List of academic databases and search engines

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

This article contains a representative list of notable databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, institutional repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. Databases and search engines differ substantially in terms of coverage and retrieval qualities.[1] Users need to account for qualities and limitations of databases and search engines, especially those searching systematically for records such as in systematic reviews or meta-analyses.[2] As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

  • the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
  • the article about bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.

The terms "free", "subscription", and "free & subscription" will refer to the availability of the website as well as the journal articles used. Furthermore, some programs are only partly free (for example, accessing abstracts or a small number of items), whereas complete access is prohibited (login or institutional subscription required).

The "Size" column denotes the number of documents (articles, publications, datasets, preprints) rather than the number of citations or references. The database itself should be the primary source of statistics, and if it is not accessible, the independent estimates released as journal papers should be. Notably, Google Scholar does not offer such detail, but the database's size has been calculated.[2]

Operating services


Full-text aggregators


The main academic full-text databases are open archives or link-resolution services, although others operate under different models such as mirroring or hybrid publishers. Such services typically provide access to full text and full-text search, but also metadata about items for which no full text is available.

This list focuses on general-purpose services; OpenDOAR can be used to find thousands of open-access repositories. The table is sorted by the number of works for which full-text is made available.

Name Discipline(s) Size (full-texts) Description Access cost Open data Provider(s)
Internet Archive Scholar Multidisciplinary 25,000,000 Focus on fulltext search of open access journals and conference proceedings Free Yes Internet Archive
CORE[3] Multidisciplinary 9,800,000[4] (207,000,000 metadata[5]) A full text aggregator of all open access papers from repositories (institutional, subject, preprints, etc.) and journals. Around 20 million monthly active users. Free No[4] Open University
CiteSeerX[6] Multidisciplinary 8,401,126 Replaced CiteSeer, and ChemXSeer. Mainly Computer science, Statistics, Mathematics. Free Semi-free[7] Pennsylvania State University
Paperity[8] Multidisciplinary 10,500,000 Full-text aggregator of open access journals and papers (>17,000 journals) from all academic disciplines. Free No[9] Paperity Sp. z o.o.
Semantic Scholar Multidisciplinary 8,100,000[10] (200,000,000 metadata[11]) Mostly computer science and biomedical publications. Powered by semantic analysis. Free Semi-free[10] Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence
Europe PMC[12] Biomedical 7,500,000 (39,000,000 metadata) Abstracts & full text ( 7.5 million) biomedical and life sciences articles (Dec 2020). Includes text mining tools and links to external molecular and medical data sets. Free Yes EMBL-EBI
PubMed Central (PMC)[13] Biomedical, life sciences 7,500,000 Free full-text archive of publications and preprints Free Yes NIH, NLM
ResearchGate Multidisciplinary 4,000,000[citation needed] Commercial social networking site for scientists and researchers. Over 19 million registered users that share their articles, datasets and other research output. Free No ResearchGate GmbH
SSRN: Social Science Research Network Social science 950,733 Research papers from more than 55 disciplines Free & Subscription No Elsevier
HAL Multidisciplinary 760,000 (2,000,000 metadata)[14] An open-access database for French researchers. Organized into institution and domain portals. Free Yes CNRS's Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe (CCSD)
RePEc: Research Papers in Economics[15] Economics 90,000 (3,200,000 metadata)[16] Working papers, journal articles, books, books chapters and software components (including 1.2 million full-text articles) Free IDEAS: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EconPapers: Örebro University School of Business

PhilPapers Philosophy 70,000[17] (2,540,317 metadata) Index journals, books, open access archives, and personal pages maintained by academics Free PhilPapers
ERIC: Educational Resource Information Center[18] Education Unknown (1,500,000 metadata) Education literature and resources dating back to 1966. Free & Subscription United States Department of Education (available by subscription from OCLC, CSA)
Synthical[19][20] Multidisciplinary 3,000,000[21] Pre-prints, mainly computer science, mathematics, statistics, chemistry, and biology. Free Yes Synthical
Zendy[22] Multidisciplinary Unknown (31,266,280[23] Focus on scholarly content including full-text papers, conference proceedings, indexed journals, books, and book chapters from open access sources. Content is available in 38 languages, covering various subjects and disciplines. Free & Subscription Yes Knowledge E, Zendy

