Antizyme RNA frameshifting stimulation element

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Antizyme RNA frameshifting stimulation element
Predicted secondary structure and sequence conservation of Antizyme_FSE
Other data
RNA typeCis-reg; frameshift_element
PDB structuresPDBe

Antizyme RNA frameshifting stimulation element is a structural element which is found in antizyme mRNA and is known to promote frameshifting. Antizyme genes have two partially overlapping open reading frames, the second, which encodes the functional (antizyme) protein requires +1 translational frameshifting. This frameshift is stimulated by a pseudoknot present 3' of the frameshift site in the antizyme mRNA. The frameshifting efficiency is dependent on the concentration of polyamines in the cell, when the polyamine concentration is high frameshifting is more likely to occur which leads to an increase in the quantity of functional antizyme produced. The functional antizyme acts to reduce ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity which leads to a drop in polyamines present in the cell. Therefore, this family can be thought of as a biosensor for intracellular free polyamines that functions via a negative feedback loop.[1]


  1. ^ Ivanov IP, Anderson CB, Gesteland RF, Atkins JF (2004). "Identification of a new antizyme mRNA +1 frameshifting stimulatory pseudoknot in a subset of diverse invertebrates and its apparent absence in intermediate species". J Mol Biol. 339 (3): 495–504. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.082. PMC 7125782. PMID 15147837.

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