George Floyd protests
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
|George Floyd protests|
|Part of the 2020–21 United States racial unrest and the Black Lives Matter movement|
|Date||May 26, 2020 – present|
(10 months and 3 weeks)
(protests in other countries)
|Methods||Protests, demonstrations, civil disobedience, civil resistance, online activism, strike action, riots|
|Deaths, arrests and damages|
|Death(s)||19+ (as of June 8, 2020)[a]|
The George Floyd protests are an ongoing series of police brutality protests that began in Minneapolis in the United States on May 26, 2020. The civil unrest and protests began as part of international responses to the killing of George Floyd, a 46-year-old African-American man who was killed during an arrest after Derek Chauvin, a Minneapolis Police Department officer, knelt on Floyd's neck for 9 minutes and 29 seconds as three other officers looked on and prevented passers-by from intervening. Chauvin and the other three officers involved were later arrested.
Local protests began in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota before quickly spreading nationwide and to over 2,000 cities and towns in over 60 countries in support of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement. Polls in summer 2020 estimated that between 15 million and 26 million people had participated at some point in the demonstrations in the United States, making the protests the largest in U.S. history.
While the majority of protests have been peaceful, demonstrations in some cities escalated into riots, looting, and street skirmishes with police and counter-protesters. Some police responded to protests with instances of notable violence, including against reporters. At least 200 cities in the U.S. had imposed curfews by early June 2020, while more than 30 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 96,000 National Guard, State Guard, 82nd Airborne, and 3rd Infantry Regiment service members. The deployment, when combined with preexisting deployments related to the COVID-19 pandemic and other natural disasters, constituted the largest military operation other than war in U.S. history. By the end of June, at least 14,000 people had been arrested. It was later estimated that between May 26 and August 22, 93% of individual protests were "peaceful and nondestructive" and The Washington Post estimated that by the end of June, 96.3% of 7,305 demonstrations involved no injuries and no property damage. Nevertheless, arson, vandalism, and looting between May 26 and June 8 were tabulated to have caused $1–2 billion in insured damages nationally—the highest recorded damage from civil disorder in U.S. history, "eclipsing the record set in Los Angeles in 1992 after the acquittal of the police officers who beat Rodney King."
The protests precipitated a worldwide debate on racial injustice that has led to numerous legislative proposals on federal, state, and municipal levels intended to combat police misconduct, systemic racism, qualified immunity and police brutality, while the Trump administration drew widespread criticism for what critics called its hard line rhetoric and aggressive, militarized response. The protests led to a wave of monument removals and name changes throughout the world. The protests occurred during the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic and amidst the 2020 United States presidential election season. Local protests continued through 2020, primarily[clarification needed] at George Floyd Square, and into 2021.
Local officials in Minneapolis–Saint Paul prepared for the possibility of continued unrest in 2021 with the trial of Derek Chauvin scheduled for March. Officials spent over $1 million on fencing and other security measures around the Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis, the location of Chauvin's trial. Groups of protesters gathered outside the courthouse building during the trial and marched on the streets calling for justice.
Police brutality protests in the United States
Cases of police misconduct and fatal use of force by law enforcement officers in the U.S., particularly against African Americans, have long led the civil rights movement and other activists to protest against a lack of police accountability in incidents they see as involving excessive force. Many protests during the civil rights movement were in response to the perception of police brutality, including the 1965 Watts riots which resulted in the deaths of 34 people, mostly African Americans. The largest post-civil rights movement protest in the 20th Century was the 1992 Los Angeles riots, which were in response to the acquittal of police officers responsible for excessive force against Rodney King, an African American man.
In 2014, the shooting of Michael Brown by police in Ferguson, Missouri resulted in local protests and unrest while the death of Eric Garner in New York City resulted in numerous national protests. After Eric Garner and George Floyd repeatedly said "I can't breathe" during their arrests, the phrase became a protest slogan against police brutality. In 2015 the death of Freddie Gray in Baltimore police custody resulted in riots in the city and nationwide protests as part of the Black Lives Matter movement. Several nationally publicized incidents occurred in Minnesota, including the 2015 shooting of Jamar Clark in Minneapolis; the 2016 shooting of Philando Castile in Falcon Heights; and the 2017 shooting of Justine Damond. In 2016, Tony Timpa was killed by Dallas police officers in the same way as George Floyd. In March 2020, the fatal shooting of Breonna Taylor by police executing a search warrant at her Kentucky apartment was also widely publicized.
Measures taken against the COVID-19 pandemic, including closure of non-essential businesses and implementation of stay-at-home orders, had significant economic and social impact on many Americans as millions had lost their jobs and were made more economically vulnerable.
Killing of George Floyd
According to a police statement, on May 25, 2020, at 8:08 p.m. CDT, Minneapolis Police Department (MPD) officers responded to a 9-1-1 call regarding a "forgery in progress" on Chicago Avenue South in Powderhorn, Minneapolis. MPD Officers Thomas K. Lane and J. Alexander Kueng arrived with their body cameras turned on. A store employee told officers that the man was in a nearby car. Officers approached the car and ordered George Floyd, a 46-year-old African American man, who according to police "appeared to be under the influence", to exit the vehicle, at which point he "physically resisted". According to the MPD, officers "were able to get the suspect into handcuffs, and noted he appeared to be suffering medical distress. Officers called for an ambulance." Once Floyd was handcuffed, he and Officer Lane walked to the sidewalk. Floyd sat on the ground at Officer Lane's direction. In a short conversation, the officer asked Floyd for his name and identification, explaining that he was being arrested for passing counterfeit currency, and asked if he was "on anything". According to the report officers Kueng and Lane attempted to help Floyd to their squad car, but at 8:14 p.m., Floyd stiffened up and fell to the ground. Soon, MPD Officers Derek Chauvin and Tou Thao arrived in a separate squad car. The officers made several more failed attempts to get Floyd into the squad car.
Floyd, who was still handcuffed, went to the ground face down. Officer Kueng held Floyd's back and Lane held his legs. Chauvin placed his left knee in the area of Floyd's head and neck. A Facebook Live livestream recorded by a bystander showed Officer Derek Chauvin kneeling on Floyd's neck. Floyd repeatedly tells Chauvin "Please" and "I can't breathe", while a bystander is heard telling the police officer, "You got him down. Let him breathe." After some time, a bystander points out that Floyd was bleeding from his nose while another bystander tells the police that Floyd is "not even resisting arrest right now", to which the police tell the bystanders that Floyd was "talking, he's fine". A bystander replies saying Floyd "ain't fine". A bystander then protests that the police were preventing Floyd from breathing, urging them to "get him off the ground ... You could have put him in the car by now. He's not resisting arrest or nothing." Floyd then goes silent and motionless. Chauvin does not remove his knee until an ambulance arrives. Emergency medical services put Floyd on a stretcher. Not only had Chauvin knelt on Floyd's neck for about seven minutes (including four minutes after Floyd stopped moving) but another video showed an additional two officers had also knelt on Floyd while another officer watched.
Although the police report stated that medical services were requested prior to the time Floyd was placed in handcuffs, according to the Minneapolis Star Tribune, Emergency Medical Services arrived at the scene six minutes after getting the call. Medics were unable to detect a pulse, and Floyd was pronounced dead at the hospital. An autopsy of Floyd was conducted on May 26, and the next day, the preliminary report by the Hennepin County Medical Examiner's Office was published, which found "no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation". Floyd's underlying health conditions included coronary artery disease and hypertensive heart disease. The initial report said that "the combined effects of Mr. Floyd being restrained by the police, his underlying health conditions and any potential intoxicants in his system likely contributed to his death." The medical examiner further said Floyd was "high on fentanyl and had recently used methamphetamine at the time of his death".
On May 26, Chauvin and the other three officers were fired. He was charged with third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter; the former charge was later changed to second-degree murder.
On June 1, a private autopsy commissioned by the family of Floyd ruled the death a homicide and found that Floyd had died due to asphyxiation from sustained pressure, which conflicted with the original autopsy report done earlier that week. Shortly after, the official post-mortem declared Floyd's death a homicide. Video footage of Officer Derek Chauvin applying 8 minutes 15 seconds of sustained pressure to Floyd's neck generated global attention and raised questions about the use of force by law enforcement.
In Minneapolis–Saint Paul
Organized protests began in Minneapolis on May 26, the day after George Floyd's killing and when a video of the incident had circulated widely in the media. By midday, people had gathered by the thousands at the location of Floyd's death and set up a makeshift memorial. Organizers of the rally emphasized keeping the protest peaceful. Protesters and Floyd's family demanded that all four officers at the scene of his arrest and death be charged with murder and that judicial consequences were swift. That evening, the protest rally turned into a march to the Minneapolis Police Department's third precinct station where the officers were believed to work. After the main protest group disbanded on the night of May 26, a much smaller group, numbering in the hundreds, spray-painted the building, threw rocks and bottles, broke a window at the station and vandalized a squad car. A skirmish soon broke out between the vandals and protesters trying to stop them. At around 8 p.m., police fired tear gas and rubber bullets at demonstrators, some of whom had thrown water bottles at police officers.
Protests were held at several locations throughout the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area in subsequent days. The situation escalated the nights of May 27 to 29 where widespread arson, rioting, and looting took place, which were noted as a contrast to daytime protests that were characterized as mostly peaceful events. Some initial acts of property destruction on May 27 by a 32-year-old man with ties to white supremacist organizations, who local police investigators said was deliberately inciting racial tension, led to a chain reaction of fires and looting. The unrest, including people overtaking the Minneapolis third precinct police station and setting it on fire the night of May 28, garnered significant national and international media attention. After state officials mobilized Minnesota National Guard troops in its largest deployment since World War II, the violent unrest subsided and mostly peaceful protests resumed. However, the violence by early June 2020 had resulted in two deaths, 604 arrests, and upwards of $500 million in property damage to 1,500 locations, making it the second-most destructive period of local unrest in United States history, after the 1992 Los Angeles riots.
In Minneapolis, the protest movement over George Floyd's death was deeply rooted at the East 38th Street and Chicago Avenue intersection where he was killed. Protesters barricaded the street intersection and transformed it into a makeshift memorial site, which was adorned with public art installments and described as like a "shrine". Thousands of visitors protested and grieved at the site. When Minneapolis city officials attempted to negotiate the re-opening of the intersection in August 2020, protesters demanded that before removing cement barricades the city meet a list of 24 demands, which included holding the trial for the four officers at the scene of Floyd's death.
In early 2021, Minneapolis and Hennepin County officials spent $1 million on fencing and other barricades for police stations and other government buildings to prepare for potential civil unrest during the trial of Derek Chauvin that loomed in March. State and local officials also made plans to deploy thousands of police officers and National Guard soldiers. In early March, in the days preceding Chauvin's trial, local organizers staged peaceful protests. The situation at George Floyd Square in Minneapolis grew tense when a person was fatally shot inside the protester-held "autonomous zone" during an altercation on March 6, 2021. In March and April of 2021, groups of protesters gathered at George Floyd Square and outside Hennepin County Government Center in Minneapolis during Chauvin's trial, but the streets of Minneapolis were largely empty of mass demonstrations like those in late May and early June of 2020.
Elsewhere in the United States
Protests outside the Minneapolis area were first reported on May 27 in Memphis and Los Angeles. It is unclear if demonstrators were reacting to the graphic video of Floyd's death or the culmination of a string of black American deaths, preceded by Ahmaud Arbery in Atlanta on February 23 and Breonna Taylor in Louisville on March 13. By May 28, protests had sprung up in several major U.S. cities with demonstrations increasing each day. By June, protests had been held in all U.S. states. At least 200 cities had imposed curfews, and at least 27 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 62,000 National Guard personnel in response to the unrest.
