From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
2009 (MMIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2009th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 9th year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2000s decade.
2009 was designated as the International Year of Astronomy by the United Nations to coincide with the 400th anniversary of Galileo Galilei's first known astronomical studies with a telescope and the publication of Astronomia Nova by Johannes Kepler. It was also declared as the International Year of Natural Fibres by the United Nations General Assembly, as well as the International Year of Reconciliation and the Year of the Gorilla (UNEP and UNESCO).
The year also marked the deaths of many prominent entertainers including Michael Jackson, Farrah Fawcett, Brittany Murphy, Patrick Swayze, David Carradine and Ricardo Montalbán, as well as prominent politicians like Jack Kemp and Corazon Aquino.
- January 1
- Japan, Mexico, Turkey and Uganda assume their seats on the United Nations Security Council.
- Asunción, the capital of Paraguay, becomes the American Capital of Culture and Vilnius and Linz become the European Capitals of Culture.
- Slovakia adopts the euro as its national currency, replacing the Slovak koruna.
- A Bay Area Rapid Transit police officer shoots and kills Oscar Grant, an unarmed black man, at Fruitvale station. The event becomes one of the inciting incidents for the global Black Lives Matter movement.
- January 3 – The first ("Genesis") block of the blockchain of the cryptocurrency and decentralized payment system Bitcoin is established by the creator of the system, known as Satoshi Nakamoto.
- January 15 – US Airways Flight 1549 ditches in the Hudson River in an accident that becomes known as the "Miracle on the Hudson", as all 155 people on board are rescued.
- January 18 – Gaza War: Hamas announces they will accept the Israel Defense Forces offer of a ceasefire, ending the conflict.
- January 20 – Barack Obama is sworn in as the 44th President of the United States, becoming the first African-American to hold the office.
- January 21 – Israel withdraws from the Gaza Strip, officially ending its three-week war with Hamas. However, intermittent air strikes by both sides continue in the following weeks.
- January 21 – Zhu Haiyang decapitates Yang Xin at Virginia Tech in the first campus murder since the Virginia Tech shooting.
- January 26
- The first trial at the International Criminal Court opens. Former Union of Congolese Patriots leader Thomas Lubanga Dyilo is accused of training child soldiers to kill, pillage and rape.
- The Icelandic government and banking system collapse. Prime Minister Geir Haarde immediately resigns.
- An annular solar eclipse takes place over the Indian Ocean, the 50th solar eclipse of Saros cycle 131.
- January 28 – WikiLeaks releases 86 intercepted telephone recordings of politicians and businessmen involved in the 2008 Peru oil scandal.
- January 31 – Tiféret Israel Synagogue attack, profanation of the oldest synagogue in Caracas, Venezuela.
- February 1
- Patriarch Kirill of Moscow is enthroned as the Patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church following the death of his predecessor, Alexy II in 2008.
- Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir is appointed as the new Prime Minister of Iceland, becoming the world's first openly lesbian head of government.
- February 7
- Bushfires in Victoria leave 173 dead in the worst natural disaster in Australia's history.
- February 13 – At 23:31:30 UTC, the decimal representation of Unix time reached 1234567890 seconds. Celebrations were held around the world, among various technical subcultures, to celebrate the 1234567890th second.
- February 25 – Soldiers of Bangladeshi border security force Bangladesh Rifles (BDR) mutiny and take the commanding army officers and their families hostages at the force's headquarters in Pilkhana, Dhaka. 57 army officers are killed along with 17 civilians by the mutineers.
- February 26 – Former Serbian president Milan Milutinović is acquitted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia regarding war crimes during the Kosovo War.
- March 2 – The President of Guinea-Bissau, João Bernardo Vieira, is assassinated during an armed attack on his residence in Bissau.
- March 4 – The International Criminal Court issues an arrest warrant for Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur. al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to be indicted by the ICC since its establishment in 2002.
- March 7 – NASA's Kepler Mission, a space photometer that will search for extrasolar planets in the Milky Way galaxy, is launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA.
- March 17 – The President of Madagascar, Marc Ravalomanana, is overthrown in a coup d'état, following a month of unrest in Antananarivo.
- April 1 – Albania and Croatia are admitted to NATO, becoming the newest members of the organization.
