Luqman

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Luqman or Lokman , Lukman (Arabic: لقمان, romanizedLuqmān; also known as Luqman the Wise or Luqman al-Hakim) was a wise man after whom Luqman, the 31st surah (chapter) of the Qur'an, was named. There are many stories about Luqman in Persian, Arabic and Turkish literature.[citation needed]

Source of Luqman's wisdom[edit]

According to the 12th ayah (verse) of surah Luqman in the Qur'an, Luqman was bestowed with hikmah by God, al-Hakim. "We gave wisdom to Luqmān, and said, “Be grateful to God”, and whoever is grateful is, in fact, grateful for his own benefit, and whoever is ungrateful, then God is free of all needs, worthy of all praise." (Surah Luqman Quran 31:12)

According to a hadith in the Muwatta of Imam Malik, Luqman was asked, "What has brought you to what we see?", referring to his high rank. Luqman said, "Truthful speech, fulfilling the trust, and leaving what does not concern me."[1] This narration has also been mentioned with different wording in another source from ibn Jarir who heard it from ibn Hamid who heard it from al-Hakam who heard it from Umar ibn Qays.[2]

Identity of Luqman[edit]

According to the 14th-century Arabic scholar Ibn Kathir, Luqman is believed to have been from Nubia, Sudan or Ethiopia.[3][2]

A mythical figure of Arabia named Luqman existed long before the Quran, resulting in considerable debate of both theological and historical nature as to the relationship of the two characters. Some, such as 17th-century French scholar Pierre Daniel Huet, maintain that the two are the same person, but others argue that they simply share the same name.[citation needed]

In Arabic proverb collections, the two characters are fused, drawing from both the Quran and pre-Islamic stories, endowing Luqman with superhuman strength and lifespan. According to Arab mythology, the pre-Islamic Luqman was a member of the ʿĀd who lived in al-Ahqaf in South Arabia while Luqman in the Quran is from Nubia.[4]

Some scholars have suggested that the figure of Luqman in Arabic is based on Alcmaeon of Croton.[5] By the Middle Ages, many of the ancient fables traditionally associated with Aesop in Europe became associated in Arabic culture with Luqman.[6][7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Book of Speech - كتاب الكلام - Muwatta Malik". Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Retrieved 18 October 2021. Malik related to me that he heard that someone said to Luqman, "What has brought you to what we see?" meaning his high rank. Luqman said, "Truthful speech, fulfilling the trust, and leaving what does not concern me."
  2. ^ a b as-Sayed al-Halawani, Ali. Stories of the Prophets by Ibn Kathir (PDF). Dar Al-Manarah. pp. 90–98. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  3. ^ Ibn Kathir, Hafiz, Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Dar-us-Salam Publications, 2000 (original ~1370)
  4. ^ Kassis, Riad Aziz (1999). "The Solomonic Wisdom Tradition". The Book of Proverbs and Arabic Proverbial Works, Volume 74. Leiden: Brill. pp. 47–48. ISBN 9789004113053. Luqmān appears in Arabic tradition as a "composite" and a "many-sided figure": (a) The pre-islamic Luqmān; (b) The Qurʾānic Luqmān; and (c) Luqmān of fables.
  5. ^ Cole, Juan (2021). "Dyed in Virtue: The Qur'ān and Plato's Republic". Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. 61: 582.
  6. ^ Kassis, Riad Aziz (1999). The Book of Proverbs and Arabic Proverbial Works. Brill. p. 51. ISBN 978-90-04-11305-3.
  7. ^ Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002). Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-8108-6610-2.

Further reading[edit]

  • Barham, Francis Foster Lokman's Arabic Fables, literally translated into English (word for word), Bath, 1869, 12mo.

External links[edit]