Metadata services

Name Discipline(s) Size Description Access cost Provider(s)
AGRIS: Agricultural database[24] Agriculture 12,021,578 Covers agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquatic sciences and fisheries, human nutrition, extension literature from over 100 countries. Indexes unpublished scientific and technical reports, theses, conference papers, government publications. Free FAO
Arachne[25] Archaeology, Art history 4,485,534 2.4 million digital images from archive material, 1 million of books, 40,000 high quality scans of ancient sculptures, 300 volumes of ancient books with more than 60,000 pages Free DAI & University of Cologne
AMiner[26] Computer Science 265,034,285 Online service used to index and search academic social networks Free Tsinghua University
Arts & Humanities Citation Index[27] Arts, Humanities 4,900,000 Part of Web of Science. 1,800 journals across 28 arts & humanities disciplines. Records back from 1975 to present. Subscription Clarivate Analytics
Astrophysics Data System[28] Astrophysics, Geophysics, Physics 13,300,000 Publications in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics, and the arXiv e-prints Free Harvard University
ATLA Religion Database[29] Religious studies 3,000,000 Provides information on topics such as biblical studies, world religions, church history, and religion in social issues Subscription EBSCO Publishing
BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search Engine[30] Multidisciplinary 259,497,239 Metadata for 260 million documents from more than 8,000 content providers Free Bielefeld University
Book Review Index Online Book reviews 5,600,000 Reviews of periodicals and books – including those on tape and electronic media Subscription Thomson Gale
Books in Print Books 2,500,000 Reviews covering over 2.5 million titles Subscription R. R. Bowker
CAB Abstracts Applied life sciences 10,000,000 Bibliographic information service providing access to applied life sciences literature. Subscription CABI
CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health[31] Nursing, Allied Health 7,800,000 Journal articles about nursing, allied health, biomedicine and healthcare. Covers 5,500 journals (English and other language). Subscription EBSCO
CiNii[32] Multidisciplinary 22,000,000 Database of articles in the Japanese language from 3600 journals Free & Subscription National Institute of Informatics
CNKI Multidisciplinary 160,000,000 A Chinese bibliographic database Free & Subscription CNKI
CORE[3] Multidisciplinary 207,000,000[5] Around 20 million monthly active users. Free Open University
Crossref[33] Multidisciplinary 111,231,936 An official Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Registration Agency of the International DOI Foundation. Metadata about publications, datasets, grants, preprints from 17,633 members (journals, publishers, etc.) Free Crossref
DeepDyve Multidisciplinary 20,000,000 Commercial website that sells access to scientific and scholarly articles from a large range of academic publishers (over 1700 journals). Limited free access. Free & Subscription DeepDyve
Dimensions[34][35] Multidisciplinary 302,000,000 Publications, books and book chapters, preprints and conference proceedings (linked to data sets, funding, publications, patents, clinical trials, and policy documents). Based on CrossRef. Contains citation-based indicators and Altmetric attention scores. Free & Subscription Digital Science & Research Solutions Ltd
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)[36] Multidisciplinary 8,265,735 Articles from 18,652 open access journals (Dec 2022) Free Infrastructure Services for Open Access (IS4OA)
DBLP[37] Computer science 5,387,041 Comprehensive list of papers from major computer science conferences and journals Free Leibniz Center for Informatics and University of Trier
EconBiz[38] Economics 10,000,000 Covers journals, working papers & conferences in business studies and economics Free ZBW- German National Library of Economics– Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW)
EconLit[39] Economics 1,600,000 Covers articles and other materials dating back to 1969 Subscription American Economic Association (available from EBSCOhost, ProQuest, OVID, and AEA)
EMBASE[40] Biomedicine, Pharmacology 32,000,000 Biomedical database with a focus on drug and pharmaceutical research. Rrecords from over 8,500 journals (1947–present). Subscription Elsevier
