX8 (Threadripper PRO).
  • Threadripper CPUs support DDR4-3200 in quad-channel mode while Threadripper PRO CPUs support DDR4-3200 in octa-channel mode.
  • L1 cache: 64 KB (32 KB data + 32 KB instruction) per core.
  • L2 cache: 512 KB per core.
  • Threadripper CPUs support 64 PCIe 4.0 lanes while Threadripper PRO CPUs support 128 PCIe 4.0 lanes. 8 of the lanes are reserved as link to the chipset.
  • No integrated graphics.
  • Fabrication process: TSMC 7FF.
Branding and Model Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) L3 cache
(total)
TDP Chiplets Core
config[i]
Release
date
MSRP
Base Boost
Ryzen
Threadripper
PRO
3995WX 64 (128) 2.7 4.2 256 MB 280 W
[ii]
8 × CCD
1 × I/OD
16 × 4 Jul 14, 2020
3975WX 32 (64) 3.5 128 MB 4 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 × 4
3955WX 16 (32) 3.9 4.3 64 MB 2 × CCD
1 × I/OD
4 × 4
3945WX 12 (24) 4.0 4 × 3
Ryzen
Threadripper
3990X 64 (128) 2.9 256 MB 8 × CCD
1 × I/OD
16 × 4 Feb 7, 2020 US $3990
3970X 32 (64) 3.7 4.5 128 MB 4 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 × 4 Nov 25, 2019 US $1999
3960X 24 (48) 3.8 8 × 3 US $1399
  1. ^ Core Complexes (CCXs) × cores per CCX
  2. ^ Ryzen Threadripper 3990X may consume over 490 W under load.[38]

4000 series (Renoir)[edit]

Based on the Ryzen 4000G series APUs but with the integrated graphics disabled. Common features of Ryzen 4000 desktop CPUs:

  • Socket: AM4.
  • All the CPUs support DDR4-3200 in dual-channel mode.
  • L1 cache: 64 KB (32 KB data + 32 KB instruction) per core.
  • L2 cache: 512 KB per core.
  • All the CPUs support 24 PCIe 3.0 lanes. 4 of the lanes are reserved as link to the chipset.
  • No integrated graphics.
  • Fabrication process: TSMC 7FF.
  • Bundled with AMD Wraith Stealth

The AMD 4700S and 4800S desktop processors are part of a "desktop kit" that comes bundled with a motherboard and GDDR6 RAM. The CPU is soldered, and provides 4 PCIe 2.0 lanes. These are reportedly cut-down variants of the APUs found on the PlayStation 5 and Xbox Series X and S repurposed from defective chip stock.[39][40][41]

Branding and model Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) L3 cache
(total)
TDP Core
config[i]
Release
date
MSRP
Base Boost
AMD 4800S[39][40] 8 (16) 4.0 8 MB 2 × 4 2022 bundled with desktop kit
4700S[41] 3.6 75 W 2021
Ryzen 5 4500 6 (12) 4.1 65 W 2 × 3 Apr 4, 2022 US $129
Ryzen 3 4100 4 (8) 3.8 4.0 4 MB 1 × 4 US $99
  1. ^ Core Complexes (CCX) × cores per CCX

Desktop APUs[edit]

Common features of Ryzen 4000 desktop APUs:

  • Socket: AM4.
  • All the CPUs support DDR4-3200 in dual-channel mode.
  • L1 cache: 64 KB (32 KB data + 32 KB instruction) per core.
  • L2 cache: 512 KB per core.
  • All the CPUs support 24 PCIe 3.0 lanes. 4 of the lanes are reserved as link to the chipset.
  • Includes integrated GCN 5th generation GPU.
  • Fabrication process: TSMC 7FF.
Branding and model CPU GPU TDP Release
date
Release
price
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) L3 cache
(total)
Core
Config[i]
Model Clock
(GHz)
Config[ii] Processing
power[iii]
(GFLOPS)
Base Boost
Ryzen 7 4700G[a] 8 (16) 3.6 4.4 8 MB 2 × 4 Radeon
Graphics[b]
2.1 512:32:16
8 CU
2150.4 65 W Jul 21, 2020 OEM
4700GE[a] 3.1 4.3 2.0 2048 35 W
Ryzen 5 4600G[a][42] 6 (12) 3.7 4.2 2 × 3 1.9 448:28:14
7 CU
1702.4 65 W Jul 21, 2020
(OEM) /
Apr 4, 2022
(retail)
OEM /
US $154
4600GE[a] 3.3 35 W Jul 21, 2020 OEM
Ryzen 3 4300G[a] 4 (8) 3.8 4.0 4 MB 1 × 4 1.7 384:24:12
6 CU
1305.6 65 W
4300GE[a] 3.5 35 W
  1. ^ Core complexes (CCXs) × cores per CCX
  2. ^ Unified shaders : Texture mapping units : Render output units and Compute units (CU)
  3. ^ Single-precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
  1. ^ a b c d e f Model also available as PRO version as 4350GE,[43] 4350G,[44] 4650GE,[45] 4650G,[46] 4750GE,[47] 4750G,[48] released on July 21, 2020 for OEM only.[49]
  2. ^ All of the iGPUs are branded as AMD Radeon Graphics.