- April 5 – North Korea launches a rocket from its Tonghae Satellite Launching Ground, which it says is carrying the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 satellite, prompting an emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council.
- April 6 – A 6.3 magnitude earthquake strikes near L'Aquila, Italy, killing 308 and injuring more than 1,500.
- April 21 – UNESCO launches The World Digital Library.
- May 11–24 – Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched to refurbish the Hubble Space Telescope on May 11, landing at Edwards Air Force Base May 24.
- May 12–16 – The Eurovision Song Contest 2009 takes place in Moscow, Russia, and is won by Norwegian entrant Alexander Rybak with the song "Fairytale".
- May 15 – France–Pakistan Atomic Energy Framework bilateral energy treaty is signed.
- May 17 – Minecraft gets its first update by Mojang Studios.
- May 18 – Following more than a quarter-century of fighting, the Sri Lankan Civil War ends with the total military defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
- May 25 – North Korea announces that it has conducted a second successful nuclear test in North Hamgyong Province. The United Nations Security Council condemns the reported test.
- June 1 – Air France Flight 447, en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean, killing all 228 on board.
- June 11 – The outbreak of the H1N1 influenza strain, commonly referred to as "swine flu", is deemed a global pandemic.
- June 12 – Analog television ends in the United States as part of the digital television transition.
- June 13 – Mass protests erupt across Iran following a disputed presidential election in which Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was reelected president, the largest demonstrations in the country since the Iranian Revolution.
- June 18 – NASA launches the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter / LCROSS probes to the Moon, the first American lunar mission since Lunar Prospector in 1998.
- June 21 – Greenland gains self-rule.
- June 25 – The death of American pop star Michael Jackson triggers an outpouring of worldwide grief. Online, reactions to the event cripple several major websites and services, as the abundance of people accessing the web addresses pushes internet traffic to unprecedented and historic levels.
- June 28 – The Military of Honduras ousts Honduran President Manuel Zelaya in a coup d'état, condemned by OAS.
- June 30 – Yemenia Flight 626 crashes off the coast of Moroni, Comoros, killing all but one of the 153 passengers and crew.
- July 5 – Violent riots broke out in Ürümqi, Xinjiang. PRC officials said that a total of 197 people died.
- July 7 – A public memorial service for Michael Jackson is held at Staples Center. It is watched by over 2.5 billion people worldwide.
- July 15 – Caspian Airlines Flight 7908, en route from Tehran, Iran, to Yerevan, Armenia crashes into the Jannatabad village in Qazvin Province ; killing all 168 on board.
- July 16 – Iceland's national parliament, the Althingi, votes to pursue joining the EU.
- July 17 – Two bombs exploded separately at the JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton Hotels in Jakarta, Indonesia, killing 9 people (including 2 suicide bombers) and injuring 53.
- July 22 – The longest total solar eclipse of the 21st century, lasting up to 6 minutes and 38.86 seconds (0.14 seconds shorter than 6 minutes and 39 seconds), occurs over parts of Asia and the Pacific Ocean.
- July 26 – The Islamic extremist group Boko Haram initiates an uprising in Bauchi State, Nigeria and quickly spreads throughout the northern part of the country.
- August 3 – Bolivia becomes the first South American country to declare the right of indigenous people to govern themselves.
- August 7 – Typhoon Morakot hits Taiwan, killing 673 and stranding more than 1,000 via the worst flooding on the island in half a century.
- August 14 – The United Kingdom imposes direct rule on the Turks and Caicos Islands after an inquiry that found evidence of government corruption.
- September 9 – StudioMini, a multitrack audio recording app is first released.
- September 21 – China becomes the first country to succeed a completed clinical trial by a company for the 2009/H1N1 vaccine in the world during the flu pandemic.
- September 22 – WikiLeaks exposes the contents of Kaupthing Bank's internal documents prior to the Icelandic Financial Crisis. These documents showed suspicious amounts of money were loaned to bank owners, and debts being written off.
- September 23 – Korba chimney collapse: At least 45 workers are killed when lightning strikes a chimney under construction in Korba, Chhattisgarh, India, causing it to collapse.
- September 26 –Typhoon Ketsana, PAGASA Name: Ondoy, makes landfall in The Philippines, killing hundreds in Metro Manila and flooding in Huế, Vietnam.