In Seattle, starting in early June, protesters occupied an area of several city blocks after the police vacated it, declaring it the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone, where according to protesters "the police are forbidden, food is free and documentaries are screened at night". On June 11, President Trump challenged mayor Jenny Durkan and governor Jay Inslee to "take back your city", and implying, according to Durkan, the possibility of a military response.
On June 3, as U.S. protests gained momentum, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey tweeted a recommendation for users to download end-to-end encryption (E2EE) messaging app Signal. On June 6, an estimated half million people joined protests in 550 places in the United States. By June 11, The New York Times reported that protest organizers relied on the E2EE app "to devise action plans and develop strategies for handling possible arrests for several years" and that downloads had "skyrocketed" with increased awareness of police monitoring leading protesters to use the app to communicate among themselves. During the first week of June, the encrypted messaging app was downloaded over five times more than it had been during the week prior to the death of George Floyd. Citizen, a community safety app, also experienced a high spike in downloads.
On June 10, thousands of academics, universities, scientific institutions, professional bodies and publishing houses around the world shut down to give researchers time to reflect and act upon anti-Black racism in academia. Organisations involved with #ShutDownSTEM day include Nature Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the American Physical Society.
On June 14, an estimated 15,000 people gathered outside the Brooklyn Museum at Grand Army Plaza for the Liberation March, a silent protest in response to police brutality and violence against black transgender women. Frustrated by the lack of media coverage over the deaths of Nina Pop, who was stabbed in Sikeston, Missouri on May 3 and Tony McDade, who was shot by police in Tallahassee, Florida on May 27, artist and drag performer West Dakota and her mentor, drag queen Merrie Cherry, decided to organize a silent rally inspired by the 1917 NAACP Silent Parade. The march generated widespread media attention as one of the largest peaceful protests in modern New York City history.
On June 19, Juneteenth, the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU) shut down ports on the West Coast in solidarity with protesters. An educator from the University of Washington said that the union has a history of protest and leftist politics since its founding: "[The ILWU] understood that division along the lines of race only benefited employers, because it weakened the efforts of workers to act together and to organize together. The UAW also asked members to join the protests by standing down for 8 minutes and 46 seconds, the amount of time Chauvin was initially reported to have held his knee to Floyd's neck.
On June 17, in response to the protests, three different police reform plans, plans from the Republicans, the Democrats, and the White House, were unveiled aiming to curb police brutality and the use of violence by law enforcement. On June 25, NPR reported that the hopes for passage were doubtful because they were "short-circuited by a lack of bipartisan consensus on an ultimate plan [and] the issue is likely stalled, potentially until after the fall election".
Protests continued over the weekend of June 19 in many cities, and observations of Juneteenth gained a new awareness. Jon Batiste, bandleader for The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, took part in a Juneteenth day of protests, marches, rallies and vigils to "celebrate, show solidarity, and fight for equal rights and treatment of Black people" in Brooklyn. Batiste also appeared in concert with Matt Whitaker in a performance presented in partnership with Sing For Hope, performed on the steps of the Brooklyn Public Library.
As of July 3, protests were ongoing. Over the course of the demonstrations, protests have occurred in over 40% of the counties in the United States. Polls suggesting between 15 million and 26 million people participated, which would make these demonstrations the largest in United States history.
On July 20, the Strike for Black Lives, a mass walkout intended to raise awareness of systemic racism, featured thousands of workers across the United States walking off their jobs for approximately 8 minutes, in honor of Floyd.
For some Black Americans, particularly a group interviewed in George Floyd's hometown in Houston, Texas, the protests over Floyd's death transformed to greater political activity and increased voter turnout in the November 2020 election.
Elsewhere in the world
Solidarity protests over Floyd's death quickly spread worldwide. Protests in Canada, Europe, Oceania, Asia, and Africa have rallied against what they perceived as racial discrimination and police brutality, with some protests aimed at United States embassies.
Over the weekend of June 7 and 8, surfers around the world held a "Paddle Out", a Hawaiian mourning tradition, for George Floyd and all the lives lost to police violence. Thousands observed the tradition in Honolulu, Hawaii, La Jolla, Hermosa Beach and Santa Monica, California, Galveston, Hackensack, New Jersey, Rockaway Beach, New York, Biarritz, France, Senegal and Australia.
Activation of non-local forces
At least 200 cities in the U.S. had imposed curfews by early June, while more than 30 states and Washington, D.C. activated over 96,000 National Guard and State Guard service members. The deployment constitutes the largest military operation other than war in U.S. history.
United States President Donald Trump controversially threatened to deploy the 82nd Airborne and 3rd Infantry Regiment in response to the unrest. On June 3 he said "If a city or state refuses to take the actions necessary to defend the life and property of their residents, then I will deploy the United States military and quickly solve the problem." This would require invoking the Insurrection Act of 1807, last used to quell the 1992 Los Angeles riots on May 1, 1992 by Executive Order 12804. Arkansas senator Tom Cotton also pushed for the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division to be deployed to quell the unrest, calling protesters "Antifa terrorists". Cotton tweeted "No quarter for insurrectionists, anarchists, rioters, and looters." However, many legal experts said this would violate the Department of Defense Law of War Manual, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and Additional Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions. Cotton later said he was using "no quarter" in a colloquial sense, but Mark Zaid and Tom Nichols responded that the legal definition of the term is a war crime. Massachusetts Representative Seth Moulton said federal troops should "lay down [their] arms" if deployed in the United States.
On June 4, federal agencies added about 1.7 miles (2.7 km) of fencing around the White House, Lafayette Square, and The Ellipse. Protesters used the fencing to post signs and artwork expressing their views. On June 11, the fencing was taken down, and some signs were collected by Smithsonian Museum curators from the National Museum of African American History and Culture. U.S. Customs and Border Protection, authorized to provide aerial surveillance "to assist law enforcement and humanitarian relief efforts" when requested, provided drone imagery during the protests.
Federal policing of protests
As of June 5, 2,950 federal law enforcement personnel from a dozen agencies, including the Secret Service, Capital Police, Park Police, Customs and Border Protection, FBI's Hostage Rescue Team, Bureau of Prisons' Special Operations Response Team, DEA's Special Response Team, ATF, and Marshals Service's Special Operations Group, have been dispatched to assist local authorities, with most of them being garrisoned in D.C. The DEA's legal authority was specifically expanded by the Department of Justice beyond usual limits to include surveillance of protesters and the ability to arrest for non-drug related offenses. In response, Representatives Jerry Nadler and Karen Bass of the House Judiciary Committee denounced the move and requested a formal briefing from DEA Acting Administrator Timothy Shea.
On June 26, President Trump signed an executive order permitting federal agencies to provide personnel "to assist with the protection of Federal monuments, memorials, statues, or property". Following the executive order, the Department of Homeland Security sent officers from Customs and Border Protection to Portland, Oregon, Seattle, and Washington, D.C. This was a departure from Homeland Security's normal role of protecting against threats from abroad. Critics accused federal authorities of overstepping their jurisdiction and using excessive force against protesters. Oregon governor Kate Brown called for federal agents to scale back their response and criticized Trump's actions: "President Trump deploying armed federal officers to Portland only serves to escalate tensions and, as we saw yesterday, will inevitably lead to unnecessary violence and confrontation." Portland mayor Ted Wheeler demanded the agents be removed after citizens were detained far from the federal property agents were sent to protect.
From at least July 14, unidentified federal officers wearing camouflage used unmarked vans to detain protesters in Portland, Oregon—sometimes without explaining the reason for their arrest. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) called these actions unconstitutional kidnappings. In The Nation, Jeet Heer also called the actions unconstitutional and wrote that "The deployment of unidentified federal officers is particularly dangerous in... Portland and elsewhere in America, because it could easily lead to right-wing militias' impersonating legal authorities and kidnapping citizens."
Violence and controversies
As of June 22, 2020, police have made 14,000 arrests in 49 cities since the protests began, with most arrests being locals charged with low-level offenses such as violating curfews or blocking roadways. As of June 8, 2020, at least 19 people have died during the protests. Several protests over Floyd's death, including one in Chicago, turned into riots. On May 29, 2020, civil rights leader Andrew Young stated that riots, violence, and looting "hurt the cause instead of helping it". George Floyd's family has denounced the violent protests. A study conducted by the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project found that about 93% of 7,750 protests from May 26 through August 22 remained peaceful and nondestructive.
There have been numerous reports and videos of aggressive police actions using physical force including "batons, tear gas, pepper spray and rubber bullets on protesters, bystanders and journalists, often without warning or seemingly unprovoked". These incidents have provoked "growing concern that aggressive law enforcement tactics intended to impose order were instead inflaming tensions". The police responded that such tactics are necessary to prevent vandalism and arson, and that police officers themselves have been assaulted with thrown rocks and water bottles. Amnesty International issued a press release calling for the police to end excessive militarized responses to the protests.
At least 66 incidents of vehicles driving into crowds of protesters were recorded from May 27 to July 6, with at least four ruled accidental and seven involving police officers. Since 2015, such actions have been encouraged against Black Lives Matter protests by "Run Them Over" and "All Lives Splatter" memes online, as well as items posted on Fox News and on social media by police officers.
There have been allegations of foreign influence stoking the unrest online, with the role of outside powers being additive rather than decisive as of May 31. Several analysts have said that there was a lack of evidence for foreign meddling – whether to spread disinformation or sow divisiveness – but suggest that the messaging and coverage from these countries has more to do with global politics.
Police attacks on journalists
According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, at least 100 journalists have been arrested while covering the protests, while 114 have been physically attacked by police officers. Although some journalists have been attacked by protesters, over 80% of incidents involving violence against the news media were committed by law enforcement officers. The Committee to Protect Journalists has accused police officers of intentionally targeting news crews in an attempt to intimidate them from covering the protests. Some journalists covering the protests in Minneapolis had their tires slashed by Minnesota State Patrol troopers and Anoka County sheriff's deputies.
Injuries caused by police projectiles
During the week of May 30, 12 people, including protesters, journalists and bystanders, were partially blinded after being struck with police projectiles. By June 21, at least 20 people had suffered serious eye injuries. The American Academy of Ophthalmology has called on police departments to stop using rubber bullets for crowd control, writing in a statement that "Americans have the right to speak and congregate publicly and should be able to exercise that right without the fear of blindness."
There have been accusations of various extremist groups using the cover of the protests to foment general unrest in the United States. CNN initially reported on May 31 that "although interference in this way may be happening, federal and local officials have yet to provide evidence to the public."
A number of Trump administration officials and politicians such as New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio and FBI Director Christopher A. Wray have alleged that "anarchists" and "far-left extremist" groups, including "Antifa", were exploiting the situation or were responsible for violence. However, there is no evidence that antifa-aligned individuals played a role in instigating the protests or violence or that antifa played a significant role in the protests, and the Trump administration has provided no evidence for its claims. The vast majority of protests were peaceful; among the 14,000 arrests made, most were for minor offenses such as alleged curfew violations or blocking a roadway. Persons involved in visible crimes such as arson or property damage were not ideologically organized, although some were motivated by anger towards police. Episodes of looting were committed by "regular criminal groups" and street gangs and was motivated by personal gain rather than ideology. A large number of white nationalists did not appear in response to the protests, although "a handful of apparent lone actors" were arrested for attempting to harm protesters. However, there was a scattered number of armed paramilitary-style militia movement groups and there were "several cases where members of these groups discharged firearms, causing chaos or injuring protesters".