Mobile APUs[edit]

Renoir (4000 series)[edit]

Common features of Ryzen 4000 notebook APUs:

Branding and Model CPU GPU TDP Release
date
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) L3 cache
(total)
Core
config[i]
Model Clock
(GHz)
Config[ii] Processing
power
(GFLOPS)[iii]
Base Boost
Ryzen 9 4900H 8 (16) 3.3 4.4 8 MB 2 × 4 Radeon
Graphics
[a]
1.75 512:32:8
8 CU
1792 35–54 W Mar 16, 2020
4900HS 3.0 4.3 35 W
Ryzen 7 4800H[50] 2.9 4.2 1.6 448:28:8
7 CU
1433.6 35–54 W
4800HS 35 W
4980U[b] 2.0 4.4 1.95 512:32:8
8 CU
1996.8 10–25 W Apr 13, 2021
4800U 1.8 4.2 1.75 1792 Mar 16, 2020
4700U[c] 8 (8) 2.0 4.1 1.6 448:28:8
7 CU
1433.6
Ryzen 5 4600H[51] 6 (12) 3.0 4.0 2 × 3 1.5 384:24:8
6 CU
1152 35–54 W
4600HS[52] 35 W
4680U[b] 2.1 448:28:8
7 CU
1344 10–25 W Apr 13, 2021
4600U[c] 384:24:8
6 CU
1152 Mar 16, 2020
4500U 6 (6) 2.3
Ryzen 3 4300U[c] 4 (4) 2.7 3.7 4 MB 1 × 4 1.4 320:20:8
5 CU
896
  1. ^ Core Complexes (CCX) × cores per CCX
  2. ^ Unified shaders : texture mapping units : render output units and compute units (CU)
  3. ^ Single precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
  1. ^ All of the iGPUs are branded as AMD Radeon Graphics.
  2. ^ a b Only found on the Microsoft Surface Laptop 4.
  3. ^ a b c Model also available as PRO version as 4450U,[53] 4650U,[54] 4750U,[55] released May 7, 2020.

Lucienne (5000 series)[edit]

Common features of Ryzen 5000 notebook APUs:

Branding and Model CPU GPU TDP Release
date
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) L3 cache
(total)
Core
config[i]
Model Clock
(GHz)
Config[ii] Processing
power
(GFLOPS)[iii]
Base Boost
Ryzen 7 5700U 8 (16) 1.8 4.3 8 MB 2 × 4 Radeon
Graphics
[a]
1.9 512:32:8
8 CU
1945.6 10–25 W Jan 12, 2021
Ryzen 5 5500U[56] 6 (12) 2.1 4.0 2 × 3 1.8 448:28:8
7 CU
1612.8
Ryzen 3 5300U 4 (8) 2.6 3.8 4 MB 1 × 4 1.5 384:24:8
6 CU
1152
  1. ^ Core Complexes (CCX) × cores per CCX
  2. ^ Unified shaders : texture mapping units : render output units and compute units (CU)
  3. ^ Single precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
  1. ^ All of the iGPUs are branded as AMD Radeon Graphics.