- September 28 - At least 157 demonstrators are massacred by the Guinean military at the Stade du 28 Septembre during a protest against the government that came to power in a coup d'état the previous year.
- September 29 – A 8.1 Mw earthquake strikes Samoa, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong), leaving at least 192 people dead.
- September 30 – A 7.6 Mw earthquake strikes Sumatra, Indonesia, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe), leaving at least 1,115 people dead.
- October 1 – Paleontologists announce the discovery of an Ardipithecus ramidus fossil skeleton, deeming it the oldest remains of a human ancestor yet found.
- October 2
- Ireland holds a second referendum on the EU's Lisbon Treaty. The amendment is approved by the Irish electorate, having been rejected in the Lisbon I referendum held last year.
- The International Olympic Committee awards Rio de Janeiro the right to host the 2016 Summer Olympics.
- October 15 – It is revealed the company Trafigura has been using a super-injunction to stop The Guardian from reporting about the 2006 Côte d'Ivoire toxic dumping incident, which Trafigura was responsible for.
- October 20
- Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono is inaugurated for a second term as President of Indonesia.
- WikiLeaks leaked the membership listing of a radical political group known as the British National Party.
- October 22 – Microsoft releases Windows 7.
- October 23 – The 2009 Cataño oil refinery fire began after an explosion at the refinery in Bayamón, Puerto Rico.
- October 25 – Two suicide attacks in Baghdad, Iraq, kill 155 people and injure at least 721 people.
- October 27 - Riot Games releases MOBA video game League of Legends
- November 3
- The Czech Republic becomes the final member-state of the European Union to sign the Treaty of Lisbon, thereby permitting that document's initiation into European law.
- The Prime Minister of Belgium, Herman Van Rompuy, is designated the first permanent President of the European Council, a position he takes up on December 1, 2009.
- November 10 – Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 was released.
- November 13 – Having analyzed the data from the LCROSS lunar impact, NASA announces that it has found a "significant" quantity of water in the Moon's Cabeus crater.
- November 23 – In the Philippines, at least 58 people are abducted and killed in the province of Maguindanao, in what the Committee to Protect Journalists called the single deadliest attack on journalists in history.
- November 24 – The Avdhela Project, an Aromanian digital library and cultural initiative, is founded in Bucharest, Romania.
- December 1 – The Treaty of Lisbon comes into force.
- December 5 – Fire at the Lame Horse nightclub in Perm, Russia.
- December 7–18 – The UNFCCC's 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference is held in Copenhagen, Denmark.
- December 8 – A series of attacks in Baghdad, Iraq kill at least 127 people and injure at least 448 more.
- December 16 – Astronomers discover GJ 1214 b, the first-known exoplanet on which water could exist.
- December 15 – First flight of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
- December 25 – A Nigerian terrorist plotted an attempted terrorist bombing of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 en route from Amsterdam to Detroit.[importance?]
Births and Deaths
- Chemistry – Ada Yonath, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, and Thomas A. Steitz
- Economics – Elinor Ostrom and Oliver E. Williamson
- Literature – Herta Müller
- Peace – Barack Obama
- Physics – Charles K. Kao, Willard Boyle, and George E. Smith
- Physiology or Medicine – Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, and Jack W. Szostak
New English words
- ^ "News Release – IAU0606: The International Astronomical Union announces the International Year of Astronomy 2009". International Astronomical Union. October 27, 2006. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- ^ "The International Year of Astronomy 2009". IYA2009. Archived from the original on November 3, 2008. Retrieved November 1, 2008.
- ^ "International Astronomical Union | IAU".
- ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 61 Resolution 189. International Year of National Fibres, 2009 A/RES/61/189 December 20, 2006. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
- ^ "Year of the Gorilla". Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. 2009. Archived from the original on September 14, 2014. Retrieved January 1, 2023.
- ^ Watson, Rory (December 29, 2008). "Slovakia adopts the euro on January 1". The Times. London. Retrieved March 9, 2010.(subscription required)
- ^ "'On Our Watch' Litigation Reveals New Details In Police Shooting Of Oscar Grant : On Our Watch". NPR.org. Retrieved January 7, 2023.
