From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
|Part of a series on|
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parent" or parents. Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual.
In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce without the involvement of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. The cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. By asexual reproduction, an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself. The evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The two-fold cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of organisms reproduce and organisms only pass on 50% of their genes.
Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized reproductive cells, called gametes, which contain half the number of chromosomes of normal cells and are created by meiosis, with typically a male fertilizing a female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote. This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from those of the two parental organisms.
Asexual reproduction is a process by which organisms create genetically similar or identical copies of themselves without the contribution of genetic material from another organism. Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras (invertebrates of the order Hydroidea) and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding. These organisms often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of "splitting" themselves into two or more copies of themselves. Most plants have the ability to reproduce asexually and the ant species Mycocepurus smithii is thought to reproduce entirely by asexual means.
Some species that are capable of reproducing asexually, like hydra, yeast (See Mating of yeasts) and jellyfish, may also reproduce sexually. For instance, most plants are capable of vegetative reproduction – reproduction without seeds or spores – but can also reproduce sexually. Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information by conjugation.
Other ways of asexual reproduction include parthenogenesis, fragmentation and spore formation that involves only mitosis. Parthenogenesis is the growth and development of embryo or seed without fertilization. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some species, including lower plants (where it is called apomixis), invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, aphids, some bees and parasitic wasps), and vertebrates (e.g. some reptiles, some fish, and very rarely, domestic birds).
This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2021)
Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosis, a specialized type of cell division. Each of two parent organisms contributes half of the offspring's genetic makeup by creating haploid gametes. Most organisms form two different types of gametes. In these anisogamous species, the two sexes are referred to as male (producing sperm or microspores) and female (producing ova or megaspores). In isogamous species, the gametes are similar or identical in form (isogametes), but may have separable properties and then may be given other different names (see isogamy). Because both gametes look alike, they generally cannot be classified as male or female. For example, in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, there are so-called "plus" and "minus" gametes. A few types of organisms, such as many fungi and the ciliate Paramecium aurelia, have more than two "sexes", called mating types. Most animals (including humans) and plants reproduce sexually. Sexually reproducing organisms have different sets of genes for every trait (called alleles). Offspring inherit one allele for each trait from each parent. Thus, offspring have a combination of the parents' genes. It is believed that "the masking of deleterious alleles favors the evolution of a dominant diploid phase in organisms that alternate between haploid and diploid phases" where recombination occurs freely.
Bryophytes reproduce sexually, but the larger and commonly-seen organisms are haploid and produce gametes. The gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a sporangium, which in turn produces haploid spores. The diploid stage is relatively small and short-lived compared to the haploid stage, i.e. haploid dominance. The advantage of diploidy, heterosis, only exists in the diploid life generation. Bryophytes retain sexual reproduction despite the fact that the haploid stage does not benefit from heterosis. This may be an indication that the sexual reproduction has advantages other than heterosis, such as genetic recombination between members of the species, allowing the expression of a wider range of traits and thus making the population more able to survive environmental variation.
Allogamy is the fertilization of flowers through cross-pollination, this occurs when a flower's ovum is fertilized by spermatozoa from the pollen of a different plant's flower. Pollen may be transferred through pollen vectors or abiotic carriers such as wind. Fertilization begins when the pollen is brought to a female gamete through the pollen tube. Allogamy is also known as cross fertilization, in contrast to autogamy or geitonogamy which are methods of self-fertilization.
Self-fertilization, also known as autogamy, occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual, e.g., many vascular plants, some foraminiferans, some ciliates. The term "autogamy" is sometimes substituted for autogamous pollination (not necessarily leading to successful fertilization) and describes self-pollination within the same flower, distinguished from geitonogamous pollination, transfer of pollen to a different flower on the same flowering plant, or within a single monoecious Gymnosperm plant.
Mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis The resultant number of cells in mitosis is twice the number of original cells. The number of chromosomes in the offspring cells is the same as that of the parent cell.
Meiosis The resultant number of cells is four times the number of original cells. This results in cells with half the number of chromosomes present in the parent cell. A diploid cell duplicates itself, then undergoes two divisions (tetraploid to diploid to haploid), in the process forming four haploid cells. This process occurs in two phases, meiosis I and meiosis II.
This section possibly contains original research. (April 2021)
Scientific research is currently investigating the possibility of same-sex procreation, which would produce offspring with equal genetic contributions from either two females or two males. The obvious approaches, subject to a growing amount of activity, are female sperm and male eggs. In 2004, by altering the function of a few genes involved with imprinting, other Japanese scientists combined two mouse eggs to produce daughter mice and in 2018 Chinese scientists created 29 female mice from two female mice mothers but were unable to produce viable offspring from two father mice. Researches noted that there is little chance these techniques would be applied to humans in the near future.