Ultra-mobile APUs[edit]

In 2022, AMD announced the Mendocino ultra-mobile APUs.[57]

Common features of Ryzen 7020 notebook APUs:

  • Socket: FT6
  • All the CPUs support LPDDR5-5500 in dual-channel mode.
  • L1 cache: 64 KB (32 KB data + 32 KB instruction) per core.
  • L2 cache: 512 KB per core.
  • All the CPUs support 4 PCIe 3.0 lanes.
  • Includes integrated RDNA 2 GPU.
  • Fabrication process: TSMC 6 nm FinFET.
Branding and Model CPU GPU TDP Release
date
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) L3 cache
(total)
Core
config[i]
Model Clock
(GHz)
Processing
power[ii]
(GFLOPS)
Base Boost
Ryzen 5 7520U[iii] 4 (8) 2.8 4.3 4 MB 1 × 4 610M
2 CU
1.9 486.4 15 W September 20, 2022[58]
Ryzen 3 7320U[iii] 2.4 4.1
  1. ^ Core Complexes (CCX) × cores per CCX
  2. ^ Single precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.
  3. ^ a b Model also available as Chromebook optimized version as 7520C[59] and 7320C[60] released on May 23, 2023


Embedded APUs[edit]

Model Release
date
Fab CPU GPU Socket PCIe
support
Memory
support
TDP
Cores
(threads)
Clock rate (GHz) Cache Archi-
tecture
Config[i] Clock
(GHz)
Processing
power[ii]
(GFLOPS)
Base Boost L1 L2 L3
V2516[61] November 10, 2020[62] TSMC
7FF
6 (12) 2.1 3.95 32 KB inst.
32 KB data
per core
512 KB
per core
8 MB GCN 5 384:24:8
6 CU
1.5 1152 FP6 20
(8+4+4+4)
PCIe 3.0
DDR4-3200
dual-channel

LPDDR4X-4266
quad-channel
10–25 W
V2546[61] 3.0 3.95 35–54 W
V2718[61] 8 (16) 1.7 4.15 448:28:8
7 CU
1.6 1433.6 10–25 W
V2748[61] 2.9 4.25 35–54 W
  1. ^ Unified Shaders : Texture Mapping Units : Render Output Units and Compute Units (CU)
  2. ^ Single-precision performance is calculated from the base (or boost) core clock speed based on a FMA operation.

Server CPUs[edit]

Common features of these CPUs:

  • Codenamed "Rome"
  • Zen 2 microarchitecture
  • TSMC 7 nm process
  • SP3 Socket
  • 128 PCIe lanes
  • Memory support: eight-channel DDR4-3200
Model Release
date
Price
(USD)
Fab Chiplets Cores
(threads)
Core
config[i]
Clock rate (GHz) Cache Socket
&
Scaling
TDP
Base Boost L1 L2 L3
7232P August 7,
2019
$450 TSMC
7FF
2 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 (16) 4 × 2 3.1 3.2 32 KB inst.
32 KB data
(per core)
512 KB
(per core)
32 MB
(8 MB per CCX)
SP3
1P
120 W
7302P $825 4 × CCD
1 × I/OD
16 (32) 8 × 2 3 3.3 128 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
155 W
7402P $1250 24 (48) 8 × 3 2.8 3.35 180 W
7502P $2300 32 (64) 8 × 4 2.5 3.35
7702P $4425 8 × CCD
1 × I/OD
64 (128) 16 × 4 2 3.35 256 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
200 W
7252 $475 2 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 (16) 4 × 2 3.1 3.2 64 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
SP3
(up to) 2P
120 W
 7262 $575 4 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 × 1 3.2 3.4 128 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
155 W
7272 $625 2 × CCD
1 × I/OD
12 (24) 4 × 3 2.9 3.2 64 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
120 W
7282 $650 16 (32) 4 × 4 2.8 3.2
7302 $978 4 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 × 2 3 3.3 128 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
155 W
7352 $1350 24 (48) 8 × 3 2.3 3.2
7402 $1783 8 × 3 2.8 3.35 180 W
7452 $2025 32 (64) 8 × 4 2.35 3.35 155 W
7502 $2600 8 × 4 2.5 3.35 180 W
7532 $3350 8 × CCD
1 × I/OD
16 × 2 2.4 3.3 256 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
200 W
7542 $3400 4 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 × 4 2.9 3.4 128 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
225 W
7552 $4025 6 × CCD
1 × I/OD
48 (96) 12 × 4 2.2 3.3 192 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
200 W
7642 $4775 8 × CCD
1 × I/OD
16 × 3 2.3 3.3 256 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
225 W
7662 $6150 64 (128) 16 × 4 2 3.3 225 W
7702 $6450 2 3.35 200 W
7742 $6950 2.25 3.4 225 W
7H12 September 18, 2019 2.6 3.3 280 W
7F32 April 14, 2020[63] $2100 4 × CCD
1 × I/OD
8 (16) 8 × 1 3.7 3.9 128 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
180 W
7F52 $3100 8 × CCD
1 × I/OD
16 (32) 16 × 1 3.5 3.9 256 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
240 W
7F72 $2450 6 × CCD
1 × I/OD
24 (48) 12 × 2 3.2 3.7 192 MB
(16 MB per CCX)
240 W
  1. ^ Core Complexes (CCX) × cores per CCX

