MW polyomavirus

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Human polyomavirus 10
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Monodnaviria
Kingdom: Shotokuvirae
Phylum: Cossaviricota
Class: Papovaviricetes
Order: Sepolyvirales
Family: Polyomaviridae
Genus: Deltapolyomavirus
Human polyomavirus 10

MW polyomavirus (MWPyV, also known as Human polyomavirus 10 and briefly as MXPyV) is a virus of the polyomavirus family that infects human hosts. It was discovered in 2012 and reported independently by several research groups.[1][2][3] It has been identified mostly in stool samples from children and has been detected in a variety of geographic locations.[4]

Discovery and nomenclature[edit]

MWPyV was discovered in 2012 and independently reported by three different research groups under the names "Malawi polyomavirus",[1] "Mexico polyomavirus",[2] and "Human polyomavirus 10".[3] The first group to publish gave the virus the "Malawi" designation based on the geographic location of the index case, a healthy child from Malawi; the designation "MW polyomavirus" has been included in the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses proposed classification of polyomaviruses. It was the 10th human polyomavirus to be discovered.[5]


The organization of the MWPyV genome is typical of polyomaviruses. At around 4.9 kilobase pairs in length, it contains genes for the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen and three viral coat proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3.[1] Different MWPyV isolates have a relatively large amount of sequence variation, up to approximately 5%; this pattern is similar to that seen in BK polyomavirus.[1][6]


Phylogenetic analyses of the MWPyV genome suggest different ancestries for the large tumor antigen and the major capsid protein VP1, implying that the virus might have evolved from an ancestral recombination event.[1]

In the 2015 taxonomic update to the polyomavirus group, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classified MWPyV in the genus Deltapolyomavirus. This genus contains four viruses that infect humans: HPyV6, HPyV7, MW polyomavirus, and STL polyomavirus.[5]


All known human polyomaviruses are fairly common in healthy adult populations and are usually asymptomatic. In studies that profile polyomavirus seroprevalence, or prevalence of detectable antibodies against viral proteins indicating either past or present exposure in immunocompetent adults, estimates of MWPyV prevalence have ranged from approximately 40-85%.[7][8][9] Like most human polyomaviruses, MWPyV infection appears to be acquired in early childhood.[7][10] Studies of the presence of viral DNA, indicating active viral replication, suggest MWPyV prevalence in the range of 1-10% of children,[6][4] with low or no detection of active viral replication in adults.[10]

Clinical manifestations[edit]

As with many recently discovered human polyomaviruses, the clinical significance of MWPyV is poorly characterized. It has been repeatedly found in stool samples from both healthy children and those suffering from diarrhea, with no obvious causal association.[11] MWPyV has also been reported in respiratory secretions in children and may be associated with mild upper respiratory infections in this population.[6][10] One of the three original reports of MWPyV isolated it from samples of warts on a patient diagnosed with WHIM syndrome; later the closely related STL polyomavirus was isolated from the same surgical sample.[12] This rare disease is associated with susceptibility to human papillomavirus infections, but it is unclear whether the presence of MWPyV in this setting is clinically significant.[2]