There are a wide range of reproductive strategies employed by different species. Some animals, such as the human and northern gannet, do not reach sexual maturity for many years after birth and even then produce few offspring. Others reproduce quickly; but, under normal circumstances, most offspring do not survive to adulthood. For example, a rabbit (mature after 8 months) can produce 10–30 offspring per year, and a fruit fly (mature after 10–14 days) can produce up to 900 offspring per year. These two main strategies are known as K-selection (few offspring) and r-selection (many offspring). Which strategy is favoured by evolution depends on a variety of circumstances. Animals with few offspring can devote more resources to the nurturing and protection of each individual offspring, thus reducing the need for many offspring. On the other hand, animals with many offspring may devote fewer resources to each individual offspring; for these types of animals it is common for many offspring to die soon after birth, but enough individuals typically survive to maintain the population. Some organisms such as honey bees and fruit flies retain sperm in a process called sperm storage thereby increasing the duration of their fertility.
- Polycyclic animals reproduce intermittently throughout their lives.
- Semelparous organisms reproduce only once in their lifetime, such as annual plants (including all grain crops), and certain species of salmon, spider, bamboo and century plant. Often, they die shortly after reproduction. This is often associated with r-strategists.
- Iteroparous organisms produce offspring in successive (e.g. annual or seasonal) cycles, such as perennial plants. Iteroparous animals survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). This is more associated with K-strategists.
Asexual vs. sexual reproduction
Organisms that reproduce through asexual reproduction tend to grow in number exponentially. However, because they rely on mutation for variations in their DNA, all members of the species have similar vulnerabilities. Organisms that reproduce sexually yield a smaller number of offspring, but the large amount of variation in their genes makes them less susceptible to disease.
Many organisms can reproduce sexually as well as asexually. Aphids, slime molds, sea anemones, some species of starfish (by fragmentation), and many plants are examples. When environmental factors are favorable, asexual reproduction is employed to exploit suitable conditions for survival such as an abundant food supply, adequate shelter, favorable climate, disease, optimum pH or a proper mix of other lifestyle requirements. Populations of these organisms increase exponentially via asexual reproductive strategies to take full advantage of the rich supply resources.
When food sources have been depleted, the climate becomes hostile, or individual survival is jeopardized by some other adverse change in living conditions, these organisms switch to sexual forms of reproduction. Sexual reproduction ensures a mixing of the gene pool of the species. The variations found in offspring of sexual reproduction allow some individuals to be better suited for survival and provide a mechanism for selective adaptation to occur. The meiosis stage of the sexual cycle also allows especially effective repair of DNA damages (see Meiosis). In addition, sexual reproduction usually results in the formation of a life stage that is able to endure the conditions that threaten the offspring of an asexual parent. Thus, seeds, spores, eggs, pupae, cysts or other "over-wintering" stages of sexual reproduction ensure the survival during unfavorable times and the organism can "wait out" adverse situations until a swing back to suitability occurs.
The existence of life without reproduction is the subject of some speculation. The biological study of how the origin of life produced reproducing organisms from non-reproducing elements is called abiogenesis. Whether or not there were several independent abiogenetic events, biologists believe that the last universal ancestor to all present life on Earth lived about 3.5 billion years ago.
Scientists have speculated about the possibility of creating life non-reproductively in the laboratory. Several scientists have succeeded in producing simple viruses from entirely non-living materials. However, viruses are often regarded as not alive. Being nothing more than a bit of RNA or DNA in a protein capsule, they have no metabolism and can only replicate with the assistance of a hijacked cell's metabolic machinery.
The production of a truly living organism (e.g. a simple bacterium) with no ancestors would be a much more complex task, but may well be possible to some degree according to current biological knowledge. A synthetic genome has been transferred into an existing bacterium where it replaced the native DNA, resulting in the artificial production of a new M. mycoides organism.
