28 nm process

From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia

The "28 nm" lithography process is a half-node semiconductor manufacturing process based on a die shrink of the "32 nm" lithography process.[1] It appeared in production in 2010.[2]

Since at least 1997, "process nodes" have been named purely on a marketing basis, and have no direct relation to the dimensions on the integrated circuit;[3] neither gate length, metal pitch or gate pitch on a "28nm" device is twenty-eight nanometers.[4][5][6][7]

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company has offered "28 nm" production using high-K metal gate process technology.[8]

GlobalFoundries offers a "28nm" foundry process called the "28SLPe" ("28nm Super Low Power") foundry process, which uses high-K metal gate technology.[9]


"28nm" requires twice the number of design rules for ensuring reliability in manufacturing as "80nm".[10]

Shipped devices[edit]

AMD's Radeon HD 7970 uses a graphics processing unit manufactured using a "28nm" process.[11]

Some models of the PS3 use a RSX 'Reality Synthesizer' chip manufactured using a "28nm" process.[12]

FPGAs produced with "28 nm" process technology include models of the Xilinx Artix 7 FPGAs and Altera Cyclone V FPGAs.[13]


  1. ^ Torres, J. Andres; Otto, Oberdan; Pikus, Fedor G. (2009-10-01). Zurbrick, Larry S.; Montgomery, M. Warren (eds.). Challenges for the 28nm half node: Is the optical shrink dead?. Society of Photographic Instrumentation Engineers. pp. 74882A. doi:10.1117/12.831047.
  2. ^ "A Review of TSMC 28 nm Process Technology | TechInsights". www.techinsights.com. Retrieved 2024-03-01.
  3. ^ "No More Nanometers – EEJournal". July 23, 2020.
  4. ^ Shukla, Priyank. "A Brief History of Process Node Evolution". design-reuse.com. Retrieved 2019-07-09.
  5. ^ Hruska, Joel. "14nm, 7nm, 5nm: How low can CMOS go? It depends if you ask the engineers or the economists..." ExtremeTech.
  6. ^ "Exclusive: Is Intel Really Starting To Lose Its Process Lead? 7nm Node Slated For Release in 2022". wccftech.com. 2016-09-10.
  7. ^ "Life at 10nm. (Or is it 7nm?) And 3nm - Views on Advanced Silicon Platforms". eejournal.com. 2018-03-12.
  8. ^ Clarke, Peter (2009-08-24). "TSMC splits 28-nm high-k metal gate process into two versions". EE Times.
  9. ^ "GlobalFoundries 130, 55, 45, 40, 28, 22, 12nm Prototyping and Volume Production" (PDF).
  10. ^ Balasinski, Artur (2014). Design for manufacturability: from 1D to 4D for 90-22nm technology nodes. New York, New York: Springer. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-4614-1761-3.
  11. ^ Smith, Ryan. "AMD Radeon HD 7970 Review: 28nm And Graphics Core Next, Together As One". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 2024-03-01.
  12. ^ "NVIDIA RSX-28nm".
  13. ^ Homulle, Harald; Charbon, Edoardo (2017-12-13). "Performance characterization of Altera and Xilinx 28 nm FPGAs at cryogenic temperatures". 2017 International Conference on Field Programmable Technology (ICFPT). IEEE. pp. 25–31. doi:10.1109/FPT.2017.8280117. ISBN 978-1-5386-2656-6.