FSTA – Food Science and Technology Abstracts Food science, Food technology, Nutrition 1,500,000 The database of information on food science, food technology and nutrition Subscription IFIS Publishing (available via EBSCOhost, IHS Inc., Ovid, Proquest Dialog, STN and Web of Science)
GeoRef[41] Geosciences 4,000,000 Records from 3,500 journals in 40 languages Subscription American Geosciences Institute
Google Scholar[1] Multidisciplinary 389,000,000 The biggest academic database & search engine (over 390 million records, unofficial estimate) Free Google
Informit Multidisciplinary 8,000,000 Australasian aggregator of bibliographic databases and journals Subscription RMIT Training Pty Ltd (RMIT Training)
Inspec Physics, Engineering, Computer Science 18,000,000 Contains records in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering. Subscription IET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)[42] Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Energy, Medical Physics 4,600,000 A leading bibliographic and grey literature repository covering all areas of nuclear science and technology. Free International Atomic Energy Agency
International Philosophical Bibliography Philosophy 1,000,000 Focus on the history of philosophy and continental philosophy. Subscription Université Catholique de Louvain (available from Peeters Publishers)
J-Gate[43] Multidisciplinary 71,692,382 J-Gate is an electronic gateway to global e-journal literature (articles from 58,000 journals) Free & Subscription Informatics India Ltd
The Lens[44] Multidisciplinary 228,108,724 Serves global patent and scholarly knowledge as a public good to inform science and technology enabled problem solving. Free & Subscription Cambia
MathSciNet Mathematics 3,600,000 Records from 650 math journals (early 1800–present) Subscription American Mathematical Society
MEDLINE Medicine, Healthcare 26,000,000 Easy-to-use interface to search and retrieve citations and abstracts from 5,200 journals via MeSH vocabulary Free NLM
MyScienceWork Multidisciplinary 90,000,000 Database includes more than 90 million scientific publications and 12 million patents. Free MyScienceWork Inc
National Diet Library Collection Multidisciplinary 44,187,016 Japanese. Catalog for the National Library of Japan. Free National Diet Library
OAIster[45] Multidisciplinary 30,000,000 Covers records contributed by over 1,500 organizations Free OCLC
OpenAIRE Graph Multidisciplinary 242,000,000 Scientific Knowledge Graph aggregating, deduplicating, enriching metadata of publications, research data, research software, and other products, with citations links and links to funders and grants - core service in support of the European Open Science Cloud Free OpenAIRE AMKE (not-for-profit)
OpenAlex Multidisciplinary 205,000,000[46] Index and metadata for all scholarly output. Free OurResearch
PsycINFO Psychology 3,700,000 Focus at behavioral science and mental health. Coverage 1887–present. Subscription APA
PubMed[47] Biomedical, life sciences 30,000,000 A database primarily of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. Includes MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and Bookshelf. Free NIH, NLM
RSWBplus[48] Civil Engineering, Architecture 1,600,000 Bibliographic database for planning and building related publications, chronological coverage since 1975. Focus: German-language publications, journal articles, book chapters, conference papers, research reports. Subscription Fraunhofer IRB
Russian Science Citation Index Multidisciplinary 35,409,829 A bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian Free Scientific Electronic Library
ScienceOpen Multidisciplinary 66,000,000 Natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Incorporates arXiv, PubMed, and SciELO. Integrated with ORCID Altmetric uids. Articles from >25,000 journals. Free ScienceOpen Inc.
Scopus[49] Multidisciplinary 78,000,000 Records from over 20,500 titles from over 5,000 international publishers Subscription Elsevier
Web of Science[49] Multidisciplinary 171,000,000 Includes other products, such as Social Sciences Citation Index, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts & The Zoological Record Subscription Clarivate Analytics
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals Index Multidisciplinary 6,600,000 Scholarly articles in Japanese Free & Subscription National Diet Library
Zentralblatt MATH Mathematics 4,000,000 Mainly reviews and abstracts. Free FIZ Karlsruhe
The Zoological Record Zoology 3,500,000 Unofficial register of scientific names & papers in zoology. Coverage 1864–present. Subscription Clarivate Analytics