There is some debate within the scientific community over whether this cell can be considered completely synthetic on the grounds that the chemically synthesized genome was an almost 1:1 copy of a naturally occurring genome and, the recipient cell was a naturally occurring bacterium. The Craig Venter Institute maintains the term "synthetic bacterial cell" but they also clarify "...we do not consider this to be "creating life from scratch" but rather we are creating new life out of already existing life using synthetic DNA". Venter plans to patent his experimental cells, stating that "they are pretty clearly human inventions". Its creators suggests that building 'synthetic life' would allow researchers to learn about life by building it, rather than by tearing it apart. They also propose to stretch the boundaries between life and machines until the two overlap to yield "truly programmable organisms". Researchers involved stated that the creation of "true synthetic biochemical life" is relatively close in reach with current technology and cheap compared to the effort needed to place man on the Moon.
Sexual reproduction has many drawbacks, since it requires far more energy than asexual reproduction and diverts the organisms from other pursuits, and there is some argument about why so many species use it. George C. Williams used lottery tickets as an analogy in one explanation for the widespread use of sexual reproduction. He argued that asexual reproduction, which produces little or no genetic variety in offspring, was like buying many tickets that all have the same number, limiting the chance of "winning" – that is, producing surviving offspring. Sexual reproduction, he argued, was like purchasing fewer tickets but with a greater variety of numbers and therefore a greater chance of success. The point of this analogy is that since asexual reproduction does not produce genetic variations, there is little ability to quickly adapt to a changing environment. The lottery principle is less accepted these days because of evidence that asexual reproduction is more prevalent in unstable environments, the opposite of what it predicts.
- Ridley M (2004) Evolution, 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing, p. 314.
- John Maynard Smith The Evolution of Sex 1978.
- Halliday, Tim R.; Adler, Kraig, eds. (1986). Reptiles & Amphibians. Torstar Books. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-920269-81-7.
- Eilperin, Juliet (2007-05-23). "Female Sharks Can Reproduce Alone, Researchers Find". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 2018-04-28. Retrieved 2023-03-27.
- Savage, Thomas F. (September 12, 2005). "A Guide to the Recognition of Parthenogenesis in Incubated Turkey Eggs". Oregon State University. Archived from the original on November 15, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-11.
- Griswold, M. D.; Hunt, P. A. (2013-01-01), "Meiosis", in Maloy, Stanley; Hughes, Kelly (eds.), Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition), San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 338–341, ISBN 978-0-08-096156-9, archived from the original on 2021-04-20, retrieved 2020-10-05
- Kumar R, Meena M, Swapnil P (2019). "Anisogamy". In Vonk J, Shackelford T (eds.). Anisogamy. Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 1–5. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_340-1. ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6.
- Lehtonen, Jussi; Kokko, Hanna; Parker, Geoff A. (2016-10-19). "What do isogamous organisms teach us about sex and the two sexes?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 371 (1706). doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0532. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 5031617. PMID 27619696.
- T.M. Sonneborn (1938). "Mating Types in Paramecium Aurelia: Diverse Conditions for Mating in Different Stocks; Occurrence, Number and Interrelations of the Types". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 79 (3): 411–434. JSTOR 984858.
- Otto, S.P.; Goldstein, D.B. (1992). "Recombination and the Evolution of Diploidy". Genetics. 131 (3): 745–751. doi:10.1093/genetics/131.3.745. PMC 1205045. PMID 1628815.
- Bernstein, H.; Hopf, F.A.; Michod, R.E. (1987). "The molecular basis of the evolution of sex". Adv Genet. Advances in Genetics. 24: 323–370. doi:10.1016/s0065-2660(08)60012-7. ISBN 978-0120176243. PMID 3324702.
- Haig, David (19 October 2016). "Living together and living apart: the sexual lives of bryophytes". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 371 (1706): 20150535. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0535. PMC 5031620. PMID 27619699.
- "Allogamy". Biology Online. 7 October 2019. Archived from the original on 25 September 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2022.
- Simpson, Michael G. (2019). "13 – Plant Reproductive Biology". Plant systematics (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Academic Press. pp. 595–606. ISBN 978-0128126288. Archived from the original on 2022-08-20. Retrieved 2022-08-20.
- Eckert, C.G. (2000). "Contributions of autogamy and geitonogamy to self-fertilization in a mass-flowering, clonal plant". Ecology. 81 (2): 532–542. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2000)081[0532:coaagt]2.0.co;2.
- Kissin DM, Adamson GD, Chambers G, DeGeyter C (2019). Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-49858-6.
- "Timeline of same-sex procreation scientific developments". samesexprocreation.com. Archived from the original on 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; Pennings, Guido; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo (2017). "Using stem cell-derived gametes for same-sex reproduction: an alternative scenario". Journal of Medical Ethics. 43 (10): 688–691. doi:10.1136/medethics-2016-103863. ISSN 0306-6800. JSTOR 26535499. PMID 28122990. S2CID 35387886.