- ^ Davis, Joshua (October 11, 2011). "The Crypto-Currency: Bitcoin and its mysterious inventor". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on September 18, 2013. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- ^ Ruane, Michael (January 20, 2009). "D.C.'s Inauguration Head Count: 1.8 Million". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
- ^ "Last Israeli troops 'leave Gaza'". BBC News. January 21, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- ^ Yanir Yagna (February 28, 2009). "At least six Gaza rockets hit southern Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- ^ "Kassam rocket strikes Eshkol Region". The Jerusalem Post. February 26, 2009. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- ^ "'Five rockets' fired into Israel". BBC News. February 28, 2009. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved February 28, 2009.
- ^ "Killer decapitates Va. Tech student, police say - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved January 29, 2023.
- ^ Jurjen van de Pol; Franz Wild (January 26, 2009). "Congo Warlord Pleads Not Guilty at ICC's First Trial (Update1)]". Bloomberg. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- ^ Tran, Mark (January 27, 2009). "Icelandic PM becomes world's first leader to step down over banking system crisis". The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- ^ "Terra Mexico". www.terra.com.mx. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Romero, Simon (January 31, 2009). "Synagogue in Venezuela Vandalized in Break-In". The New York Times. The New York Times. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- ^ "Orthodox Church enthrones leader". BBC News. February 1, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
- ^ "First gay PM for Iceland cabinet". BBC News. February 1, 2009. Retrieved July 16, 2009.
- ^ "Black Saturday: The bushfire disaster that shook Australia". BBC News. February 7, 2019. Retrieved July 4, 2022.
- ^ "Ex-Serbian president acquitted of Kosovo war crimes". Reuters. February 26, 2009. Archived from the original on March 1, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- ^ "President of Guinea-Bissau assassinated". CNN. March 2, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2009.
- ^ "VIDEO: ICC issues arrest warrant for Bashir". Reuters. March 4, 2009. Retrieved March 4, 2009.
- ^ "Madagascar president forced out". BBC News. March 17, 2009. Archived from the original on March 19, 2009. Retrieved March 17, 2009.
- ^ "Albania, Croatia become NATO members". msnbc.com. April 1, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- ^ "U.N. Security Council to meet on N. Korea launch". CNN. April 5, 2009. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
- ^ "BBC: Italian rescuers work into night". BBC News. April 7, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ "U.N. Launches Library Of World's Knowledge". The Washington Post. April 21, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2009.
- ^ "NASA – STS-125". www.nasa.gov.
- ^ Staff reports (May 15, 2009). "Pakistan in 'French nuclear deal'". BBC Pakistan, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- ^ C. Bryson Hull and Ranga Sirilal. "Sri Lanka's long war reaches end, Tigers defeated". Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved May 31, 2009.
- ^ "UN Security Council Condemns North Korea Nuclear Test (Update1)". Bloomberg. May 25, 2009. Retrieved May 31, 2009.
- ^ "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on July 1, 2009. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
- ^ "Police in Iran beat protesters after huge Ahmadinejad win". McClatchy. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- ^ "Jackson dies, almost takes Internet with him". CNN. June 26, 2009.
- ^ "Honduran leader forced into exile". BBC News. June 28, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ "OAS condemns Honduras coup, demands return of Zelaya". World Bulletin. Reuters. Archived from the original on July 2, 2009. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
- ^ "Girl survives Yemen plane crash". BBC News. July 1, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2009.
- ^ Helgason, Gudjon; Meera Selva (July 16, 2009). "Iceland's parliament votes to join EU". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009.
- ^ "Indonesia Bombings Signal Militants' Resilience". The New York Times. July 17, 2009. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
- ^ Abegunrin, Olayiwola (2014). Africa in the New World Order: Peace and Security Challenges in the Twenty-First Century. Lexington. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-7391-9352-5.
- ^ "Evo inicia la implementación de la autonomía indígena con fiesta". La Razón. August 3, 2009. Archived from the original on August 7, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2009. (in Spanish)
- ^ Foster, Peter (August 16, 2009). "Taiwan president under fire for go it alone handling of typhoon accepts US aid". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- ^ "UK imposes Turks and Caicos rule". BBC News. August 14, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- ^ "Pro Audio Software Enters the iPad Arena". Prosoundnews.com. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
- ^ "Miklar hreyfingar rétt fyrir hrun | Ríkisútvarpið vefur". August 9, 2011. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
- ^ Kaiser, Ejaz (January 11, 2010). "Balco chimney mishap: Three Chinese officials arrested in Korba". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2021.