According to the Institute for Research and Education on Human Rights (IREHR), which mapped the appearance of various right-wing or far-right actors or extremist groups at rallies throughout the United States, there had been 136 confirmed cases of right-wing participation at the protests by June 19, with many more unconfirmed. Boogaloo, Three Percenters, Oath Keepers, Proud Boys, neo-Confederates, white nationalists, and an assortment of militias and vigilante groups reportedly had a presence at some protests, mostly in small towns and rural areas.
Boogaloo groups, who are generally pro-gun, anti-government, and far-right accelerationists, have reportedly been present at no less than 40 George Floyd protests, several reportedly linked with violence. Their continued presence online has caused Facebook and TikTok to take action against their violent and anti-government posts. On July 25, 2020, 28-year old armed Black Lives Matter protester Garrett Foster was shot and killed in an altercation with a motorist in Downtown Austin. Foster identified with the boogaloo movement and had expressed anti-racist, libertarian, and anti-police views in his Facebook posts. Police said initial reports indicate that Foster was carrying an AK-47 style rifle, and was pushing his fiancée's wheelchair moments before he was killed.
By late 2020, the United States Attorney's office had charged three alleged members of Boogaloo Bois movement who attempted to capitalize on the unrest in Minneapolis in late May. One of the persons, Benjamin Ryan Teeter, a 22-year old from Hampstead, North Carolina, pled guilty to several federal criminal charges. Officials believed he travelled to Minneapolis in the days after Floyd's death to participate in rioting and looting and that he also had plans to destroy a courthouse.
Many individuals and celebrities used social media to document the protests, spread information, promote donation sites, and post memorials to George Floyd. Following Floyd's death, a 15-year-old started a Change.org petition titled "Justice for George Floyd", demanding that all four police officers involved be charged. The petition was both the largest and fastest-growing in the site's history, reaching over 13 million signatures. During this time, multiple videos of the protests, looting, and riots were shared by journalists and protesters with many videos going viral. One such video was of a destroyed and smoky Minneapolis Target store that the poster claimed was damaged during the protests.
Facebook's decision not to remove or label President Trump's tweet of "When the looting starts, the shooting starts" prompted complaints from Facebook employees that political figures were getting a special exemption from the site's content policies. Actions included internal petition, questioning the CEO at an employee town hall, some resignations, and an employee walkout.
A remix of Childish Gambino's song "This is America" and Post Malone's "Congratulations" was used heavily by protesters sharing footage of protests and police action on TikTok. Others used personal Twitter pages to post video documentation of the protests to highlight police and protesters actions, as well as points of the protests they felt would not be reported. One example was a viral photo that appears to show white women protesters standing with their arms locked between Louisville Metro Police Officers and protesters, with the caption describing the image and "This is love. This is what you do with your privilege."
Viral images of officers "taking a knee" with protesters and engaging in joint displays against police brutality, highlighted by hashtags such as #WalkWithUs, have circulated widely on social media. These acts have been identified by some cultural critics as copaganda, or "feel-good images" to boost public relations. Official social media accounts of police departments boosted positive images of collaboration. In some cases, these displays of solidarity, such as police kneeling, have been recognized as occurring moments before police teargassed crowds or inflicted violence on them. An article in The Fader characterized these acts as public relations tactics which were being undermined by police violence, "It feels like we go past the point of no return several times each day."
American K-pop fan accounts hijacked right wing and pro-Trump hashtags on social media, flooding trending hashtags with images and videos of their favorite artists. Users attempting to look up the hashtags #WhiteLivesMatter, #WhiteoutWednesday and #BlueLivesMatter were met with messages and video clips of dancing idols. After the Dallas Police Department asked Twitter users to submit videos of protesters' illegal activity to its iWatch Dallas app, submissions of K-pop videos led to the temporary removal of the app due to "technical difficulties".
On May 28, hacktivist group Anonymous released a video to Facebook and the Minneapolis Police Department entitled "Anonymous Message To The Minneapolis Police Department", in which they state that they are going to seek revenge on the Minneapolis Police Department, and "expose their crimes to the world". According to Bloomberg, the video was initially posted on an unconfirmed Anonymous Facebook page.
Minnesota Governor Tim Walz speculated that there was "an organized attempt to destabilize civil society", initially stating that as many as 80% of the individuals had possibly come from outside the state, and the mayor of St. Paul, Melvin Carter, said everyone arrested in St. Paul on May 29 was from out of state. However, jail records showed that the majority of those arrested were in-state. At a press conference later the same day, Carter explained that he had "shared… arrest data received in [his] morning police briefing which [he] later learned to be inaccurate".
Numerous eyewitness accounts and news reporters indicated that tear gas was used to disperse protesters in Lafayette Square. Despite this evidence, U.S. Park Police officials said, "USPP officers and other assisting law enforcement partners did not use tear gas or OC Skat Shells to close the area at Lafayette Park", adding that they only used "pepper balls" and "smoke canisters". Donald Trump's presidential campaign demanded news outlets retract reports of "tear gas" use. President Trump called the reports "fake" and said "they didn't use tear gas."
On the night of May 31, exterior lights on the north side of the White House went dark as usual at 11pm, while protesters were demonstrating outside. The Guardian mistakenly reported that "in normal times, they are only ever turned off when a president dies." A 2015 stock photograph of the White House, edited to show the lights turned off, was shared tens of thousands of times online, including by Hillary Clinton. While the photograph did not depict the building at the time of the protests, Deputy White House Press Secretary Hogan Gidley confirmed that the lights "go out at about 11 p.m. almost every night".
On June 6, the New York Post reported that a NYPD source said $2.4 million of Rolex watches had been looted during protests from a Soho Rolex store. However, the store in question was actually a Watches of Switzerland outlet that denied anything was stolen. Rolex confirmed that "no watches of any kind were stolen, as there weren't any on display in the store."
A June 12 article by The Seattle Times found that Fox News published a photograph of the Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone that had been digitally altered to include a man armed with an assault rifle. The Fox News website also used a photograph of a burning scene from the Minnesota protests to illustrate their articles on Seattle's protests. Fox removed the images and issued an apology, stating the digitally altered image was a collage that "did not clearly delineate" splicing.
False stories about "Antifa buses" caused panic in rural counties throughout the country, despite there being no evidence that they exist. The Associated Press has cataloged at least five separate rural counties where locals have warned of imminent attacks, although none of the rumors have been substantiated. As a result of the rumors, several people have been harassed, including a multi-racial family in Forks, Washington. Hundreds of members of armed self-proclaimed militias and far right groups gathered in Gettysburg National Military Park on Independence Day in response to a fake online claim that antifa protesters were planning on burning the U.S. flag.
Some social media users spread images of damage from other protests or incidents, falsely attributing the damage to the George Floyd protests. Some users claimed a man videoed breaking the windows of an AutoZone in Minneapolis on May 27 was an undercover Saint Paul Police officer; the Saint Paul Police Department denied these claims through a statement on Twitter. Additionally, SPPD released a montage of surveillance videos in an effort to prove that the officer who was accused of smashing the windows was actually 9 mi (14 km) away when the incident occurred. The man accused of smashing the windows of the AutoZone was later identified by authorities as a white supremacist agitator.
Twitter suspended hundreds of accounts associated with spreading a false claim about a communications blackout during protests in Washington, D.C., or a claim that authorities had blocked protesters from communicating on their smartphones. Also, some accounts shared a photo of a major fire burning near the Washington Monument, which was actually an image from a television show.
George Soros, a billionaire investor and philanthropist, has been falsely accused by far-right and conservative conspiracy theorists on social media and in online advertisements of orchestrating and funding the protests.
A week into the protests, The Washington Post stated that the current situation suggests that the status quo was undergoing a shock, with the article stating "the past days have suggested that something is changing. The protests reached into every corner of the United States and touched nearly every strand of society." Joe Biden told Politico that he had experienced an awakening and thought other White Americans had as well, saying: "Ordinary folks who don't think of themselves as having a prejudiced bone in their body, don't think of themselves as racists, have kind of had the mask pulled off." Large amounts of journalistic and academic sources have viewed the protests as forcing Americans to face racial inequality, police brutuality and other racial and economic issues. Many have stated that the current unrest is due to the current political and cultural system of overlooking, ignoring and oppression of Black Americans, calling it a racial reckoning. Politico said the killing of George Floyd, captured on video, had "prompted a reckoning with racism [...] for a wide swath of white America." Deva Woodly, Associate Professor of Politics at The New School for Social Research, wrote: "We are living in a world-historical moment." NPR said that "a change of attitude seems to have swept through the national culture like a sudden wind." CNN's Brianna Keilar said that "[y]ou are watching America's reckoning" as she outlined the "profound change" the country had experienced, including that in mid-June 15 of the 20 bestselling books were about race.
In late June, the The Christian Science Monitor's editorial board wrote: "It may still be too soon to say the U.S. has reached a true inflection point in its treatment of its citizens of African descent. But it has certainly reached a reflection point." Reuters reported that Black candidates in June's primaries had benefited from "a national reckoning on racism." By early July, The Washington Post was running a regularly updated section titled "America's Racial Reckoning: What you need to know." On July 3, The Washington Post said that "the Black Lives Matter protests following the police killings of Breonna Taylor, George Floyd and Rayshard Brooks focused the world's attention on racial inequities, structural racism and implicit bias."
According to Fortune, the economic impact of the protests has exacerbated the 2020 coronavirus recession by sharply curtailing consumer confidence, straining local businesses, and overwhelming public infrastructure with large-scale property damage. A number of small businesses, already suffering from the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, were harmed by vandalism, property destruction, and looting. Curfews instated by local governments – in response to both the pandemic and protests – have also "restricted access to the downtown [areas]" to essential workers, lowering economic output. President Donald Trump, after announcing a drop in overall unemployment from 14.7% to 13.3% on June 5, stated that strong economic growth was "the greatest thing [for race relations]" and "George Floyd would have been proud [of the unemployment rate]". That same day reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics estimated the unemployment rate among African Americans (covering the first two weeks of protests) was up 0.1%, rising to 16.8%.
The U.S. stock market remained unaffected or otherwise increased from the start of the protests on May 26 to June 2. The protest's first two weeks coincided with a 38% rise in the stock market. A resurgence of coronavirus (facilitated by mass protests) could exacerbate the 2020 stock market crash according to economists at RBC. The protests have disrupted national supply chains over uncertainty regarding public safety, a resurgence of COVID-19, and consumer confidence. Several Fortune 500 retail companies, with large distribution networks, have scaled back deliveries and shuttered stores in high-impact areas. Mass demonstrations – of both peaceful and violent varieties – have been linked to diminished consumer confidence and demand stemming from the public health risks of group gatherings amid COVID-19.
Large-scale property damage stemming from the protests has led to increased insurance claims, bankruptcies, and curbed economic activity among small businesses and state governments. Insurance claims arising from property damage suffered in rioting is still being assessed, but is thought to be significant, perhaps record-breaking. The City of Minneapolis' Community Planning & Economic Development Department gave an early estimate of at least 220 buildings damaged and $55 million in property damage in the city from fires and vandalism, centered on the Lake Street area; city and state officials have requested state and federal aid to rebuild and repair. Later estimates projected damages to be upwards of $500 million. Among the losses was Minnehaha Commons, an under-construction, $30 million redevelopment project for 189 units of affordable housing, which was destroyed by fire after being torched on May 27. A community organization in Atlanta's Buckhead neighborhood said that between $10 million and $15 million in property damage (excluding losses from looting) was incurred over the weekend of May 29–31, mostly along storefronts along Peachtree Street and Phipps Plaza. The damage to downtown Chicago's central business district (near the Magnificent Mile) was reported to have sustained "millions of dollars in damage" according to Fortune.