Smaller metadata services


Services with less than a million searchable records.

Name Discipline(s) Size Description Access cost Provider(s)
Academic Search[50] Multidisciplinary Several versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition Subscription EBSCO Publishing
Aerospace & High Technology Database Aerospace, Aeronautics, Astronautics Provides indexing and abstracts from current serial and non-serial titles, including content from AIAA and NASA Subscription ProQuest
African Journals OnLine (AJOL)[51] Multidisciplinary 185,649 Scholarly journals published in Africa Free & Subscription AJOL
AgeLine[50] Sociology, Gerontology Includes information on aging-related topics, including economics, public health and policy Subscription EBSCO Publishing
AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online Access[52] Agriculture Provides public access to information on agriculture and allied fields (17th century - present) Free & Subscription NAL (free access NAL, subscription access ProQuest, OVID)
Airiti Multidisciplinary Chinese e-content provider of Chinese academic e-journals, Taiwanese academic e-journals, classical art images Subscription Airiti Inc.
Analytical Abstracts[53] Chemistry 505,481 Selection of analytical chemistry articles published by the Royal Society of Chemistry (around 100 journals) Subscription RSC
Anthropological Index Online[54] Anthropology Indexes only (no abstracts or full-text) the anthropology journals received by The Anthropology Library at The British Museum Free & Subscription RAI
Anthropological Literature[55] Anthropology, Archaeology 670,000 An index of journals primarily from Tozzer Library, as well as other open-access journals (660 journals with more than 670,000 articles) Free & Subscription Harvard University (non-Harvard access provided by OCLC)
ArchiveGrid Multidisciplinary Directory of archival materials from American and international institutions, including over five million records Free WorldCat
ASCE Library Civil Engineering 150,000 All civil engineering disciplines including structural engineering, geotechnical engineering, transportation engineering, construction engineering, environmental engineering, engineering mechanics, sustainability, water resources, irrigation. hydraulics, hydrology, waterways, urban planning, cold regions ... Free & Subscription ASCE
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military Periodicals Military Science The articles, news items, book reviews and editorials from 63 English language military and aeronautical periodicals Free Air University
Biological Abstracts[56] Biology Biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally. Subscription Thomson Reuters
Cabells Multidisciplinary 35,000 Database to discover, evaluate, and compare journals. Journal listings include publication info, submission guidelines, and metrics. Subscription Cabells
Chemical Abstracts Service Chemistry Approximately 8,000 journals, technical reports, dissertations, conference proceedings, and new books Subscription ACS
Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index[57] Social sciences 60,000 Covers about 500 Chinese academic journals of humanities and social sciences Subscription Nanjing University
CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database[58] Medicine 7,900 Contains records describing publications about all aspects of human health in the circumpolar region Free University of Calgary
Civil engineering database Civil engineering 270,000 A bibliographic database covering all of ASCE's publications since 1872 Free American Society of Civil Engineers
Cochrane Library Medicine, Healthcare Includes reviews of research to promote evidence-based healthcare. Subscription Wiley Interscience
Current Contents Multidisciplinary Part of Web of Science. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets. Subscription Clarivate Analytics
DSI: Stuttgart_Database_of_Scientific_Illustrators_1450–1950 Multidisciplinary 13,096 bio-bibliographic data about illustrators of published scientific works from c.1450 until 1950 in 100+ countries, with 20 search fields Free compiled by the Section for History of Science & Technology, University_of_Stuttgart
Index Copernicus[59] Multidisciplinary Contains over 2,500 journals (including 700 journals from Poland). Free Index Copernicus Ltd
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information Multidisciplinary 266,000 Provides free public access to over 266,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward. Free DOE (OSTI)
Indian Citation Index[60] Multidisciplinary 860,000 Covers articles from 1100+ journals from India from scientific, technical, medical, and social sciences Subscription ICI
IARP[61] Multidisciplinary Open-access knowledge management system incorporating grants, publications, conferences in natural and social & behavioral sciences Free Volunteer Collaboration
INSPIRE-HEP Physics, (High Energy) An open access digital library for the field of high energy physics (HEP) (operates since the 1970s) Free CERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP
International Directory of Philosophy Philosophy 37,000 Contains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.S., Canada, and approximately 130 other countries. Free & Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center
International Medieval Bibliography[62] Medieval studies 440,000 A multidisciplinary bibliographic database covering Europe, North Africa and the Middle East for the entire period from AD 300 to 1500 Subscription Leeds University (available from Brepols Publishers)