- "Japanese scientists produce mice without using sperm". The Washington Post. Sarasota Herald-Tribune. April 22, 2004. Archived from the original on July 23, 2021. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
- Blakely, Rhys (2018-10-12). "No father necessary as mice are created with two mothers". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 2018-10-12. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
- Li, Zhi-Kun; Wang, Le-Yun; Wang, Li-Bin; Feng, Gui-Hai; Yuan, Xue-Wei; Liu, Chao; Xu, Kai; Li, Yu-Huan; Wan, Hai-Feng (2018-10-01). "Generation of Bimaternal and Bipaternal Mice from Hypomethylated Haploid ESCs with Imprinting Region Deletions". Cell Stem Cell. 23 (5): 665–676.e4. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2018.09.004. ISSN 1934-5909. PMID 30318303.
- Cole, Lamont C. (June 1954). "The Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 29 (2): 103–137. doi:10.1086/400074. JSTOR 2817654. PMID 13177850. S2CID 26986186. Archived from the original on 2022-08-31. Retrieved 2022-08-20.
- Young, Truman P.; Carol K. Augspurger (1991). "Ecology and evolution of long-lived semelparous plants". Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 6 (9): 285–289. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(91)90006-J. PMID 21232483.
- Yan, Shuo; Wang, Wan-xing; Shen, Jie (June 2020). "Reproductive polyphenism and its advantages in aphids: Switching between sexual and asexual reproduction". Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 19 (6): 1447–1457. doi:10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62767-X. S2CID 218971234.
- Cello, Jeronimo; Paul, Aniko V.; Wimmer, Eckard (2002-08-09). "Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural template". Science. 297 (5583): 1016–1018. Bibcode:2002Sci...297.1016C. doi:10.1126/science.1072266. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 12114528. S2CID 5810309.
- Gibson, D.; Glass, J.; Lartigue, C.; Noskov, V.; Chuang, R.; Algire, M.; Benders, G.; Montague, M.; Ma, L.; Moodie, M.M.; Merryman, C.; Vashee, S.; Krishnakumar, R.; Assad-Garcia, N.; Andrews-Pfannkoch, C.; Denisova, E.A.; Young, L.; Qi, Z.-Q.; Segall-Shapiro, T.H.; Calvey, C.H.; Parmar, P.P.; Hutchison Ca, C.A.; Smith, H.O.; Venter, J.C. (2010). "Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome". Science. 329 (5987): 52–56. Bibcode:2010Sci...329...52G. doi:10.1126/science.1190719. PMID 20488990. S2CID 7320517.
- Robert Lee Hotz (May 21, 2010). "Scientists Create First Synthetic Cell". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2012.
- Craig Venter Institute. "FAQ". Archived from the original on 2010-12-28. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
- W. Wayte Gibbs (May 2004). "Synthetic Life". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 2012-10-13. Retrieved 2012-12-22.
- "NOVA: Artificial life". PBS. 18 October 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-01-21. Retrieved 2007-01-19.
- Williams G. C. 1975. Sex and Evolution. Princeton (NJ): Princeton University Press.
- Lively, C. M.; Morran, L. T. (July 2014). "The ecology of sexual reproduction". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 27 (7): 1292–1303. doi:10.1111/jeb.12354. PMC 4077903. PMID 24617324.
- Tobler, M. & Schlupp, I. (2005) Parasites in sexual and asexual mollies (Poecilia, Poeciliidae, Teleostei): a case for the Red Queen? Biol. Lett. 1 (2): 166–168.
- Zimmer, Carl. Parasite Rex: Inside the Bizarre World of Nature's Most Dangerous Creatures, New York: Touchstone, 2001.
- "Allogamy, cross-fertilization, cross-pollination, hybridization". GardenWeb Glossary of Botanical Terms (2.1 ed.). 2002.
- "Allogamy". Stedman's Online Medical Dictionary (27 ed.). 2004.
- Judson, Olivia (2003). Dr. Tatiana's Sex Advice to All Creation: Definitive Guide to the Evolutionary Biology of Sex. ISBN 978-0-09-928375-1
- Richard E. Michod and Bruce E. Levin, editors (1987). The Evolution of Sex: An Examination of Current Ideas. Sinauer Associates Inc., Publishers, Sunderland, MA ISBN 978-0-87893-459-1
- Michod, R.E. (1994). Eros and Evolution: A natural philosophy of sex. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, MA ISBN 978-0-201-44232-8