Public financing and funding, particularly on the state level, has also been impacted by the protests. The coronavirus recession has eroded large parts of state budgets which have, subsequently, struggled to finance the police overtime pay, security costs, and infrastructure repairs related to the demonstrations. State governments have, since June, announced budget cuts to police departments as well as increased funding to other public safety measures. Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti announced on June 5 he will seek up to $150 million in cuts to the Los Angeles Police Department budget.
On May 31, Walmart temporarily closed several hundred of its stores as a precaution. Amazon announced it would redirect some delivery routes and scale back others as a result of the widespread unrest.
Monuments and symbols
A makeshift memorial emerged at the East 38th Street and Chicago Avenue intersection in Minneapolis where Floyd was killed. Minneapolis officials renamed a stretch two block stretch of Chicago Avenue as George Floyd Perry Jr Place and designated it as one of seven cultural districts in city.
Scrutiny of, discussion of removal, and removal of civic symbols or names relating to the Confederate States of America (frequently associated with segregation and the Jim Crow era in the United States) has regained steam as protests have continued. On June 4, 2020, Virginia governor Ralph Northam announced the Robert E. Lee Monument in Richmond would be removed.
On June 5, making specific reference to events in Charlottesville in 2017, the United States Marine Corps banned the display of the Confederate Battle Flag at their installations. The United States Navy followed suit on June 9 at the direction of Michael M. Gilday, the Chief of Naval Operations.
Birmingham, Alabama Mayor Randall Woodfin ordered the removal of the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument in Linn Park. The Alabama Attorney General has filed suit against the city of Birmingham for violating the Alabama Memorial Preservation Act.
A statue of America's first president, George Washington, has been torn down and American flag was burned by rioters in Portland, Oregon. Portland Public Schools was responding after protesters pulled down the Thomas Jefferson statue in front of Jefferson High School. Several protesters tore down the statue of the third President of the United States and wrote: "slave owner" and "George Floyd" in spray paint at its white marble base. PPS officials said they recognize that the act is part of a larger and very important national conversation. The statues targeted included a bust of Ulysses S. Grant and statue of Theodore Roosevelt. BLM activist Shaun King tweeted that statues, murals, and stained glass windows depicting a white Jesus should be removed. Protesters defaced a statue of Philadelphia abolitionist Matthias Baldwin with the words "murderer" and "colonizer". Protesters in San Francisco vandalized a statue of Miguel de Cervantes, a Spanish writer who spent five years as a slave in Algiers.
Vandals defaced the statue of Winston Churchill in London's Parliament Square and Queen Victoria's statue in Leeds. The Lincoln Memorial, the World War II Memorial and the statue of General Casimir Pulaski were vandalized during the George Floyd protests in Washington, D.C. On June 7, the statue of Edward Colston was toppled and thrown into Bristol Harbour by demonstrators during the George Floyd protests in the United Kingdom. BLM activists in London are calling for the removal of 60 statues of historical figures like Prime Ministers Charles Grey and William Gladstone, Horatio Nelson, Sir Francis Drake, King Charles II of England, Oliver Cromwell and Christopher Columbus. Protesters in Belgium have vandalized statues of King Leopold II of Belgium.
In Washington, D.C., a statue of Mahatma Gandhi in front of the Indian Embassy was vandalized on the intervening night of June 2 and 3. The incident prompted the embassy to register a complaint with law enforcement agencies. Taranjit Singh Sandhu, the Indian Ambassador to the United States, called the vandalism "a crime against humanity". In London, another statue of Gandhi was vandalized by Black Lives Matter protesters along with the statue of Winston Churchill.
On June 12, the city council in Hamilton, New Zealand removed the statue of Captain John Hamilton, a British officer who was killed during the New Zealand Wars in 1864. A local Māori elder Taitimu Maipi, who had vandalized the statue in 2018, has also called for the city to be renamed Kirikiriroa. New Zealand Deputy Prime Minister Winston Peters called the scrutiny of colonial-era memorials a "wave of idiocy".
On June 22, a crowd of rioters unsuccessfully attempted to topple Clark Mills' 1852 bronze equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson in Lafayette Square in President's Park, directly north of the White House in Washington, D.C. Several days later, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) charged four men with destruction of federal property for allegedly trying to bring down the statue. The Justice Department alleged that a video showed one of the men breaking off and destroying the wheels of the cannons located at the base of the statue as well as pulling on ropes when trying to bring down the statue.
Soon afterwards, the DOJ announced the arrest and charging of a man who was not only allegedly seen on video climbing up onto the Jackson statue and affixing a rope that was then used to try to pull the statue down, but had on June 20 helped destroy Gaetano Trentanove's 1901 Albert Pike Memorial statue near Washington's Judiciary Square by pulling it from its base and setting it on fire. The DOJ's complaint alleged that the man had been captured on video dousing the federally-owned Pike statue with a flammable liquid, igniting it as it lay on the ground and using the fire to light a cigarette.
On June 30, after the Mississippi Legislature obtained a two-thirds majority in both houses to suspend rules in order to pass a bill addressing the Confederate Battle Flag on the Mississippi state flag, Governor Tate Reeves signed a bill that relinquished the state flag, mandated its removal from public premises within 15 days, and established a commission to propose a new flag design that excluded the Confederate Battle Flag and included the motto "In God We Trust". The flag contained the infamous Confederate symbol in the canton (upper left corner) of the flag, and was the last U.S. state flag to do so.
In the response to the protests, Congress mandated the creation of a Commission on the Naming of Items of the Department of Defense that Commemorate the Confederate States of America or Any Person Who Served Voluntarily with the Confederate States of America in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. President Trump cited this provision in his veto of the NDAA, resulting in the only veto override of his presidency.
Impact on police activity
The New York City Police Department reported a 411% increase in police retirement application in the first week of July. As a result, the Department has limited new retirement applications to 40 a day.
On July 11, at least 150 Minneapolis police officers reported nondescript injuries as well as symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, leading over half of them to leave their jobs with more likely to follow. The Minneapolis police have denied there being any serious injuries inflicted on officers.
Changes to police policies
In the wake of Floyd's killing, state and local governments evaluated their police department policies, and the response to protests, for themselves. For example, California Governor Gavin Newsom called for new police crowd control procedures for the state, and the banning of the police use of carotid chokeholds, which starve the brain of oxygen. The Minneapolis police department banned police from using chokeholds; Denver's police department also banned the use of chokeholds without exception, and also established new reporting requirements whenever a police officer holds a person at gunpoint.
In June 2020, Democrats in Congress introduced the George Floyd Justice in Policing Act of 2020, a police reform and accountability bill that contains measures to combat police misconduct, excessive force, and racial bias in policing. The impetus for the bill were the killings of Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and other African Americans at the hands of police. It passed the House of Representatives one month after Floyd's killing, 236 to 181, with support from Democrats and three Republicans. A Republican reform bill was blocked in the U.S. Senate by all but two Democrats; neither party negotiated the contents of the bill with the other. Speaker Nancy Pelosi summarized Democratic opposition to the Senate bill: "it's not a question that it didn't go far enough; it didn't go anywhere".
On June 16, President Trump signed an executive order on police reform that incentivized departments to recruit from communities they patrol, encourage more limited use of deadly force, and prioritize using social workers and mental health professionals for nonviolent calls. The order also created a national database of police officers with a history of using excessive force.
On September 10, Ted Wheeler, the mayor and police commissioner of Portland, Oregon, banned city police from using tear gas for riot control purposes, but reiterated that police would respond to violent protests forcefully. Portland has seen over a 100 consecutive days of protests since they began on May 28.
Push to abolish police
Nine members of the Minneapolis City Council — a veto-proof majority — pledged on June 7 to dismantle the Minneapolis Police Department, despite opposition from Mayor Frey. U.S. representative Ilhan Omar stated, "the Minneapolis Police Department has proven themselves beyond reform. It's time to disband them and reimagine public safety in Minneapolis." Despite pledges by city council members to the end the Minneapolis Police Department, a proposed amendment to the Minneapolis city charter which was approved by the Minneapolis City Council on June 26 would only rename the police department and change its structure if approved by voters. In August, the review of another proposal to dismantle the department was delayed by 90 days, meaning it wouldn't be voted on in the November ballot because it passed the statutory deadline of August 21. The budget for the department was passed in December and the funding was reduced by $7.7 million.
Impact on entertainment
Television and films
In the media industry, the protests have spurred scrutiny for cop shows and led to the cancellation of popular television shows referred to by critics as copaganda. With long-standing criticism that it presented an unbalanced view of law enforcement in favor of police, encouraged police to engage in more dramatic behavior for the camera, and degraded suspects who had not yet been convicted of any crime, the Paramount Network canceled the 33rd season of the TV show Cops and pulled it from broadcast. The television network A&E canceled a similar show, Live PD, which was also found to have destroyed footage documenting the police killing of Javier Ambler in Austin, Texas, in 2019. The streaming service HBO Max temporarily pulled the film Gone with the Wind until video that explains and condemns the film's racist depictions could be produced to accompany it. In the United Kingdom, the BBC pulled the famed "The Germans" episode of Fawlty Towers from its UKTV streaming service, but later reinstated it after criticism from series star and co-writer John Cleese. He later criticized their use of the word "fury" to describe his comments. This was later removed by the BBC. The episode, which included racial slurs about the West Indies cricket team, now features a disclaimer at the beginning warning of "offensive content and language". The BBC also removed the Little Britain series and its spinoff Come Fly with Me from the iPlayer and BritBox services as well as Netflix for its use of blackface.
The week of June 24, 2020, several animated series that had black, mixed or non-white characters voiced by white actors, including Big Mouth, Central Park, Family Guy and The Simpsons, announced those characters would be recast with people of color. That same week, episodes of 30 Rock, The Office, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, Community, The Golden Girls, and Peep Show that involved characters using blackface were either removed or edited from syndication and streaming services.
In June 2020, Disney announced that their theme park attraction Splash Mountain, which is themed to the 1946 film Song of the South, controversial for its depiction of African-Americans, will be re-themed in Disneyland and Magic Kingdom into an attraction based on the 2009 film The Princess and the Frog. Disney stated that the project had been in development since 2019. The New York Times reported that Disney executives had been privately discussing removing the attraction's Song of the South theme for at least five years, before putting into development the Princess and the Frog theme, and that Disney stated that the public announcement of the project was sped up due to the current conversations about race.
Impact on brand marketing
In reaction to the higher sensitivity by customers for racial issues, multiple companies decided to rebrand some products. Examples:
- Aunt Jemima
- Uncle Ben's, will be renamed in 2021 to Ben's Original
- Fair & Lovely, new name: Glow & Lovely
The unrest was followed by an unprecedented number of firearms being transferred inside of the United States.
Background checks for legally purchased firearms reached record highs in May with year-on-year numbers up 80.2%. In June 2020 the FBI reported running 3.9 million NICS checks for persons purchasing a firearm or firearms. This represented the highest monthly number of firearms transfers since the FBI began keeping records in 1998.
Firearms retailers surveyed by National Shooting Sports Foundation in May estimated that 40% of their sales came from first-time gun buyers, 40% of those first-time gun buyers were women, a relatively high rate for that demographic group. Though gun sales have been up across the country, a rise in first-time gun buyers in left-leaning states like California have helped fuel the national uptick in firearms and ammunition purchases. June 2020 represented the largest month of firearms purchases in United States history, with Illinois purchasing more firearms than any other state.
The last days of May and first week of June, there were more than 90 attempted or successful burglaries of gun stores, according to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. More than 1,000 guns were stolen in that window of time. On May 31 alone the BATF reported 29 separate burglaries targeting licensed firearm retailers.
