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Exophoria is a form of heterophoria in which there is a tendency of the eyes to deviate outward.[1] During examination, when the eyes are dissociated, the visual axes will appear to diverge away from one another.[2]

The axis deviation in exophoria is usually mild compared with that of exotropia.


Exophoria can be caused by several factors, which include:

These can be due to nerve, muscle, or congenital problems, or due to mechanical anomalies. Unlike exotropia, fusion is possible in this condition, causing diplopia to be uncommon.



Exophoria is particularly common in infancy and childhood, and increases with age.[3][clarification needed]


  1. ^ Allen, Edmund Turney (1899). The science of higher prisms. Harvard University: G. K. Hazlitt 6 Co., printer. p. 39.
  2. ^ Grosvenor, Theodore (2007). Primary Care Optometry 5th Ed. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-7506-7575-8.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ Freier BE, Pickwell LD (1983). "Physiological exophoria". Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics. 3 (3): 267–272. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.1983.tb00613.x. PMID 6646761. S2CID 11180397.

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