New Jersey polyomavirus

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Human polyomavirus 13
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Monodnaviria
Kingdom: Shotokuvirae
Phylum: Cossaviricota
Class: Papovaviricetes
Order: Sepolyvirales
Family: Polyomaviridae
Genus: Alphapolyomavirus
Human polyomavirus 13

New Jersey polyomavirus (NJPyV, also known as Human polyomavirus 13) is a virus of the polyomavirus family that infects human hosts. It was first identified in 2014 in a pancreatic transplant patient in New Jersey. It is the 13th and most recent human polyomavirus to be described.[1]


NJPyV was first reported in 2014 after it was isolated from epithelial cells of a pancreatic transplant patient presenting with blindness, vasculitis, myopathy, and dermatosis. After doctors were unable to identify known viral causes of the patient's symptoms, a research team led by virologist Ian Lipkin screened samples of affected tissue for the presence of novel viruses, and identified the genome of a novel polyomavirus.[1][2]


The organization of the NJPyV genome is typical of polyomaviruses. At around 5.1 kilobase pairs in length, it contains six identifiable genes: the small tumor antigen, large tumor antigen, and alternative tumor antigen (ALTO); and three viral coat proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3.[1] The ALTO protein is an unusual alternative splicing product of the "late region" of the genome, which canonically encodes the small and large tumor antigens; expression of ALTO has also been reported in trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus.[3]


In the 2015 taxonomic update to the polyomavirus group, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classified NJPyV as a member of the genus Alphapolyomaviridae, whose type species is murine polyomavirus (Mus musculus polyomavirus 1).[4]


The prevalence of NJPyV is unknown, though other human polyomaviruses are fairly common and usually asymptomatic.[5] Only a small number of studies have yet attempted to screen for NJPyV seroprevalence in the general population. Although one study reported its prevalence at nearly 60% of the study population,[6] others have found prevalence to be very low[7][8] or undetectable.[9][10] It is unclear if the New Jersey index case was newly infected at the time symptoms manifested, or if a latent infection was reactivated in the context of stress and immunosuppression (a known mechanism of pathogenicity for polyomaviruses).[1]

Clinical manifestations[edit]

NJPyV was discovered in clinical samples from a single patient; outside of this case report, the clinical effects of NJPyV are unknown.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e Mishra, Nischay; Pereira, Marcus; Rhodes, Roy H.; An, Ping; Pipas, James M.; Jain, Komal; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Faust, Phyllis L.; Lipkin, W. Ian (15 November 2014). "Identification of a Novel Polyomavirus in a Pancreatic Transplant Recipient With Retinal Blindness and Vasculitic Myopathy". Journal of Infectious Diseases. 210 (10): 1595–9. doi:10.1093/infdis/jiu250. PMC 4334791. PMID 24795478.
  2. ^ DeLuca, Ilana J.; Patel, Vishal Anil; Pereira, Marcus R.; Grossman, Marc E. (November 2015). "A new polyomavirus-related dermatosis in a pancreatic transplant patient". JAAD Case Reports. 1 (6): S38–S40. doi:10.1016/j.jdcr.2015.09.018. PMC 4809577. PMID 27051808.
  3. ^ van der Meijden, Els; Kazem, Siamaque; Dargel, Christina A.; van Vuren, Nick; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Feltkamp, Mariet C. W.; Imperiale, M. J. (15 September 2015). "Characterization of T Antigens, Including Middle T and Alternative T, Expressed by the Human Polyomavirus Associated with Trichodysplasia Spinulosa". Journal of Virology. 89 (18): 9427–39. doi:10.1128/JVI.00911-15. PMC 4542345. PMID 26136575.
  4. ^ Polyomaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of, Viruses; Calvignac-Spencer, S; Feltkamp, MC; Daugherty, MD; Moens, U; Ramqvist, T; Johne, R; Ehlers, B (29 February 2016). "A taxonomy update for the family Polyomaviridae". Archives of Virology. 161 (6): 1739–50. doi:10.1007/s00705-016-2794-y. hdl:10037/13151. PMID 26923930.
  5. ^ Ehlers, Bernhard; Wieland, Ulrike (August 2013). "The novel human polyomaviruses HPyV6, 7, 9 and beyond". APMIS. 121 (8): 783–795. doi:10.1111/apm.12104. PMID 23656581. S2CID 1706956.
  6. ^ Gaboriaud, Pauline; Ferté, Marion; Arnold, Françoise; Leblond, Valérie; Nicol, Jérôme; Debare, Heloïse; Le Meur, Mélanie; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro; Touzé, Antoine (1 December 2018). "Age-specific seroprevalence of human polyomavirus 12 and Saint Louis and New Jersey polyomaviruses". Emerging Microbes & Infections. 7 (1): 22. doi:10.1038/s41426-018-0026-0. PMC 5841233. PMID 29511157.
  7. ^ Kamminga, Sergio; van der Meijden, Els; Feltkamp, Mariet C. W.; Zaaijer, Hans L. (23 October 2018). "Seroprevalence of fourteen human polyomaviruses determined in blood donors". PLOS ONE. 13 (10): e0206273. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0206273. PMC 6198985. PMID 30352098.
  8. ^ Zhou, Xianfeng; Bai, Huimin; Kataoka, Michiyo; Ito, Masahiko; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Li, Tian-Cheng (December 2019). "Characterization of the self-assembly of New Jersey polyomavirus VP1 into virus-like particles and the virus seroprevalence in Japan". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 13085. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-49541-y. PMC 6739320. PMID 31511622.
  9. ^ Li, Ke; Zhang, Chi; Zhao, Rong; Xue, Ying; Yang, Jian; Peng, Junping; Jin, Qi (May 2015). "The prevalence of STL polyomavirus in stool samples from Chinese children". Journal of Clinical Virology. 66: 19–23. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2015.02.017. PMID 25866330.
  10. ^ Herberhold, Stephan; Hellmich, Martin; Panning, Marcus; Bartok, Eva; Silling, Steffi; Akgül, Baki; Wieland, Ulrike (10 November 2016). "Human polyomavirus and human papillomavirus prevalence and viral load in non-malignant tonsillar tissue and tonsillar carcinoma". Medical Microbiology and Immunology. 206 (2): 93–103. doi:10.1007/s00430-016-0486-6. PMID 27832373. S2CID 24867301.