Impact on COVID-19 transmission
Concerns by officials
The mass protests occurred during the global COVID-19 pandemic and officials and experts warned they could facilitate an accelerated or rebounding spread of COVID-19. A number of current and former public health officials also expressed concerns that mass protests would lead to a spike in COVID-19 clusters, including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Robert R. Redfield, U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases director Dr. Anthony Fauci, and former Trump administration FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb. These concerns were echoed by a number of elected officials, including Minnesota Governor Tim Walz, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, Maryland Governor Larry Hogan, California Governor Gavin Newsom, Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms, and Washington, D.C. Mayor Muriel Bowser. Abroad, Australia Health Minister Greg Hunt and British Health Secretary Matt Hancock urged people to avoid mass gatherings. Martin Seychell, a health official at the EU Commission, said that mass events could be a major route of transmission like for any infectious respiratory disease and that the likelihood and size of a second wave would depend on the effective maintaining of social distancing measures and other factors. Keith Neal, emeritus professor of the epidemiology of infectious diseases at Nottingham University, England stated there is "clear evidence that banning mass gatherings was one of the most effective and important parts of the lockdowns across European countries". While expressing disappointment at the flouting of social distancing rules, Police Minister Stuart Nash indicated that New Zealand Police were not seeking to prosecute protest organizers and participants.
Multiple governors attended street protests even though they appeared to violate their own orders to ensure social distancing.
In June 2020 the CDC released the "Considerations for Events and Gatherings" which assesses large gatherings where it is difficult for people to stay at least six feet apart, and where attendees travel from outside the local area as "highest risk".
Masks and distancing
Speaking about public health implications of demonstrations, Dr. Anthony Fauci said that "Masks can help, but it's masks plus physical separation". Ashish Jha, Director of the Global Health Institute at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said, "The question is: how do we do protesting safely? I think masks are a critical part of it." Theodore Long, a doctor affiliated with New York's contact tracing strategy, echoed Jha's point, and advocated "proper hand hygiene and to the extent possible, socially distance". Many participants of the protests with potentially unclear current and prior-infection-status – including some police officers – did not wear a face mask at all times, or adhere to other public safety guidelines.
George Floyd's family encouraged those attending the official public memorial to wear masks and gloves, as did multiple officials, including Philadelphia Mayor Jim Kenney who asked demonstrators to follow social distancing guidelines, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo who asked protesters to wear masks, and Minnesota's governor who warned that "too many" protesters were not applying physical person-to-person distances or wearing masks.
Hundreds of people arrested by police in New York City – including both peaceful demonstrators and persons accused of violence – were detained in overcrowded, sometimes unsanitary holding cells, sometimes without face masks, prompting concerns over jail-spread COVID-19 cases. The Legal Aid Society sued the New York City Police Department, accusing it of detaining people for extended periods (up to three days) in violation of New York state law requiring that arrests receive arraignments within 24 hours. The department acknowledged that "it was common for up to two dozen people to be held for hours on buses before being taken to be booked" due to large backlogs and paperwork delays and that social distancing was impossible within jails, but a state trial court denied Legal Aid's request, given the "crisis within a crisis".
The use of tear gas may increase the spread of the virus due to coughing and lung damage. Smoke and pepper spray may also increase its spread. Shouting and speaking loudly, which are common to both violent and non-violent protests, may also cause infections at distances greater than 6 feet (1.8 m). Research has found that the share of infections due to a single infected person in a choir can be almost 90%, and that just a few contagious people can infect hundreds of susceptible people around them. Outdoor events may have a substantially lower risk of spreading the disease than indoor ones, and the "transient" moments of people moving around may be less-hazardous than longer durations of proximity.
Debate over weighing of risks
Over 1,200 medical staff signed a letter criticizing what they called "emerging narratives that seemed to malign demonstrations as risky for the public health because of Covid-19". The letter writers wrote:
Staying at home, social distancing, and public masking are effective at minimizing the spread of COVID-19. To the extent possible, we support the application of these public health best practices during demonstrations that call attention to the pervasive lethal force of white supremacy. However, as public health advocates, we do not condemn these gatherings as risky for COVID-19 transmission. We support them as vital to the national public health and to the threatened health specifically of Black people in the United States. We can show that support by facilitating safest protesting practices without detracting from demonstrators' ability to gather and demand change. This should not be confused with a permissive stance on all gatherings, particularly protests against stay-home orders.
Most protesters in Minneapolis interviewed by Wired magazine said they "participated with full knowledge of the health risks, and believe police brutality to be an even more urgent existential threat". Dr. Tom Frieden, a former CDC director, said that if trust in government "is undermined by violent policing, or it's undermined by ham-handed public health actions that don't respect communities, that's going to have a negative impact on our ability to fight disease". Frieden has faced considerable backlash for these remarks, most notably from Jonah Goldberg.
Criticisms also arose of health officials and physicians potentially "politicizing science", as officials have given varying responses for different protests. Thomas Chatterton Williams said "the public health narrative around coronavirus ... reversed itself overnight" in the wake of the protests. Glenn Greenwald also criticized the response of public health officials and epidemiologists, asking, "How is it remotely within the scope of the expertise of epidemiologists to pick and choose which political protests should be permitted and/or encouraged and which ones banned and/or denounced?"
Researchers reported that the protests did not appear to be driving an increase in coronavirus transmission. A study issued in June 2020 by the National Bureau of Economic Research, a private non-profit organization, found "no evidence that urban protests reignited COVID-19 case growth during the more than three weeks following protest onset", as well as "no evidence that net COVID-19 case growth differentially rose following the onset of Black Lives Matter protests, and even modest evidence of a small longer-run case growth decline". Epidemiologists and other researchers suggested the protests had a relatively low impact on COVID-19 transmission because the protests took place outdoors where the virus is less likely to spread as compared to indoors; because many protesters wore masks; and because persons who demonstrated made up a small portion of the overall U.S. population (about 6% of adults).
Authorities did not report increases in coronavirus cases as a result of the protests in New York City, or in Minneapolis, Minnesota, Portland, Oregon, or Seattle, Washington. Minnesota launched an effort to test people who demonstrated, and found that 1.5% tested positive. Similarly in Massachusetts, fewer than 3% tested positive. On June 17 and 18, Massachusetts administered free COVID-19 testing and reported that 2.5% tested positive, which was "reasonably consistent" with the general population testing positive at 1.9%. In King County, Washington, less than 5% of 1,008 total positive cases were traced by health investigators to persons who attended a protest. In contrast, the Director of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health asserted on June 22 that it was "highly likely" that a surge in cases is connected to the protests, as well as the lifting of the county stay-at-home order.
Jeffrey Shaman of Columbia University found that, of three modeled scenarios with mask-wearing and open air suppressing transmission, "the most optimistic scenario turned out to be most accurate." However, Shaman and other researchers and officials caution that protesters are disproportionately young, and less likely to become ill, and there is significant uncertainty about the effect of various factors. While many states in the U.S. saw record highs of new cases, these upticks are thought to be attributed to reopenings of workplaces, bars, restaurants, and other businesses.
In June, a large number of Houston Police Department officers tested positive for the virus or were quarantined after being exposed; police chief Art Acevedo said that none of the officers were seriously ill, and suggested that business reopenings in Texas were more likely the cause of the spread among officers than protest duty, saying "We opened up the state very quickly, especially bars and, you know, I can't control what people do off duty." Members of the D.C. National Guard have also tested positive for COVID-19 after protests.
Many countries, companies, organizations, and celebrities worldwide sent messages of concern about the George Floyd killing and protests. Some television channels blacked out regular programming for 8 minutes and 46 seconds in solidarity with the protests while some celebrities and companies made donations to racial justice organizations. Some politicians also participated in the protests, while others called for protesters to refrain from violence.
U.S. president Donald Trump demanded that state governors "dominate" protesters and, on May 29, tweeted "when the looting starts, the shooting starts", which Twitter marked as "glorifying violence". Trump later said he was not advocating violence, noting that the tweet could be read as either a threat or a statement of fact and that he intended for it to be read as "a combination of both". Trump controversially deployed various federal law enforcement agencies, the District of Columbia National Guard, and the Arlington County Police Department to clear Lafayette Square and surrounding streets for a photo-op at St. John's Church.
A protest march in Minneapolis on May 26, 2020
Protesters in Oakland, California on May 29, 2020
Protesters in Washington, D.C. in front of the White House on May 30, 2020
Georgia National Guard medics treat a protester injured by tear gas on June 2, 2020
Protesters in Seattle on June 3, 2020
Protesters in Philadelphia on June 6, 2020
Protesters in Denver on June 6, 2020
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Floyd protests.|
- 2020–2021 United States election protests
- 1965 Watts riots – A black motorist resisting arrest ignited days of widespread violence in the Watts neighborhood and its surrounding areas of Los Angeles.
- Long, hot summer of 1967 – Protests and riots, described as "battles" by newspapers headlines, in which the statement "When the looting starts, the shooting starts" was first coined by Miami police chief Walter E. Headley.
- 1968 Democratic National Convention protests – Protests against the Vietnam War that were later described as a "police riot".
- 1980 Miami riots – Protests after an unarmed black salesman was beaten to death by police officers in 1979 and the officers involved were acquitted in May 1980.
- 1992 Los Angeles riots – Protests after police officers involved in the beating of Rodney King, a black man, were acquitted by the court in April 1992.
- 2014 Ferguson unrest – The large-scale unrest after the fatal shooting of Michael Brown by police.
- 2015 Baltimore protests – Protests following the arrest and subsequent death of Freddie Gray.
- 2020 Kenosha protests – Protests after the shooting of Jacob Blake in Kenosha, Wisconsin
- 2021 Daunte Wright protests – Protests after the killing of Daunte Wright
- Class conflict
- List of incidents of civil unrest in the United States
- Mass racial violence in the United States
- See Violence and controversies section for more details and citations.
- Owermohle, Sarah (June 1, 2020). "Surgeon general: 'You understand the anger'". Politico. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- VOA News. "Anti-Racism Protests Continue in US | Voice of America - English". voanews.com. Voice of America. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
- Bronner, Laura (June 25, 2020). "Why Statistics Don't Capture The Full Extent Of The Systemic Bias In Policing". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Cheung, Helier (June 8, 2020). "Why US protests are so powerful this time". BBC News. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Sabur, Rozina; Sawer, Patrick; Millward, David (June 7, 2020). "Why are there protests over the death of George Floyd?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Olson, Emily (June 27, 2020). "Antifa, Boogaloo boys, white nationalists: Which extremists showed up to the US Black Lives Matter protests?". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- "For riot-damaged Twin Cities businesses, rebuilding begins with donations, pressure on government". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- Kingson, Jennifer A. (September 16, 2020). "Exclusive: $1 billion-plus riot damage is most expensive in insurance history". Axios. Retrieved October 10, 2020.
- Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 2, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Levenson, Eric (March 29, 2021). "Former officer knelt on George Floyd for 9 minutes and 29 seconds -- not the infamous 8:46". CNN. Retrieved March 29, 2021.
- "Prosecutors say officer had knee on George Floyd's neck for 7:46 rather than 8:46". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. June 18, 2020. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
- Cooper, Gael Fashingbauer. "Music industry players including Mick Jagger, Quincy Jones respond to George Floyd's death with Blackout Tuesday: 'This is what solidarity looks like'". CNET. Retrieved November 5, 2020.
- Hennessey, Kathleen; LeBlanc, Steve (June 4, 2020). "8:46: A number becomes a potent symbol of police brutality". AP News. Archived from the original on June 9, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
But the timestamps cited in the document's description of the incident, much of which is caught on video, indicate a different tally. Using those, Chauvin had his knee on Floyd for 7 minutes, 46 seconds, including 1 minute, 53 seconds after Floyd appeared to stop breathing.
- Carrega, Christina; Lloyd, Whitney (June 3, 2020). "Charges against former Minneapolis police officers involved in George Floyd's death". ABC News. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- Navarrette, Ruben Jr. "Haunting question after George Floyd killing: Should good cops have stopped a bad cop?". USA Today.