- ^ Nossiter, Adam (September 29, 2009). "Guinea's Capital Fades Into a Ghost Town After Soldiers' Rampage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- ^ "Samoa quake 'triggered tsunami'". BBC News. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
- ^ "Indonesia quake deaths pass 1,000". BBC News. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- ^ Hanson, Brooks (October 2, 2009). "Light on the Origin of Man". Science. 326 (5949): 60–61. doi:10.1126/science.326.5949.60-a.
- ^ "67% vote Yes to Lisbon Treaty". RTÉ News. October 3, 2009. Archived from the original on October 5, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- ^ "Results received at the Central Count Centre for the Referendum on Treaty of Lisbon 2009". Archived from the original on October 4, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009.
- ^ "Irish Ayes on Lisbon Treaty Have Europe Smiling". Time. October 4, 2009. Archived from the original on October 5, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
- ^ "Lisbon II referendum set for 2 October". RTÉ News. July 8, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- ^ "Irish treaty vote set for October". BBC News. July 8, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- ^ "Rio to stage 2016 Olympic Games". BBC News. October 2, 2009. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
- ^ Censorship, Index on (October 14, 2009). "A gag too far". Index on Censorship. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- ^ "BNP membership list appears on Wikileaks". the Guardian. October 20, 2009. Retrieved March 12, 2021.
- ^ "Evacuation from Puerto Rico fire". BBC News. October 24, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2023.
- ^ "BBC NEWS | Middle East | Baghdad bomb fatalities pass 150". news.bbc.co.uk. October 26, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- ^ "CCN.com". CNN. November 3, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ "Tony Blair Has Dropped Out Of The Race To Be EU President As Herman Van Rompuy Gets The Nod – World News". Archived from the original on November 22, 2009. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- ^ "Europa.eu". Consilium.europa.eu. Archived from the original on November 25, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ "Webcast: One week to go until crucial summit – Swedish Presidency of the European Union". Archived from the original on November 15, 2009. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- ^ The Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on December 1, 2009, the six-month rotating presidency of the European Council ceased to exist (as the provision for its existence has been erased from the Treaties in force), and the new office of President of the European Council came into being. The appointment of Herman van Rompuy as President of the European Council became effective on the date of the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. Also, article 6 of the Protocol on transitional provisions annexed to the Treaty of Lisbon provided that on the date of the entry into force of the Treaty, the terms of office of the High Representative for the common foreign and security policy and of the Deputy Secretary General of the Council ceased, with the Council electing a Secretary General. register.consilium.europa.eu Archived March 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "NASA's LCROSS Impacts Confirm Water in Lunar Crater" (Press release). NASA. November 13, 2009. Archived from the original on November 15, 2009. Retrieved November 21, 2009.
Preliminary data from NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, indicates the mission successfully uncovered water in a permanently shadowed lunar crater.
- ^ "NASA finds 'significant' water on moon". CNN. November 13, 2009. Archived from the original on November 16, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- ^ Papa, Alcuin. "Maguindanao massacre worst-ever for journalists". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 2, 2009. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- ^ Baiaș, Ionuț (November 22, 2009). "Avdhela – Biblioteca Culturii Aromâne". HotNews (in Romanian).
- ^ "EU reform treaty passes last test". BBC News. November 3, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ "COP15, United Nations Climate Change Conference, Copenhagen 2009. Dates put back 1 week due to previous clash with Muslim period of Ramadan". Cop15.dk. Archived from the original on January 19, 2009. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ Spencer, Richard. "More than 120 killed in Baghdad bombings". Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
- ^ "Waterworld planet six times the size of Earth discovered". The Telegraph. London. December 17, 2009. Archived from the original on August 4, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ O'Connor, Anahad; Schmitt, Eric (December 25, 2009). "Terror Attempt Seen as Man Tries to Ignite Device on Jet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
- ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- ^ "All Laureates in Economic Sciences". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on August 31, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
- ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on October 8, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2009.
- ^ Ritter, Malcolm (October 5, 2009). "3 Americans share Nobel medicine prize". Associated Press. Archived from the original on October 11, 2009. Retrieved October 5, 2009.
- ^ "Time Traveler by Merriam-Webster: Words from 2009". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved May 5, 2018.