Mineral water

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A mineral water spring at Sabalan Mountain, Iran

Mineral water is water from a mineral spring that contains various minerals, such as salts and sulfur compounds. It is usually still, but may be sparkling (carbonated/effervescent).

Traditionally, mineral waters were used or consumed at their spring sources, often referred to as "taking the waters" or "taking the cure," at places such as spas, baths and wells.

Today, it is far more common for mineral water to be bottled at the source for distributed consumption. Travelling to the mineral water site for direct access to the water is now uncommon, and in many cases not possible because of exclusive commercial ownership rights. More than 4,000 brands of mineral water are commercially available worldwide.[1]

In many places the term "mineral water" is colloquially used to mean any bottled carbonated water or soda water, as opposed to tap water.


Mineral water

The more calcium and magnesium ions that are dissolved in water, the harder it is said to be; water with few dissolved calcium and magnesium ions is described as being soft.[2]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration classifies mineral water as water containing at least 250 parts per million total dissolved solids (TDS), originating from a geologically and physically protected underground water source. No minerals may be added to this water.[3]

In the European Union, bottled water may be called mineral water when it is bottled at the source and has undergone no or minimal treatment.[4] Permitted is the removal of iron, manganese, sulfur and arsenic through decantation, filtration or treatment with ozone-enriched air, insofar as this treatment does not alter the composition of the water as regards to the essential constituents which give it its properties. No additions are permitted except for carbon dioxide, which may be added, removed or re-introduced by exclusively physical methods. No disinfection treatment is permitted, nor is the addition of any bacteriostatic agents.[citation needed]

Chemistry of Mineral Water[edit]

Mineral water does not go through any chemical processing. [5] This means no purification and no additional components will be added to the water. Chemically, mineral waters can be classified under the following: bicarbonate, sulphate, chloride, calcic, magnesiac, fluorurate, ferrous, and sodium-rich. [6]

Positive Effects of Mineral Water[edit]

  • Bicarbonate is the working component of baking soda. This bicarbonate anion in mineral water works to neutralize acidic conditions within the body. A benefit of using bicarbonate is relieving heartburn. [7]
  • Sulfur, more recently, has been shown to benefit many things within the body including hypertension and inflammatory diseases. The active form of sulfur in mineral water is a gas known as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This gaseous form of sulfur is able to penetrate into skin and mucus membranes. This allows for it to work at the cellular level throughout the body. [8]
  • Chlorine is a naturally occurring antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-parasitic agent. Drinking small amounts of chlorine, like the levels within mineral water, is not harmful per the CDC. [9] Chlorine assists in producing hydrochloric acid in the body, which aids in chemical digestion to nutrients. [10]
  • Calcium is one of the most important minerals that is used in our body. It is used as a neurotransmitter in muscular contraction and nervous system pathways. It is also the main component in preserving bone health, which is crucial for the developing bodies of young adults. [11]
  • Magnesium water consumption has been shown to improve glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. It is further being studied in its positive effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. [12]
  • Fluorine is a mineral commonly supplemented in community water sources. Fluorine is a crucial mineral for our tooth health, preventing against tooth decay and cavities. [13]
  • Ferrous mineral water, which has increased iron, helps transport oxygen in blood. Ferrous iron is the active state of iron in hemoglobin, which allows for oxygen binding, transport, and delivery within our body. [14]
  • Sodium-rich water replenishes electrolytes in our body. Excessive sodium intake can disrupt homeostasis and lead to increased blood pressure.[15]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Mineral Waters of the World
  2. ^ "Hard Water". USGS. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  3. ^ "CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  4. ^ EU Directive 2009/54/EC
  5. ^ "What are the health benefits of mineral water?". Public Health. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  6. ^ Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa (2016). "Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects". Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism. 13 (3): 173–180. doi:10.11138/ccmbm/2016.13.3.173. ISSN 1724-8914. PMC 5318167. PMID 28228777.
  7. ^ "Sodium Bicarbonate (Oral Route, Intravenous Route, Subcutaneous Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2 April 2024.
  8. ^ Carbajo, Jose Manuel; Maraver, Francisco (2017). "Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017: 1–11. doi:10.1155/2017/8034084. ISSN 1741-427X. PMC 5397653. PMID 28484507.
  9. ^ "Water Disinfection with Chlorine and Chloramine | Public Water Systems | Drinking Water | Healthy Water | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 18 November 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2024.
  10. ^ Quattrini, Sara; Pampaloni, Barbara; Brandi, Maria Luisa (2016). "Natural mineral waters: chemical characteristics and health effects". Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism. 13 (3): 173–180. doi:10.11138/ccmbm/2016.13.3.173. ISSN 1724-8914. PMC 5318167. PMID 28228777.
  11. ^ Pop, Manuela Simona; Cheregi, Dragoș Cornel; Onose, Gelu; Munteanu, Constantin; Popescu, Cristina; Rotariu, Mariana; Turnea, Marius-Alexandru; Dograru, Gabriela; Ionescu, Elena Valentina; Oprea, Doinița; Iliescu, Mădălina Gabriela; Minea, Mihaela; Stanciu, Liliana Elena; Silișteanu, Sînziana Călina; Oprea, Carmen (13 July 2023). "Exploring the Potential Benefits of Natural Calcium-Rich Mineral Waters for Health and Wellness: A Systematic Review". Nutrients. 15 (14): 3126. doi:10.3390/nu15143126. ISSN 2072-6643. PMC 10384676. PMID 37513544.
  12. ^ Albaker, Waleed I.; Al-Hariri, Mohammed T.; Al Elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Alomair, Nuhad A.; Alamoudi, Ahmed S.; Voutchkov, Nikalay; Ihm, Seungwon; Namazi, Mohammed A.; Alsayyah, Ahmed A.; AlRubaish, Fatima A.; Alohli, Fadwa T.; Zainuddin, Fatma A.; Alobaidi, Anwar A.; Almuzain, Fatimah A.; Elamin, Mohamed O. (12 November 2022). "Beneficial effects of adding magnesium to desalinated drinking water on metabolic and insulin resistance parameters among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled clinical trial". npj Clean Water. 5 (1): 63. Bibcode:2022npjCW...5...63A. doi:10.1038/s41545-022-00207-9. ISSN 2059-7037. PMC 9660218. PMID 36408199.
  13. ^ "Fluoridation in Water". www.ada.org. Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  14. ^ "Iron in Drinking Water". dph.illinois.gov. Retrieved 3 April 2024.
  15. ^ Bispham, Nina Z.; Nowak, Kristen L. (7 May 2019). "Drinking Water: The Saltier The Better?". Journal of the American Heart Association. 8 (9): e012758. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.012758. ISSN 2047-9980. PMC 6512125. PMID 31060416.


Kozisek, Frantisek; Rosborg, Ingegerd, eds. (2020). Drinking Water Minerals and Mineral Balance Importance, Health Significance, Safety Precautions. Springer International Publishing. ISBN 9783030180348.


External links[edit]