- "플로이드 실제로 목 눌린 시간은 7분 46초". 서울신문 (in Korean). Retrieved June 21, 2020.
- Condon, Bernard; Richmond, Todd; Sisak, Michael R. (June 3, 2020). "What to know about 4 officers charged in George Floyd's death". ABC7 Chicago. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Burch, Audra D. S.; Cai, Weiyi; Gianordoli, Gabriel; McCarthy, Morrigan; Patel, Jugal K. (June 13, 2020). "How Black Lives Matter Reached Every Corner of America". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- Luscombe, Richard; Ho, Vivian (June 7, 2020). "George Floyd protests enter third week as push for change sweeps America". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- "George Floyd Protests on Race and Policing: Juneteenth Celebrations Across U.S." Wall Street Journal. June 19, 2020.
- Croft, Jay. "Some Americans mark Fourth of July with protests". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
- Buchanan, Larry; Bui, Quoctrung; Patel, Jugal K. (July 3, 2020). "Black Lives Matter May Be the Largest Movement in U.S. History". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- "Riot declared as Portland protests move to City Hall on 3-month anniversary of George Floyd's death". Oregon Live. August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
- Lovett, Ian (June 4, 2020). "1992 Los Angeles Riots: How the George Floyd Protests Are Different". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Widespread unrest as curfews defied across US". BBC News. May 31, 2020. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- Baker, Mike; Dewan, Shaila (June 2, 2020). "Facing Protests Over Use of Force, Police Respond With More Force". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- Kindy, Kimberly; Jacobs, Shayna; Farenthold, David (June 5, 2020). "In protests against police brutality, videos capture more alleged police brutality". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Taylor, Derrick Bryson (June 8, 2020). "George Floyd Protests: A Timeline". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Bekiempis, Victoria (July 3, 2020). "Troops sent to DC during George Floyd protests had bayonets, top general says". The Guardian. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Norwood, Candice (June 9, 2020). "'Optics matter.' National Guard deployments amid unrest have a long and controversial history". PBS NewsHour.
- Warren, Katy; Hadden, Joey (June 4, 2020). "How all 50 states are responding to the George Floyd protests, from imposing curfews to calling in the National Guard". Business Insider. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Sternlicht, Alexandra. "Over 4,400 Arrests, 62,000 National Guard Troops Deployed: George Floyd Protests By The Numbers". Forbes. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- "National Guard response to civil unrest". National Guard Press Release. June 8, 2020.
- Pham, Scott (June 2, 2020). "Police Arrested More Than 11,000 People At Protests Across The US". BuzzFeed News.
- "Associated Press tally shows at least 9,300 people arrested in protests since killing of George Floyd". Associated Press. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Craig, Tim. "'The United States is in crisis': Report tracks thousands of summer protests, most nonviolent" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "This summer's Black Lives Matter protesters were overwhelmingly peaceful, our research finds". The Washington Post. 2020.
- "Vandalism, looting after Floyd's death sparks at least $1 billion in damages:report". The Hill. September 17, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- Fandos, Nicholas (June 6, 2020). "Democrats to Propose Broad Bill to Target Police Misconduct and Racial Bias". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
- Hawkins, Derek (June 8, 2020). "9 Minneapolis City Council members announce plans to disband police department". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- For criticism of the Trump administration's response, see:
- Rampell, Catherine (June 4, 2020). "Opinion | The lawless law-and-order president". The Washington Post.
- Conway, George (June 5, 2020). "Opinion | The president's inhumanity is deeper than we knew". The Washington Post.
- Stephens, Bret (June 5, 2020). "Opinion | Donald Trump Is Our National Catastrophe". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- McManus, Doyle (June 3, 2020). "Column | Donald Trump, urban warfare strategist, shares pacification tips". Los Angeles Times.
- Lipson, David (June 5, 2020). "Analysis | The tectonic plates of Donald Trump's presidency appear to be shifting". abc.net.au.
- Kristof, Nicholas (June 3, 2020). "Opinion | Trump Uses the Military to Prove His Manhood". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- "Opinion | A president dividing a nation". Times of Malta. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- King, Colbert (June 6, 2020). "Opinion | It's Washington's D-Day, and the city is under siege by Trump's forces". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Delaney, Arthur (June 6, 2020). "Trump's Presidency Is Reaping What His White Grievance Politics Sowed". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Lynch, Suzanne (June 5, 2020). "Trump urges suppression of protests over Floyd killing". The Irish Times. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- McCullough, Marie (June 27, 2020). "COVID-19 has not surged in cities with big protests, but it has in states that reopened early. Here are some possible reasons". Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Edsall, Thomas B. (June 3, 2020). "The George Floyd Election: How the protests come to be viewed may determine who the next president is".
- Burks, Megan (December 11, 2020). "George Floyd's Square offers an alternative to police — though not all neighbors want one". MPR News. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- Woodward, Samantha. "Winter descends on George Floyd Square". The Minnesota Daily. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- Maher, Erin Ailworth and Kris (December 10, 2020). "George Floyd Memorial Thrives, but Minneapolis Neighborhood Struggles". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- Schuman, David (January 25, 2021). "'We Look At Our Protest As Art': Future Of George Floyd Square Becoming Clearer". WCCO.
- Montemayor, Stephen (December 15, 2020). "State officials urge keeping fence around State Capitol well into 2021". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 16, 2020.
- What has changed six months after George Floyd's death? | Season 2020, PBS NewsHour, November 25, 2020, retrieved December 16, 2020
- Navratil, Liz (March 4, 2021). "Minneapolis, Hennepin County to spend more than $1M on barricades ahead of Derek Chauvin trial". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 4, 2021.
- Martínez, Andrés R.; Arango, Tim (March 29, 2021). "First Witnesses in Derek Chauvin Trial Testify About George Floyd's Death". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
- "The Counted: People killed by police in the US". The Guardian.
- Hinton, Elizabeth (2016). From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime: The Making of Mass Incarceration in America. Harvard University Press. pp. 68–72. ISBN 9780674737235.
- Sastry, Anjuli; Bates, Karen (April 26, 2017). "When LA Erupted In Anger: A Look Back At The Rodney King Riots". NPR. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
- Luibrand, Shannon (August 7, 2015). "Black Lives Matter: How the events in Ferguson sparked a movement in America". CBS News. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2016.
- Ellis, Ralph; Kirkos, Bill (June 16, 2017). "Officer who shot Philando Castile found not guilty". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Miller, Trace (June 1, 2020). "'This Rage That You Hear Is Real': On the Ground at the Dallas Protests". D Magazine.
- Haines, Errin (May 11, 2020). "Family seeks answers in fatal police shooting of Louisville woman in her apartment". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 24, 2020.
- "Emergency Executive Order 20-04" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "Emergency Executive Order 20-20" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 20, 2020. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Richmond, Todd (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd had started a new life in Minnesota before he was killed by police". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- Ries, Brian (June 2, 2020). "8 notable details in the criminal complaint against ex-Minneapolis Police Officer Derek Chauvin". cnn.com. Cable News Network. Archived from the original on May 29, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Michelle M Frascone; Sweasy, Amy (May 29, 2020). "State of Minnesota v. Derek Michael Chauvin" (PDF).
- Hauser, Christine (May 26, 2020). "F.B.I. to Investigate Arrest of Black Man Who Died After Being Pinned by Officer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Dakss, Brian (May 26, 2020). "Video shows Minneapolis cop with knee on neck of motionless, moaning man who later died". CBS News. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Nawaz, Amna (May 26, 2020). "What we know about George Floyd's death in Minneapolis police custody". PBS Newshour. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Montgomery, Blake (May 27, 2020). "Black Lives Matter Protests Over George Floyd's Death Spread Across the Country". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
Floyd, 46, died after a white Minneapolis police officer, Derek Chauvin, kneeled on his neck for at least seven minutes while handcuffing him.
- Murphy, Paul P. (May 29, 2020). "New video appears to show three police officers kneeling on George Floyd". CNN. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "Investigative Update on Critical Incident". Minneapolis police. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Sawyer, Liz. "George Floyd showed no signs of life from time EMS arrived, fire department report says". Minneapolis Tribune. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Steinbuch, Yaron (May 28, 2020). "First responders tried to save George Floyd's life for almost an hour". New York Post. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Soellner, Mica (May 29, 2020). "Medical examiner concludes George Floyd didn't die of asphyxia". Washington Examiner. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Wilson, Jim (June 2, 2020). "Competing autopsies say Floyd's death was a homicide, but differ on causes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
The medical examiner also cited significant contributing conditions, saying that Mr. Floyd suffered from heart disease, and was high on fentanyl and had recently used methamphetamine at the time of his death.
- Andrew, Scottie (June 1, 2020). "Derek Chauvin: What we know about the former officer charged in George Floyd's death". CNN.
- "Fired Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin, who knelt on George Floyd's neck, arrested". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. May 29, 2020. Archived from the original on May 30, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- Madani, Doha (June 3, 2020). "3 more Minneapolis officers charged in George Floyd death, Derek Chauvin charges elevated". NBC News. Archived from the original on June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Vera, Amir (June 1, 2020). "Independent autopsy finds George Floyd's death a homicide due to 'asphyxiation from sustained pressure'". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Floyd death homicide, official post-mortem says". BBC News. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Hill, Evan; Tiefenthäler, Ainara; Triebert, Christiaan; Jordan, Drew; Willis, Haley; Stein, Robin (May 31, 2020). "How George Floyd Was Killed in Police Custody". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- "In pictures: Protesting the death of George Floyd". CNN. May 27, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "Demonstrators gather around Minneapolis to protest death of George Floyd". KSTP. May 26, 2020. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- Wagner, Jeff (June 18, 2020). "'It's Real Ugly': Protesters Clash With Minneapolis Police After George Floyd's Death". WCCO.
- "Family and Friends Mourn Minneapolis Police Killing Victim George Floyd". Time. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.
- KTSP staff (May 27, 2020). "'This is the right call': Officers involved in fatal Minneapolis incident fired, mayor says". KTSP. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
- Caputo, Angela, Craft, Will and Gilbert, Curtis (June 30, 30). "‘The precinct is on fire’: What happened at Minneapolis’ 3rd Precinct — and what it means". MPR News. Retrieved on July 1, 2020.
- Stockman, Farah (July 4, 2020). "'They have lost control': How Minneapolis leaders failed to stop their city from burning" The New York Times.
- Kaul, Greta (June 1, 2020). "Seven days in Minneapolis: a timeline of what we know about the death of George Floyd and its aftermath". MinnPost. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
- Jany, Libor (July 28, 2020). "Police: 'Umbrella Man' was a white supremacist trying to incite George Floyd rioting". Star Tribune. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- Texas member of Boogaloo Bois charged with opening fire on Minneapolis police precinct during protests over George Floyd Star Tribune
- Bakst, Brian (July 10, 2020). Guard mobilized quickly, adjusted on fly for Floyd unrest". MPR News. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- Doran, Kevin (June 11, 2020). "How the Minnesota National Guard connected with protesters during the George Floyd demonstrations". KSTP. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- Mystery remains weeks after a pawnshop owner fatally shot a man during Minneapolis unrest Star Tribune.
- Jany, Libor (July 20, 2020). "Authorities: Body found in wreckage of S. Minneapolis pawn shop burned during George Floyd unrest". Star Tribune. Retrieved on July 20, 2020.
- Pham, Scott (June 2, 2020). "Police Arrested More Than 11,000 People At Protests Across The US". BuzzFeed News.
