Human polyomavirus 9

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Human polyomavirus 9
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Monodnaviria
Kingdom: Shotokuvirae
Phylum: Cossaviricota
Class: Papovaviricetes
Order: Sepolyvirales
Family: Polyomaviridae
Genus: Alphapolyomavirus
Human polyomavirus 9

Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) is a virus of the polyomavirus family that infects human hosts. It was discovered in 2011 and is a component of the skin flora in healthy adults.[1]


HPyV9 was first discovered in 2011 by generic PCR used to screen clinical samples from patients who were immunocompromised for various reasons. The virus was identified in a sample from a kidney transplant recipient and sequenced to reveal a genome of typical polyomavirus structure, particularly closely related to the African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPV). Previous studies had found up to 30% seroprevalence of antibodies to LPV, which was interpreted as possibly indicating that LPV could infect humans as well as monkeys. Experiments revealed that LPV and HPyV9 antibodies can cross-react, supporting the hypothesis that the LPV observations represent HPyV9 seropositivity.[1][2]


HPyV9 was reported to have 75% sequence identity to the African green monkey lymphotropic polyomavirus.[1] In the 2015 taxonomic update to the polyomavirus group, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classified HPyV9 as a member of the genus Alphapolyomaviridae, whose type species is murine polyomavirus (Mus musculus polyomavirus 1).[3]


All known human polyomaviruses are fairly common in healthy adult populations and are usually asymptomatic. In studies that profile polyomavirus seroprevalence, or prevalence of detectable antibodies against viral proteins indicating either past or present exposure in immunocompetent adults, HPyV9 tends to have a relatively lower prevalence compared to other human polyomaviruses. Estimates of HPyV9 prevalence have ranged from approximately 30–50%, with conflicting evidence about the presence of any effects of gender and age on observed seroprevalence.[4][5][6][7][2] Studies of the prevalence of HPyV9 DNA—indicating actively replicating virus—suggest that this is quite rare, around 1%.[8] HPyV9 infections that persist over time and involve continuous shedding have not been observed, although this does occur for other human polyomaviruses.[9]

Clinical manifestations[edit]

As with many recently discovered human polyomaviruses, the clinical significance of HPyV9 is poorly characterized. Attempts to detect polyomaviruses in a variety of tumor types have consistently found that HPyV9 is either absent or present at very low viral loads, indicating that it is unlikely to be causally related to the tumor.[9]


  1. ^ a b c Scuda, N.; Hofmann, J.; Calvignac-Spencer, S.; Ruprecht, K.; Liman, P.; Kuhn, J.; Hengel, H.; Ehlers, B. (9 February 2011). "A Novel Human Polyomavirus Closely Related to the African Green Monkey-Derived Lymphotropic Polyomavirus". Journal of Virology. 85 (9): 4586–4590. doi:10.1128/JVI.02602-10. PMC 3126223. PMID 21307194.
  2. ^ a b Trusch, F.; Klein, M.; Finsterbusch, T.; Kuhn, J.; Hofmann, J.; Ehlers, B. (4 January 2012). "Seroprevalence of human polyomavirus 9 and cross-reactivity to African green monkey-derived lymphotropic polyomavirus". Journal of General Virology. 93 (Pt_4): 698–705. doi:10.1099/vir.0.039156-0. PMID 22218677.
  3. ^ Polyomaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of, Viruses; Calvignac-Spencer, S; Feltkamp, MC; Daugherty, MD; Moens, U; Ramqvist, T; Johne, R; Ehlers, B (29 February 2016). "A taxonomy update for the family Polyomaviridae". Archives of Virology. 161 (6): 1739–50. doi:10.1007/s00705-016-2794-y. hdl:10037/13151. PMID 26923930.
  4. ^ van der Meijden, Els; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Rockett, Rebecca J.; Tozer, Sarah J.; Sloots, Theo P.; Feltkamp, Mariet C. W.; Kapoor, Amit (21 November 2013). "Different Serologic Behavior of MCPyV, TSPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7 and HPyV9 Polyomaviruses Found on the Skin". PLOS ONE. 8 (11): e81078. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081078. PMC 3836759. PMID 24278381.
  5. ^ Nicol, J. T. J.; Robinot, R.; Carpentier, A.; Carandina, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Tognon, M.; Touze, A.; Coursaget, P. (9 January 2013). "Age-Specific Seroprevalences of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus, Human Polyomaviruses 6, 7, and 9, and Trichodysplasia Spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus". Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 20 (3): 363–368. doi:10.1128/CVI.00438-12. PMC 3592346. PMID 23302741.
  6. ^ Šroller, Vojtěch; Hamšíková, Eva; Ludvíková, Viera; Musil, Jan; Němečková, Šárka; Saláková, Martina (July 2016). "Seroprevalence rates of HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, MWPyV and KIPyV polyomaviruses among the healthy blood donors". Journal of Medical Virology. 88 (7): 1254–1261. doi:10.1002/jmv.24440. PMID 26630080. S2CID 22272324.
  7. ^ Gossai, A; Waterboer, T; Nelson, HH; Michel, A; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, M; Farzan, SF; Hoen, AG; Christensen, BC; Kelsey, KT; Marsit, CJ; Pawlita, M; Karagas, MR (1 January 2016). "Seroepidemiology of Human Polyomaviruses in a US Population". American Journal of Epidemiology. 183 (1): 61–9. doi:10.1093/aje/kwv155. PMC 5006224. PMID 26667254.
  8. ^ Sauvage, Virginie (August 2011). "Human Polyomavirus Related to African Green Monkey Lymphotropic Polyomavirus". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17 (8): 1364–70. doi:10.3201/eid1708.110278. PMC 3381546. PMID 21801611.
  9. ^ a b Ehlers, Bernhard; Wieland, Ulrike (August 2013). "The novel human polyomaviruses HPyV6, 7, 9 and beyond". APMIS. 121 (8): 783–795. doi:10.1111/apm.12104. PMID 23656581. S2CID 1706956.