JournalSeek Multidisciplinary Catalogues over 39,000 journals' information (the description, aims, scope, journal abbreviation, journal homepage link, subject category and ISSN). Free & Subscription Genamics
Jurn Multidisciplinary Index property and open access journals in the arts, humanities, ecology, science, biomedical, business and economics. Free David Haden
L'Année philologique Classical studies Over 860,000 bibliographical entries, including keywords, abstracts, and links to the full text. Subscription Société Internationale de Bibliographie Classique (available from Brepols Publishers)
LexisNexis Law Electronic database for legal and public-records related information Subscription Reed Elsevier
Lingbuzz Linguistics 550,000 A free archive of linguistics articles, with a focus on syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology Free University of Tromsø
Linguamatics Medicine, Healthcare, Patents Interface for searching MEDLINE,, FDA Drug Labels, PubMed Central, and Patent Abstracts. Subscription Linguamatics
Logeion Classical Studies An open-access database of Latin and Ancient Greek dictionaries Free University of Chicago
Mendeley[63] Multidisciplinary N/A Crowdsourced database of research documents. Over 100M documents uploaded by the researchers plus data from repositories (e.g. PubMed and arXiv) Free & Subscription Elsevier
National Criminal Justice Reference Service Criminology, Sociology 225,000 Abstracts of scholarly journal articles, agency and NGO reports, audiovisual products, and conference proceedings. Free United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs
OpenGrey Grey literature 700,000 Indexes European grey literature Free Institut de l'information scientifique et technique
ORCID[64] Multidisciplinary An open and independent registry for contributor identification in research and academic publishing. List: biography, education, employment, works, grants, peer-review. Over 9.3 million profiles. Free ORCID Inc.
Philosophy Documentation Center eCollection Applied ethics, Philosophy, Religious studies Journals, series, conference proceedings, and other works from several countries online Free & Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center
POIESIS: Philosophy Online Serials Philosophy, applied ethics, religious studies Journals and series, online access for institutions with print Free & Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center
Publons[65] Multidisciplinary Service for academics to track their peer review and editorial contributions for academic journals. Merged with ResearcherID Free Clarivate Analytics
PubPsych Psychology 800,000 Datasets and offers, where available, full-text linking, links to additional information and link resolving Free Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature Literature Reference guide to articles in >470 periodical magazines and journals, organized by article subject (1890 to present) Subscription H. W. Wilson Company
Rock's Backpages[66] Music 40,000 Primary documents from the history of rock and roll. Articles, including interviews, features and reviews, which covered popular music from blues and soul Free & Subscription Backpages Ltd
SafetyLit Multidisciplinary 640,000 >35 distinct professional disciplines (architecture - zoology) relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm Free SafetyLit Foundation Multidisciplinary A gateway to government science information and research results from over 60 databases, over 2,200 websites, and over 200 million pages. Free United States Government
Science Citation Index[67] Multidisciplinary Part of Web of Science. 24,000+ journals across 254 subject disciplines. Subscription Clarivate Analytics
Scientific Information Database (SID) Engineering & Technology, Medical Science, Basic Science, Human Sciences An Iranian index of academic journals and access to full text or metadata Free Scientific Information Database
SCIndeks - Serbian Citation Index Multidisciplinary 80,000 A bibliographic database, a national citation index, an Open Access full-text journal repository and an electronic publishing platform. Articles from >230 journals. Free CEON/CEES - Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science
SNAC (Social Networks and Archival Contexts) Multidisciplinary Directory of archival materials grouped by subject entity Free
Social Sciences Citation Index Social science Part of Web of Science Subscription Clarivate Analytics
Socolar Multidisciplinary Scholarly open access resources in different language (mainly Chinese) Free & Subscription China Educational Publications Import and Export Corporation
Ulrich's Periodicals Directory Multidisciplinary 336,000 Provides serials for periodicals Subscription ProQuest
VET-Bib Social Science, Education 80,000 European vocational education and training (VET) literature Free Cedefop
WestLaw Law Over 40,000 databases of case law, state and federal statutes, administrative codes, newspaper and magazine articles, public records, law journals, law reviews, treatises, legal forms and other information resources Subscription Thomson Reuters
WorldCat[68] Multidisciplinary Unified catalog of member libraries' catalogs Free & Subscription OCLC Inc.
WorldWideScience Multidisciplinary A union catalog that itemizes the collections of 17,900 libraries in 123 countries Free & Subscription DOE (OSTI)