- Lurie, Julia (July 15, 2020). "Weeks Later, 500 People Still Face Charges for Peacefully Protesting in Minneapolis". Mother Jones. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- "For riot-damaged Twin Cities businesses, rebuilding begins with donations, pressure on government". Star Tribune. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- Penrod, Josh; Sinner, C.J.; Webster, MaryJo (June 19, 2020). "Buildings damaged in Minneapolis, St. Paul after riots". Star Tribune.
- Braxton, Grey (June 16, 2020). "They documented the ’92 L.A. uprising. Here's how the George Floyd movement compares". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on July 6, 2020.
- Nguyen, Christine T.; Burks, Megan; Frost, Evan (December 2, 2020). "Making George Floyd's Square: Meet the people transforming 38th and Chicago". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- Walsh, James (June 12, 2020). "Shrine to George Floyd could be permanent at Minneapolis intersection". Star Tribune.
- Al-Arshani, Sarah. "Protesters in Minneapolis say they won't clear barricades around the George Floyd Memorial until the city leaders meet their 24 demands". Insider. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
- Staff (August 11, 2020). "Protesters Call For Minneapolis Leaders To Meet Demands Before Clearing Barricades Around George Floyd Memorial". WCCO. Retrieved January 25, 2021.
- Xiong, Chao (March 8, 2021). "World watches as Chauvin trial begins in George Floyd killing". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 8, 2021.
- Brown, Kyle (March 6, 2021). "Shooting kills 1 near George Floyd memorial". KTSP. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
- Hughes, Trevor (April 4, 2021). "'No justice, no streets': Still grieving, Minneapolis residents wonder how city will move forward after Derek Chauvin trial". USA Today. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
- Sergent, Jim; Loehrke, Janet; Padilla, Ramon; Hertel, Nora (June 1, 2020). "George Floyd protests: How did we get here?". USA Today. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Ortiz, Fernie (June 10, 2020). "ICE now says detainees held hunger strike in honor of George Floyd". Border Report. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Frias, Lauren (May 29, 2020). "Watch inmates at a federal prison in downtown Chicago bang on walls and flash lights in solidarity with George Floyd protesters". Insider. Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- "George Floyd death: US protests timeline". BBC News. June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Elfrink, Tim; Iati, Marisa. "Seattle mayor blasts Trump's threat to 'take back' city after protesters set up 'autonomous zone'". Washington Post.
- Baker, Mike (June 11, 2020). "Free Food, Free Speech and Free of Police: Inside Seattle's 'Autonomous Zone'". The New York Times.
- "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey says download Signal as US protests gain steam". indiatimes.com. The Economic Times. June 5, 2020. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
- Nierenberg, Amelia (June 11, 2020). "Signal Downloads Are Way Up Since the Protests Began". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
- "#ShutDownAcademia #ShutDownSTEM". #ShutDownAcademia #ShutDownSTEM. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
- Patil, Anushka (June 15, 2020). "How a March for Black Trans Lives Became a Huge Event". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Patil, Anushka (June 15, 2020). "How a March for Black Trans Lives Became a Huge Event". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- Wortham, Jenna (June 5, 2020). "A 'Glorious Poetic Rage'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- Adams, M.; Johnson, Janetta. "We Must Do Better Fighting For Black Trans Lives". Essence. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
- "ILWU to Shut Down West Coast Ports on Juneteenth in Solidarity with George Floyd Protesters". KQED. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
- Wayland, Michael (June 17, 2020). "United Auto Workers organizing 'peaceful and orderly stand downs' on Juneteenth for George Floyd and racial protests". CNBC. Retrieved June 20, 2020.
- Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (June 18, 2020). "8 Minutes, 46 Seconds Became a Symbol in George Floyd's Death. The Exact Time Is Less Clear". The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
The precise length of time that Mr. Floyd was pinned beneath the officer's knee, however, is no longer as exact.
- "Which US police reform plan might become law?". June 17, 2020 – via www.bbc.com.
- Grisales, Claudia. "House Approves Police Reform Bill, But Issue Stalled Amid Partisan Standoff". NPR. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
- "Juneteenth in Brooklyn". Bklyner. June 19, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Jacobson, Don (July 20, 2020). "National 'Strike for Black Lives' to fight racism, low wages". United Press International. News World Communications. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
- Brooks, Brad (November 1, 2020). "In George Floyd's hometown, a season of protest ends at the polls". Reuters. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- "Protests across the globe after George Floyd's death". cnn.com. CNN. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- "Thousands join paddle outs at Hawaii beaches to honor George Floyd". HawaiiNewsNow.com. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "NYPD Boats 'Monitor' A Paddle Out In Rockaway". Stab Magazine. July 6, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- "Surfers 'paddle out,' circle up in memory of George Floyd". nz.news.yahoo.com. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Press, Brian Melley, Associated (June 6, 2020). "Galveston surfers among those who honored George Floyd in 'paddle out' held around world". KPRC. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
- Wilkie, Christina; Macias, Amanda (June 1, 2020). "Trump threatens to deploy military as George Floyd protests continue to shake the U.S." CNBC. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Relman, Eliza (June 1, 2020). "GOP Sen. Tom Cotton calls for the US Army's toughest soldiers to quell 'domestic terrorism' and suggests protesters should be shown no mercy". Business Insider. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Kalmbacher, Colin (June 1, 2020). "Republican Senator Called for 'No Quarter' Military Response to 'Looters.' Lawyers Note That's a War Crime". Law & Crime.
- "Mass. elected officials denounce Trump's threat to use military to quell protests – The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Hansen, Claire (June 5, 2020). "Tall Fencing Creates Large, Imposing Perimeter Around White House". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Proud, Kelsey; Strupp, Julie; Gathright, Jenny; Diller, Nathan (June 8, 2020). "The New White House Fence Is Getting Covered In Protest Art". NPR. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Jackson, David (June 11, 2020). "Anti-protester fencing around Lafayette Park near White House comes down". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020.
- Cox, Joseph (June 3, 2020). "The Government is Regularly Flying Predator Drones Over American Cities". Vice.
- Sands, Geneva (May 29, 2020). "Customs and Border Protection Drone Flew over Minneapolis to Provide Live Video to Law Enforcement". CNN.
- Balsamo, Michael (June 1, 2020). "Barr: Law enforcement must 'dominate' streets amid protests". WHIO-TV. Archived from the original on June 5, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Customs and Border Patrol officers deployed to help D.C. police amid unrest in city". WJLA-TV. June 1, 2020.
- Rawnsley, Adam (June 3, 2020). "Mystery Officers Patrolling D.C. Streets Are From Federal Prisons". The Daily Beast.
- Capaccio, Anthony (June 4, 2020). "Federal Plan to Control D.C. Protests Has 7,600 Personnel Tapped". Bloomberg News.
- Leopold, Jason; Cormier, Anthony (June 2, 2020). "The DEA Has Just Been Authorized to Conduct Surveillance on Protesters". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Leopold, Jason; Cormier, Anthony (June 5, 2020). "Lawmakers Call For Halt To Covert Surveillance Of Protesters By DEA". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- "Executive Order 13933 of June 26, 2020" (PDF). Federal Register. 85 (128): 1–4. July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- "Homeland Security Gets New Role Under Trump Monument Order". U.S. News and World Report. Associated Press. July 10, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2020.
- Lowndes, Joe (July 12, 2020). "It wasn't just a threat: Trump uses Homeland Security to attack BLM protests". Joe Lowndes. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- Levinson, Jonathan. "Federal Officers Shoot Portland Protester In Head With 'Less Lethal' Munitions". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
- "Portland mayor demands Trump remove federal agents from city". The Guardian. Associated Press. July 18, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- Levinson, Jonathan; Wilson, Conrad. "Federal Law Enforcement Use Unmarked Vehicles To Grab Protesters Off Portland Streets". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Phillips, N'dea Yancey-Bragg and Kristine. "Federal officers are pulling Portland protesters into unmarked vehicles, reports say". USA TODAY. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Shepherd, Katie (July 17, 2020). "'It was like being preyed upon': Portland protesters say federal officers in unmarked vans are detaining them". The Washington Post.
- Olmos, Sergio; Baker, Mike (July 17, 2020). "Feds Vowed to Quell Unrest in Portland. Local Leaders Are Telling Them to Leave". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Ross, Jamie (July 17, 2020). "Unidentified Federal Agents Are Driving Around Portland in Unmarked Minivans and Grabbing Protesters". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- Heer, Jeet (July 17, 2020). "Trump Unleashes His Secret Police in Portland". The Nation. ISSN 0027-8378. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
- "ACLU tweet". Twitter. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
Usually when we see people in unmarked cars forcibly grab someone off the street we call it kidnapping — what is happening now in Portland should concern everyone in the US
- Pratt, Gregory; Gorner, Jeremy (July 20, 2020). "Trump expected to send new federal force to Chicago this week to battle violence, but plan's full scope is a question mark". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
- McEvoy, Jemima. "14 Days Of Protests, 19 Dead". Forbes. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
- "More Than 100 Arrests, 13 Officers Hurt Amid Chicago Looting". VOA News. August 10, 2020.
- "These are all the cities where protests and riots have erupted over George Floyd's death". New Jersey Local News. June 2, 2020.
- "Ambassador Andrew Young says Atlanta protest 'disintegrated into foolishness'". 11Alive.com.
- "George Floyd's children denounce violence following protests across the country". WGN-TV. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 4, 2020. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- Dewan, Shaila; Baker, Mike (June 1, 2020). "Facing Protests Over Use of Force, Police Respond With More Force". The New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "USA: police must end 'excessive' militarised response to George Floyd protests". Amnesty International. May 31, 2020.
- Falconer, Rebecca (May 31, 2020). "Amnesty International: U.S. police must end militarized response to protests". Axios.
- Allam, Hannah (June 21, 2020). "Vehicle Attacks Rise As Extremists Target Protesters". NPR.
- Grabar, Henry (August 14, 2017). "Mowing Down Crowds of Protesters Was a Right-Wing Fantasy Long Before Charlottesville". Slate Magazine. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- Hauck, Grace (July 9, 2020). "'I would be very careful in the middle of the street': Drivers have hit protesters 66 times since May 27". USA Today. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- Herb, Jeremy; Perez, Evan; O'Sullivan, Donie; Morales, Mark (May 31, 2020). "What we know about the extremists taking part in riots across the US". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Seldin, Jeff (June 4, 2020). "US Accuses Foreign, Online Actors of Inflaming Tensions". Voice of America. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020.
- Neugeboren, Eric (August 21, 2020). "Police Response to Press at Black Lives Matter Protests Tests First Amendment". Voice of America.
- Timm, Trevor (June 4, 2020). "We Crunched the Numbers: Police — Not Protesters — Are Overwhelmingly Responsible for Attacking Journalists". The Intercept.
- Reyes, Lorenzo (May 31, 2020). "Journalists blinded, injured, arrested covering George Floyd protests nationwide". USA Today.
- Walsh, Paul (June 11, 2020). "Officers slashed tires on vehicles parked amid Minneapolis protests, unrest". StarTribune.
- Kelly, Meg; Lee, Joyce Sohyun; Swaine, Jon (July 14, 2020). "Partially blinded by police". Washington Post.
- LARRY NEUMEISTER and TOM HAYS (June 21, 2020). "Injuries at George Floyd protests draw scrutiny to use of 'nonlethal' police weaponry". StarTribune.
- Liz Sawyer and Libor Jany (July 2, 2020). "Complaints skyrocket over police response to George Floyd protests". StarTribune.
- Herb, Jeremy; Perez, Evan; O'Sullivan, Donie; Morales, Mark (May 31, 2020). "What we do and don't know about the extremists taking part in riots across the US". CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- "Anarchists infiltrating George Floyd protests in NYC, officials say". WABC-TV. June 2, 2020.
