Emiliano Chamorro Vargas

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Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
President of Nicaragua
In office
14 March 1926 – 11 November 1926
Preceded byCarlos José Solórzano
Succeeded bySebastián Uriza
In office
1 January 1917 – 1 January 1921
Vice PresidentNemesio Martínez
Preceded byAdolfo Díaz
Succeeded byDiego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños
Personal details
Born(1871-05-11)11 May 1871
Acoyapa, Nicaragua
Died26 February 1966(1966-02-26) (aged 94)
Managua, Nicaragua
Political partyConservative Party
RelationsPedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro (granduncle)
Fruto Chamorro Pérez (half-granduncle)

Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (11 May 1871 – 26 February 1966) was a Nicaraguan military figure and politician who served as President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1917 to 1 January 1921. He was a member of the Conservative Party.

He lost the 1924 Nicaraguan general election. He launched a coup in 1925 against President Carlos José Solórzano. Chamorro was interim president from 14 March to 11 November 1926.[1]


Early political career[edit]

In 1909, Chamorro participated in a failed revolution to topple liberal President José Santos Zelaya. When Zelaya was finally removed in a 1909 coup led by Juan José Estrada, Chamorro became Chairman of the Constituent Assembly and leader of the country's Conservative Party.

As a reward for his assistance in defeating the revolt against President Adolfo Díaz, Chamorro was appointed Nicaragua's Minister to the United States. In 1914, he negotiated the Bryan–Chamorro Treaty with the United States, by which Nicaragua agreed to allow the construction of a canal across the country, linking the Caribbean with the Pacific Ocean (a canal that has not been constructed).

As President of Nicaragua[edit]

He returned to Nicaragua in 1916, and was elected president. His Conservative Party received US assistance in attaining power, and Chamorro later partnered with the United States.[2] During his term in office he made a concentrated effort to pay off the country's creditors. Running again for office in 1923, he was defeated by Carlos José Solórzano. In 1926, he led a successful coup to overthrow Solórzano, but his new government failed to win American support[3] and faced a civil war, and he eventually resigned in favor of Adolfo Díaz.

Later career[edit]

In the following years, Chamorro served as Nicaragua's minister to several European states. Originally opposed to the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza García, he eventually reached a compromise in 1950 (The Pact of the Generals[1]), whereby the Conservative Party was granted a number of seats in the Congress. This, however, cost him the support of many radical members of the Conservative Party.


Emiliano Chamorro Vargas came from a very influential family in Nicaragua, both politically and economically.

His ancestors were:[4]

  • Diego Chamorro de Sotomayor y Murga b. 1711 Sevilla, Spain, d. 1785 Nicaragua and Gregoria Vargas Baez, She died on 28 March 1936, in Comalapa, Chontales, Nicaragua.
  • Fernando Chamorro Lacayo b. 1751 Granada, Nicaragua d. 1793 Granada, Nicaragua and Bárbara Nicolasa Argüello del Castillo b. 1756 Granada, Nicaragua d. 1785 Granada, Nicaragua
  • Pedro José Chamorro Argüello b. 29 Dec 1782 Granada, Nicaragua, d. 31 May 1824 Granada, army general, and Josefa Margarita Alfaro Jimenez-Monterroso b. 1794 Granada, Nicaragua, d. 1884 Granada, Nicaragua
  • Dionisio Chamorro Alfaro b. ABT 1817 Granada, Nicaragua, d. 3 July 1889 Granada, and Mercedes Antonia Oreamuno Abaunza b. 9 June 1834 Masaya, Nicaragua, d. 3 July 1889 Granada, Nicaragua
  • Salvador Chamorro Oreamuno and Gregoria Vargas Báez b.. 1853 Juigalpa, Chontales, d. 1936 Juigalpa, Chontales

He was nephew of President Rosendo Chamorro Oreamuno, half-grand nephew of President Frutos Chamorro Pérez, nephew of President Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños and grand nephew of Presidents Fernando Chamorro Alfaro and Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro.

He was the only child of Salvador Chamorro Oreamuno and Gregoria Vargas Báez. His mother remarried to Evaristo de la Rosa Enríquez and had nine other children, half siblings of Emiliano. Evaristo Enríquez was brother to Emiliano´s father in law, Ceferino Enríquez.

Chamorro married Lastenia Enríquez Bermúdez, b. abt 1875 Comalapa, Chontales d. 7 April 1952 Managua, daughter of Ceferino Enríquez and Isabel Bermúdez. He later married Mercedes Rodríguez Urbina. He did not have children and left all his fortune to his nephews, both from the Chamorro and the Enriquez family.

In popular culture[edit]

A portrait of Chamorro appears as a plot element in the novel Spalovač mrtvol by the Czech writer Ladislav Fuks, published in 1967. A film adaptation, directed by Juraj Herz, was released in 1969.[5]


  1. ^ "Gobernantes de Nicaragua". Ministerio de Educación. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012.
  2. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2013). The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War. New York: Times Books.
  3. ^ Woolsey, L. H. (1926). "The Non-Recognition of the Chamobro Government in Nicaragua". American Journal of International Law. 20 (3): 543–549. doi:10.2307/2189042. ISSN 0002-9300.
  4. ^ "Chamorro". 25 February 2020.
  5. ^ "Spalovac mrtvol (The Cremator) (1969)". Archived from the original on January 18, 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by President of Nicaragua
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Nicaragua
Succeeded by