From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
Pseudocydonia sinensis or Chinese quince (Chinese: mùguā) is a deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the family Rosaceae, native to southern and eastern China. It is the sole species in the genus Pseudocydonia. Its hard, astringent fruit is used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a food in East Asia. Trees are generally 10–18 metres (33–59 ft) tall.
The tree is closely related to the east Asian genus Chaenomeles, and is sometimes placed as Chaenomeles sinensis, but lacks thorns and has single, not clustered, flowers. Chinese quince is further distinguished from quince, Cydonia oblonga, by its serrated leaves and lack of fuzz.
In China, both the tree and its fruit are called mùguā (木瓜), which also refers to papaya and the flowering quince (Chaenomeles speciosa). In Korea the tree is called mogwa-namu (모과나무) and the fruit mogwa (모과) (from mokgwa (목과; 木瓜), the Korean reading of the Chinese characters). In Japan, both tree and fruit are called karin (花梨; rarely 榠樝) except in medicine where the fruit is called wa-mokka (和木瓜) from the Chinese and Korean names.[circular reference]
Trees grow to 10–18 m tall, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6–12 cm long and 3–6 cm broad, and with serrated margin. The flowers are 2.5–4 cm diameter, with five pale pink petals; flowering is in mid spring. The fruit is a large ovoid pome 12–17 cm long with five carpels; it gives off an intense, sweet smell when it ripens in late autumn.
The fruit is hard and astringent, though it softens and becomes less astringent after a period of frost. It can be used to make jam, much like quince. In Korea, the fruit is used to make mogwa-cheong (preserved quince) and mogwa-cha (quince tea).
The fruit is also used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (or "damp bi syndrome"). A 2007 pharmacological study suggests extracts of phytochemicals in the fruit have antioxidant and antiviral properties.
Chinese quince is also grown as an ornamental tree. In Haeju, North Korea two Chinese Quinces planted in 1910 are national monuments, being probably the tallest of specimens in the country.
- "Pseudocydonia sinensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 29 December 2017.
- Lim, T. K. "Pseudocydonia sinensis." Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants. Springer Netherlands, 2012. 515-522.
- Gu Cuizhi and Stephen A. Spongberg, 2003. Flora of China (entry under Chaenomeles sinensis)
- Campbell, C.S.; Evans, R.C.; Morgan, D.R.; Dickinson, T.A.; Arsenault, M.P. (2007). "Phylogeny of subtribe Pyrinae (formerly the Maloideae, Rosaceae): Limited resolution of a complex evolutionary history" (PDF). Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 119–145. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.453.8954. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0545-y. S2CID 13639534.
- ja:カリン (バラ科)
- Hamauzu, Yasunori, et al. "Reddish coloration of Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis) procyanidins during heat treatment and effect on antioxidant and antiinfluenza viral activities." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 55.4 (2007): 1221-1226.
- "Naenara Democratic People's Republic of Korea". naenara.com.kp. Retrieved 2021-04-23.