- "Wray claims FBI sees 'anarchists like Antifa' exploiting George Floyd protests". Yahoo News. June 4, 2020.
- "As Trump Blames Antifa, Protest Records Show Scant Evidence". Associated Press. June 6, 2020. Retrieved June 9, 2020 – via Voice of America.
The Associated Press analyzed court records, employment histories, social media posts and other sources of information for 217 people arrested last weekend [...] only a handful appeared to have any affiliation with organized groups. [...] Social media posts indicate only a few of those arrested are left-leaning activists, including a self-described anarchist. But others had indications of being on the political right, including some Trump supporters.
- Feuer, Alan; Goldman, Adam; MacFarquhar, Neil (June 11, 2020). "Federal Arrests Show No Sign That Antifa Plotted Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
Despite claims by President Trump and Attorney General William P. Barr, there is scant evidence that loosely organized anti-fascists are a significant player in protests. [...] A review of the arrests of dozens of people on federal charges reveals no known effort by antifa to perpetrate a coordinated campaign of violence. Some criminal complaints described vague, anti-government political leanings among suspects, but a majority of the violent acts that have taken place at protests have been attributed by federal prosecutors to individuals with no affiliation to any particular group. [...] Dermot F. Shea, the city's police commissioner, acknowledged that most of the hundreds of people arrested at the protests in New York were actually New Yorkers who took advantage of the chaos to commit crimes and were not motivated by political ideology. John Miller, the police official who had briefed reporters, told CNN that most looting in New York had been committed by "regular criminal groups."
- Kelly, Meg; Samuels, Elyse (June 22, 2020). "Who caused the violence at protests? It wasn't antifa". The Washington Post.
- "Comparison between Capitol siege, BLM protests is denounced". AP NEWS. January 14, 2021. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "Nearly all Black Lives Matter protests are peaceful despite Trump narrative, report finds". the Guardian. September 5, 2020. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "93% of Black Lives Matter Protests Have Been Peaceful, New Report Finds". Time. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
- "Police point finger at gangs and local groups for riot damages, contradicting Trump's claims". CNN. June 10, 2020.
- Burghart, Devin (June 19, 2020). "Mapping Paramilitary and Far-Right Threats to Racial Justice". IREHR. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
- Timberg, Craig; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Mekhennet, Souad. "Men wearing Hawaiian shirts and carrying guns add a volatile new element to protests". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 31, 2021 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
- "Facebook bans 'violent' Boogaloo-linked network". BBC News. July 1, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- Clayton, James (July 3, 2020). "TikTok's Boogaloo extremism problem". BBC News. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- Danner, Chas (July 27, 2020). "What We Know About the Austin BLM Protest Shooting". New York. Archived from the original on August 22, 2020. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
- McGaughy, Lauren (July 26, 2020). "Austin police investigating shooting death of protester". Dallas Morning News.
- Venkataramanan, Meena (July 30, 2020). "For Austin officials investigating Garrett Foster's death, a key question may be which party acted in self-defense".
- "'Boogaloo Bois' face new charges for possessing machine guns, silencers". Star Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2021. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Sepic, Matt (December 10, 2020). "Twin Cities man sentenced for arson from riots". MPR News. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Pross, Katrina. "'Boogaloo Bois' member pleads guilty in terrorism case in aftermath of George Floyd unrest". Duluth News Tribune. Retrieved December 20, 2020.
- Porterfield, Carlie. "'Justice For George Floyd' Petition Becomes Most Popular Ever In U.S. For Change.org". Forbes. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- World, Republic. "'Justice for George Floyd' petition becomes most signed Change.org petition of all time". Republic World. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Flood, Brian (May 28, 2020). "George Floyd protests: Video footage goes viral on social media". Fox News. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Tiku, Nitasha (June 5, 2020). "Facebook employees said they were 'caught in an abusive relationship' with Trump as internal debates raged". The Washington Post.
- Frenkel, Sheera; Isaac, Mike; Kang, Cecilia; Dance, Gabriel J. X. (June 1, 2020). "Facebook Employees Stage Virtual Walkout to Protest Trump Posts". The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Haasch, Palmer (May 29, 2020). "People are posting Minneapolis protest footage to TikTok and 'This Is America' has become their anthem". Insider. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Adams, Heather (June 1, 2020). "Social media captures Boston peaceful protests that turned to riots sparked by George Floyd's death". masslive. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Eadens, Savannah (June 1, 2020). "Viral photo shows line of white people between police, black protesters at Thursday rally". The Courier-Journal. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Flores, Jessica (May 31, 2020). "The birth of the #WalkWithUs movement: Local leaders join George Floyd protesters across US in a show of solidarity". USA Today. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Keating, Shannon (June 4, 2020). "Stop Sharing Viral Photos Of Cops Kneeling With Protesters". BuzzFeed News.
- Tesfaye, Sophia (June 5, 2020). "Copaganda: Most major media is still much too eager to embrace police-friendly framing".
- Darville, Jordan (June 2, 2020). "How to help in the George Floyd protests and beyond". The Fader.
- LeBlanc, Cameron (June 2, 2020). "Let's Talk About That 'Brooklyn Nine-Nine' Scene That's Going Around". Fatherly.
- McCurry, Justin (June 5, 2020). "K-pop fans join forces to drown out opposition to #BlackLivesMatter". The Guardian. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Lee, Alicia (June 4, 2020). "K-pop fans are taking over 'White Lives Matter' and other anti-Black hashtags with memes and fancams of their favorite stars". CNN. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Hou, Kathleen (June 4, 2020). "K-Pop Stans Unite to Take Over WhiteLivesMatter Hashtag". The Cut. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Anonymous Message To The Minneapolis Police Department" – via www.facebook.com.
- Griffin, Andrew (June 1, 2020). "'Anonymous' is back and is supporting the Black Lives Matter protests". The Independent. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Mehrotra, Kartikay; Tarabay, Jamie (May 31, 2020). "Anonymous Vows to 'Expose' Minneapolis Police, Site Attacked»". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Condon, Patrick (May 30, 2020). "Gov. Walz to 'fully mobilize' the National Guard". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Axelrod, Tal (May 30, 2020). "St. Paul mayor says arrested protesters were from out of state". The Hill. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- Cranley, Ellen; Mark, Michelle (May 30, 2020). "Minnesota lawmakers said violence during George Floyd protests was from 'outside' actors, but jail records show most arrests are in-state". Insider Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- McNamara, Audrey (May 30, 2020). "St. Paul mayor says earlier comments about arrested protesters being out of state were not correct". CBS News. Retrieved May 31, 2020.
- Gjelten, Tom (June 1, 2020). "Peaceful Protesters Tear-Gassed To Clear Way For Trump Church Photo-Op". NPR. Archived from the original on June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Statement from U.S. Park Police acting Chief Gregory T. Monahan about the actions taken to protect life and property". U.S. Park Police. National Park Service. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Smith, Lilly (June 4, 2020). "It's terrible that we even have to explain what pepper balls are, but here we are". Fast Company. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- "Trump campaign demands story retractions on tear gas use". Al Jazeera. June 3, 2020. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Albeen, Eric (June 3, 2020). "President Trump on the Brian Kilmeade Show". Fox News Radio. Retrieved June 5, 2020.
- Fichera, Angelo (June 4, 2020). "Viral Posts Share Old, Edited White House Photo in Dark". FactCheck.org.
- Da Silva, Chantal (June 1, 2020). "White House Says Lights Go Out Same Time 'Almost Every Night' After Facing Criticism for Going Dark Amid Protests". Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- Borger, Julian (June 1, 2020). "Fires light up Washington DC on third night of George Floyd protests". The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2020.
- "Old image edited to show White House black out". Associated Press. June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- "Democrats share altered 'lights out' photo of White House on social media". Washington Examiner. June 2, 2020. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
- Wolf, Cam. "That Viral "$2.4 Million Rolex Looting" Story? It Never Happened". GQ. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Moore, Tina (June 1, 2020). "Conflicting reports of looting at Soho Rolex store". New York Post. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
- Brunner, Jim (June 12, 2020). "Fox News runs digitally altered images in coverage of Seattle's protests, Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone". The Seattle Times.
- "'Antifa bus' hoaxes are spreading panic through small-town America". The Verge. June 5, 2020.
- "False claims of antifa protesters plague small U.S. cities". Detroit News. June 2, 2020.
- "Family reportedly harassed in Forks after being accused of being members of Antifa". Peninsula Daily News. June 6, 2020.
- Boburg, Shawn (July 4, 2020). "Militias flocked to Gettysburg to foil a supposed Antifa flag burning, an apparent hoax created on social media". Washington Post. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Seitz, Amanda (May 30, 2020). "Minneapolis protest misinformation stokes racial tensions". Star Tribune. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
- "Did an undercover cop really vandalize a Minnesota AutoZone?". The Daily Dot. May 29, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- "'Not Our Officer': St. Paul PD Says Social Media Post Claiming One Of Its Officers Incited Mpls. Riots Is False". May 28, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2020.
- Saint Paul Police Department. "YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
- Weill, Kelly and Bredderman, William (July 28, 2020). "This Is the Alleged White Supremacist ‘Umbrella Man’ Police Suspect of Minneapolis Chaos". The Daily Beast. Retrieved on July 28, 2020.
- Timberg, Craig; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Nirappil, Fenit. "Twitter became a major vehicle for misinformation about unrest in D.C." Washington Post.
- "'None Of This Is True': Protests Become Fertile Ground for Online Disinformation". NPR.org.
- Sebenius, Alyza; Wagner, Kurt (June 2, 2020). "Twitter Suspends Hundreds Tweeting #dcblackout During Protests". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Klepper, David; Hinnant, Lori (June 21, 2020). "Is George Soros paying protesters? Soros' conspiracy theories surge as protests sweep nation". USA Today. Retrieved February 17, 2021.
- Balz, Dan; Miller, Greg (June 6, 2020). "America convulses amid a week of protests, but can it change?". Washington Post. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Thompson, Alex. "White America is reckoning with racism. It could reshape 2020". Politico. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Woodly, Deva. "An American Reckoning". Public Seminar. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- Elving, Ron (June 13, 2020). "Will This Be The Moment Of Reckoning On Race That Lasts?". National Public Radio. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
- Brianna Keilar: You are watching America's reckoning - CNN Video, retrieved July 2, 2020
- "Seeds of honesty in a US reckoning on race". Christian Science Monitor. June 23, 2020. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- "Amid U.S. reckoning on race, Black candidates harness voters' fervor for change". Reuters. June 25, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- "Opinion | Lincoln's D.C. statue is having a cultural reckoning of its own". Washington Post. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- McIntyre, Dave (July 3, 2020). "The Court of Master Sommeliers has been called out for racism. Now, it is pledging change". Washington Post. Retrieved July 4, 2020.
- "Powell Discusses Fed Policy and U.S. Unrest". The New York Times. Associated Press. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Alberight, Amanda (May 31, 2020). "George Floyd protests hammer cities as they reopen from coronavirus lockdowns". Fortune. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Leticia Miranda, First came a pandemic. Then, looting. Small businesses pick up the pieces as their debt mounts., NBC News (June 4, 2020).
- Russell Lynch, US riots set to scar economy for years to come, The Telegraph (June 6, 2020).
- Lahut, Jake. "Trump says the jobs report is 'the greatest thing' for race relations, and the economy is his plan to address systemic racism". Business Insider. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Reinicke, Joseph Zeballos-Roig, Carmen. "Chart shows that black Americans weren't part of the surprise May hiring bump that benefited white and Latino workers". Business Insider. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Meredith, Sam (June 2, 2020). "What history can tell us about how stock markets react to civil unrest". CNBC. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Rabouin, Dion.