Content by most academic publishers is indexed by CrossRef, DOAJ and/or DataCite. Some publishers are also listed separately in the table below.

Name Discipline(s) Size Description Access cost Provider(s)
Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library Computer Science, Engineering 2,892,573 Collection of all ACM publications, including journals, conference proceedings, technical magazines, newsletters and books Subscription Association for Computing Machinery
Analytical Sciences Digital Library[69] Analytical chemistry A collection of peer-reviewed electronic resources on chemical measurements and instrumentation Free NSDL and ACS
Bibliographie de civilisation médiévale Medieval studies A bibliography of monographs on the Middle Ages. As of 2018, it contains about 65,000 fully classified bibliographic records. Subscription University of Poitiers (available from Brepols Publishers)
BioOne Biology, Ecology, Environmental Science Full-text from >180 scientific journals in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Environmental Science, Entomology, Ornithology, Plant Science, and Zoology. Free & Subscription BioOne
IEEE Xplore Computer Science, Engineering, Electronics 5,360,654 Over 5 million records. Subscription IEEE
IngentaConnect Multidisciplinary 5,000,000 Covers articles from 13,000 journals Free & Subscription Ingenta
JSTOR: Journal Storage Multidisciplinary 12,000,000 Journal articles, books, and primary sources in 75 disciplines (1870–present) Free & Subscription JSTOR Humanities, social science 60,000 Offers four international-scale publication and information platforms in the humanities and social sciences (10,661 books, 549 journals, 3793 blogs, 45,591 events). Free Cléo (UMS 3287) CNRS EHESS University of Avignon
Project MUSE Humanities, social science MUSE's online journal collections are available on a subscription basis to academic, public, special, and school libraries. More than 2,500 libraries worldwide subscribe. Subscription Project MUSE, Johns Hopkins University Press
SciELO Multidisciplinary 573,525 Database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries (mostly South America and Africa). Indexes >1700 journals. Free FAPESP, CNPq and BIREME
ScienceDirect Science including Medicine 18,000,000 Content from more than 4,000 academic journals and 30,000 e-books Subscription Elsevier
SpringerLink Multidisciplinary 13,859,779 Journals, books, series, protocols, reference works and proceedings Free & Subscription Springer

Services no longer operating


The following services are no longer operating; this may be because they were not updated, abandoned entirely, replaced by other, etc.

Name Discipline(s) Description Access cost Provider(s)
Bioinformatic Harvester Biology, Bioinformatics A meta search engine for 50 major bioinformatic databases and projects. Project appears to be not available anymore. Free Liebel-Lab KIT from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
citeULike Computer science Not available. Ceased operations as of March 30, 2019 Free Oversity Ltd.
ChemXSeer Chemistry The project seems abandoned in 2018 Free Pennsylvania State University
citebase Search Mathematics, Computer science, Physics Semi-autonomous citation index of free online research. Not available; ceased operations in 2013 Free University of Southampton
citeSeer Computer Science Replaced by citeSeerX. Free Pennsylvania State University
Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural Database Science, Chemistry Web-based retrieval application that provided language-independent access to the information contained in Chemisches Zentralblatt Subscription InfoChem
CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archive Multidisciplinary An electronic archive for self-archive papers in Psychology, Neuroscience, Linguistics, Computer Science, Philosophy, Biology, and Medicine. Contains over 2000 free articles. Not updated since 2017. Free University of Southampton
The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies Computer science One of the oldest (if not the oldest) bibliography collections freely accessible on the Internet (founded 1993). Contains 4.2 million records. Not updated since 2017. Free Alf-Christian Achilles
Current Index to Statistics Statistics Limited free search. Not updated since 2017. Subscription American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics
Ei Compendex Engineering Electronic version of Engineering Index Subscription Elsevier
GENESIS Women's history Descriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites. Free London Metropolitan University
Global Health[70] Public Health Specialist abstracting and indexing database dedicated to public health research and practice. Contains scientific records from 1973 to the present. Subscription CABI
HCI Bibliography Human–computer interface An electronic bibliography for most of HCI for researchers, developers, educators, and students. Over 126,000 publications. Not updated since 2018. Free Gary Perlman
International Bibliography of Humanism and the Renaissance Renaissance studies A bibliography of academic publications on European culture and history in the 16th and 17th centuries. It seems that the database is not available and not updated since 2013. Subscription Brepols Publishers
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts Meteorology, Astrophysics, Geology Over 508,379 records from 654 journals. It seems that the database is not available and not updated since 2009. Subscription American Meteorological Society (available from Dialog and CSA).
Microsoft Academic[71] Multidisciplinary Covered publications from over 49,000 journals. Retired on December 31, 2021.[72] Free Microsoft
Philosophy Research Index Philosophy Index of books, journals, dissertations, and other documents. Merged with PhilPapers. Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center
POPLINE Population, Family Planning A collection of population, family planning and related reproductive health and development literature. Retired in 2019. Free Knowledge for Health, Center for Communication Programs, JHSPH
Questia: Online Research Library Multidisciplinary Emphasis on books and journal articles in the humanities and social sciences. Closed down on December 21, 2020 Subscription Questia
Science Accelerator Multidisciplinary A gateway to results of DOE research and development and major R&D accomplishments of interest to DOE. Not working from 2014 Free DOE
Sparrho Multidisciplinary Research articles and patents from 45k+ journals and preprint servers. Uses content recommendation concept. Subscription Distylled Ltd.

See also



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