Video game consoles and other embedded[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "AMD Unleashes Ultimate PC Gaming Platform with Worldwide Availability of AMD Radeon RX 5700 Series Graphics Cards and AMD Ryzen 3000 Series Desktop Processors". AMD (Press release). Santa Clara, California. 7 July 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  2. ^ Larabel, Michael (16 May 2017). "AMD Talks Up Vega Frontier Edition, Epyc, Zen 2, ThreadRipper". Phoronix. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  3. ^ a b Cutress, Ian (20 June 2017). "AMD EPYC Launch Event Live Blog". AnandTech. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  4. ^ Boshor, Gavin (20 September 2022). "AMD Launches Mendocino APUs: Zen 2-based Ryzen and Athlon 7020 Series with RDNA 2 Graphics". AnandTech. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  5. ^ a b Cutress, Ian (9 January 2019). "AMD Ryzen third Gen 'Matisse' Coming Mid 2019: Eight Core Zen 2 with PCIe 4.0 on Desktop". AnandTech. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  6. ^ online, heise. "AMD Ryzen 3000: 12-Kernprozessoren für den Mainstream". c't Magazin.
  7. ^ a b Leather, Antony (7 July 2019). "AMD Ryzen 9 3900X and Ryzen 7 3700X Review: Old Ryzen Owners Look Away Now". Forbes. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  8. ^ Ridley, Jacob (27 May 2019). "AMD Ryzen 3000 CPUs launching July 7 with up to 12 cores". PCGamesN. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  9. ^ a b "2nd Gen AMD EPYC Processors Set New Standard for the Modern Datacenter with Record-Breaking Performance and Significant TCO Savings". AMD. 7 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  10. ^ Hachman, Mark (9 January 2019). "AMD's CEO Lisa Su confirms ray tracing GPU development, hints at more 3rd-gen Ryzen cores". PCWorld. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  11. ^ Curtress, Ian (26 May 2019). "AMD Ryzen 3000 Announced: Five CPUs, 12 Cores for $499, Up to 4.6 GHz, PCIe 4.0, Coming 7/7". AnandTech. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  12. ^ Thomas, Bill (10 June 2019). "AMD announces the Ryzen 9 3950X, a 16-core mainstream processor". TechRadar. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  13. ^ Alcorn, Paul (31 January 2018). "AMD Predicts Double-Digit Revenue Growth In 2018, Ramps Up GPU Production". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  14. ^ a b Shilov, Anton (6 November 2018). "AMD Unveils 'Chiplet' Design Approach: 7nm Zen 2 Cores Meet 14 nm I/O Die". AnandTech. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  15. ^ Cutress, Ian (10 June 2019). "AMD Zen 2 Microarchitecture Analysis: Ryzen 3000 and EPYC Rome". AnandTech. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  16. ^ Walton, Steven (16 November 2020). "AMD Ryzen 5000 IPC Performance Tested". TechSpot. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  17. ^ Hollister, Sean (13 November 2021). "Steam Deck: Five big things we learned from Valve's developer summit". The Verge. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  18. ^ "Steam Deck :: Tech Specs".
  19. ^ Warren, Tom (24 February 2020). "Microsoft reveals more Xbox Series X specs, confirms 12 teraflops GPU". The Verge. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  20. ^ Leadbetter, Richard (18 March 2020). "Inside PlayStation 5: the specs and the tech that deliver Sony's next-gen vision". Eurogamer. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
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