  1. ^ a b c d e Siebrasse, E. A.; Reyes, A.; Lim, E. S.; Zhao, G.; Mkakosya, R. S.; Manary, M. J.; Gordon, J. I.; Wang, D. (2012). "Identification of MW Polyomavirus, a Novel Polyomavirus in Human Stool". Journal of Virology. 86 (19): 10321–6. doi:10.1128/JVI.01210-12. PMC 3457274. PMID 22740408.
  2. ^ a b c Yu, Guixia; Greninger, Alexander L.; Isa, Pavel; Phan, Tung G.; Martínez, Miguel Angel; de la Luz Sanchez, Maria; Contreras, Juan Francisco; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio; Parsonnet, Julie; Miller, Steve; Derisi, Joseph L.; Delwart, Eric; Arias, Carlos F.; Chiu, Charles Y. (2012). "Discovery of a Novel Polyomavirus in Acute Diarrheal Samples from Children". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e49449. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...749449Y. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049449. PMC 3498111. PMID 23166671.
  3. ^ a b Buck, C. B.; Phan, G. Q.; Raiji, M. T.; Murphy, P. M.; McDermott, D. H.; McBride, A. A. (2012). "Complete Genome Sequence of a Tenth Human Polyomavirus". Journal of Virology. 86 (19): 10887. doi:10.1128/JVI.01690-12. PMC 3457262. PMID 22966183.
  4. ^ a b Ehlers, Bernhard; Wieland, Ulrike (August 2013). "The novel human polyomaviruses HPyV6, 7, 9 and beyond". APMIS. 121 (8): 783–795. doi:10.1111/apm.12104. PMID 23656581. S2CID 1706956.
  5. ^ a b Polyomaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of, Viruses; Calvignac-Spencer, S; Feltkamp, MC; Daugherty, MD; Moens, U; Ramqvist, T; Johne, R; Ehlers, B (29 February 2016). "A taxonomy update for the family Polyomaviridae". Archives of Virology. 161 (6): 1739–50. doi:10.1007/s00705-016-2794-y. hdl:10037/13151. PMID 26923930.
  6. ^ a b c Rockett, Rebecca J.; Sloots, Theo P.; Bowes, Sharleen; O’Neill, Nicholas; Ye, Suifang; Robson, Jenny; Whiley, David M.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Wang, David; Nissen, Michael D.; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Qiu, Jianming (8 May 2013). "Detection of Novel Polyomaviruses, TSPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, HPyV9 and MWPyV in Feces, Urine, Blood, Respiratory Swabs and Cerebrospinal Fluid". PLOS ONE. 8 (5): e62764. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...862764R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062764. PMC 3648528. PMID 23667518.
  7. ^ a b Nicol, J. T. J.; Leblond, V.; Arnold, F.; Guerra, G.; Mazzoni, E.; Tognon, M.; Coursaget, P.; Touze, A. (30 October 2013). "Seroprevalence of Human Malawi Polyomavirus". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 52 (1): 321–3. doi:10.1128/JCM.02730-13. PMC 3911455. PMID 24172149.
  8. ^ Berrios, Christian; Jung, Joonil; Primi, Blake; Wang, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandrasekhar; Duke, Fujiko; Marcelus, Christina; Cheng, Jingwei; Garcea, Robert L.; Meyerson, Matthew; DeCaprio, James A.; Sandri-Goldin, R. M. (1 January 2015). "Malawi Polyomavirus Is a Prevalent Human Virus That Interacts with Known Tumor Suppressors". Journal of Virology. 89 (1): 857–862. doi:10.1128/JVI.02328-14. PMC 4301141. PMID 25320321.
  9. ^ Šroller, Vojtěch; Hamšíková, Eva; Ludvíková, Viera; Musil, Jan; Němečková, Šárka; Saláková, Martina (July 2016). "Seroprevalence rates of HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, MWPyV and KIPyV polyomaviruses among the healthy blood donors". Journal of Medical Virology. 88 (7): 1254–1261. doi:10.1002/jmv.24440. PMID 26630080. S2CID 22272324.
  10. ^ a b c Rockett, Rebecca J.; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Mhango, Lebogang; Gaydon, Jane; Holding, Rebecca; Whiley, David M.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Ware, Robert S.; Nissen, Michael D.; Grimwood, Keith; Sloots, Theo P. (February 2015). "Acquisition of Human Polyomaviruses in the First 18 Months of Life". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21 (2): 365–7. doi:10.3201/eid2102.141429. PMC 4313659. PMID 25626138.
  11. ^ Dalianis, Tina; Hirsch, Hans H. (March 2013). "Human polyomaviruses in disease and cancer". Virology. 437 (2): 63–72. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2012.12.015. PMID 23357733.
  12. ^ Pastrana, D. V.; FitzGerald, P. C.; Phan, G. Q.; Raiji, M. T.; Murphy, P. M.; McDermott, D. H.; Velez, D.; Bliskovsky, V.; McBride, A. A.; Buck, C. B. (24 October 2013). "A Divergent Variant of the Eleventh Human Polyomavirus Species, Saint Louis Polyomavirus". Genome Announcements. 1 (5): e00812-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00812-13. PMC 3813180. PMID 24158550.