Pseudocydonia

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Pseudocydonia
Pseudocydonia 2.jpg
Pseudocydonia sinensis
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Genus: Pseudocydonia
C.K.Schneid.
Species:
P. sinensis
Binomial name
Pseudocydonia sinensis
Synonyms[1]
  • Chaenomeles sinensis (Thouin) Koehne
  • Cydonia sinensis Thouin
  • Pyrus cathayensis Hemsl.
  • Pyrus sinensis (Thouin) Spreng.

Pseudocydonia sinensis or Chinese quince (Chinese: mùguā) is a deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the family Rosaceae, native to southern and eastern China. It is the sole species in the genus Pseudocydonia.[1] Its hard, astringent fruit is used in traditional Chinese medicine[2] and as a food in East Asia. Trees are generally 10–18 metres (33–59 ft) tall.

The tree is closely related to the east Asian genus Chaenomeles, and is sometimes placed as Chaenomeles sinensis,[3] but lacks thorns and has single, not clustered, flowers. Chinese quince is further distinguished from quince, Cydonia oblonga,[4] by its serrated leaves and lack of fuzz.

Names[edit]

In China, both the tree and its fruit are called mùguā (木瓜), which also refers to papaya and the flowering quince (Chaenomeles speciosa). In Korea the tree is called mogwa-namu (모과나무) and the fruit mogwa (모과) (from mokgwa (목과; 木瓜), the Korean reading of the Chinese characters). In Japan, both tree and fruit are called karin (花梨; rarely 榠樝) except in medicine where the fruit is called wa-mokka (和木瓜) from the Chinese and Korean names.[5][circular reference]

Characteristics[edit]

Trees grow to 10–18 m tall, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6–12 cm long and 3–6 cm broad, and with serrated margin. The flowers are 2.5–4 cm diameter, with five pale pink petals; flowering is in mid spring. The fruit is a large ovoid pome 12–17 cm long with five carpels; it gives off an intense, sweet smell when it ripens in late autumn.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

The fruit is hard and astringent, though it softens and becomes less astringent after a period of frost. It can be used to make jam, much like quince. In Korea, the fruit is used to make mogwa-cheong (preserved quince) and mogwa-cha (quince tea).[citation needed]

The fruit is also used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (or "damp bi syndrome").[2] A 2007 pharmacological study suggests extracts of phytochemicals in the fruit have antioxidant and antiviral properties.[6]

The wood is frequently used in Japan for making low-end shamisen.[citation needed]

Chinese quince is also grown as an ornamental tree.[citation needed] In Haeju, North Korea two Chinese Quinces planted in 1910 are national monuments, being probably the tallest of specimens in the country.[7]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Pseudocydonia sinensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b Lim, T. K. "Pseudocydonia sinensis." Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants. Springer Netherlands, 2012. 515-522.
  3. ^ Gu Cuizhi and Stephen A. Spongberg, 2003. Flora of China (entry under Chaenomeles sinensis)
  4. ^ Campbell, C.S.; Evans, R.C.; Morgan, D.R.; Dickinson, T.A.; Arsenault, M.P. (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history" (PDF). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 119–145. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.453.8954. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y. S2CID 13639534.
  5. ^ ja:カリン (バラ科)
  6. ^ Hamauzu, Yasunori, et al. "Reddish coloration of Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis) procyanidins during heat treatment and effect on antioxidant and antiinfluenza viral activities." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 55.4 (2007): 1221-1226.
  7. ^ "Naenara Democratic People's Republic of Korea". naenara.com.kp. Retrieved 2021-04-23.