STL polyomavirus

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Human polyomavirus 11
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Monodnaviria
Kingdom: Shotokuvirae
Phylum: Cossaviricota
Class: Papovaviricetes
Order: Sepolyvirales
Family: Polyomaviridae
Genus: Deltapolyomavirus
Human polyomavirus 11

STL polyomavirus (STLPyV, also known as Saint Louis polyomavirus or Human polyomavirus 11) is a virus of the polyomavirus family that infects human hosts. It was first reported in 2013 and is most closely related to MW polyomavirus.[1] It has been identified mostly in stool samples from children and has been detected in a variety of geographic locations.[2]


STL polyomavirus was first discovered in 2013 in a stool sample from a healthy child in Malawi; the same research group then detected the virus in stool from children in The Gambia and Saint Louis, Missouri (after which the virus was named).[1] The designation "STL polyomavirus" was included in the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses proposed classification of polyomaviruses. It was the 11th human polyomavirus to be discovered.[3]


The organization of the STLPyV genome is typical of polyomaviruses. At around 4.8 kilobase pairs in length, it contains genes for the small tumor antigen and large tumor antigen, a novel additional tumor antigen, and three viral coat proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3.[1] It is most closely related to MW polyomavirus, also first isolated from a child in Malawi.[4] Different STLPyV isolates have a relatively large amount of sequence variation, up to approximately 5%; this pattern is similar to both MWPyV and the much better characterized BK polyomavirus.[1][4][5]

A distinctive characteristic of the STLPyV genome is its alternatively spliced tumor antigen; in addition to the small and large tumor antigens highly conserved in polyomaviruses, STLPyV also expresses a third tumor antigen designated 229T, which contains a novel fusion of portions of the small and large tumor antigen sequences.[1]


Among the human polyomaviruses, STLPyV is most closely related to MWPyV; like MWPyV, its genome suggests different ancestries for the large tumor antigen and the major capsid protein VP1, implying that the virus might have evolved from an ancestral recombination event.[1][4]

In the 2015 taxonomic update to the polyomavirus group, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classified STLPyV in the genus Deltapolyomavirus. This genus contains four viruses that infect humans: HPyV6, HPyV7, MW polyomavirus, and STL polyomavirus.[3]


All known human polyomaviruses are fairly common in healthy adult populations and are usually asymptomatic. In a study that profiled polyomavirus seroprevalence, or prevalence of detectable antibodies against viral proteins indicating either past or present exposure in immunocompetent adults, the estimate of STLPyV prevalence was approximately 70%, with an age distribution consistent with transmission of maternal antibodies combined with early childhood infection.[6] Studies of the presence of viral DNA, indicating active viral replication, suggest STLPyV prevalence in the range of 1-2% of children.[1][2][7]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Lim, Efrem S.; Reyes, Alejandro; Antonio, Martin; Saha, Debasish; Ikumapayi, Usman N.; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, O. Colin; Skelton, Rebecca; Brennan, Daniel C.; Mkakosya, Rajhab S.; Manary, Mark J.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Wang, David (February 2013). "Discovery of STL polyomavirus, a polyomavirus of ancestral recombinant origin that encodes a unique T antigen by alternative splicing". Virology. 436 (2): 295–303. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2012.12.005. PMC 3693558. PMID 23276405.
  2. ^ a b Ehlers, Bernhard; Wieland, Ulrike (August 2013). "The novel human polyomaviruses HPyV6, 7, 9 and beyond". APMIS. 121 (8): 783–795. doi:10.1111/apm.12104. PMID 23656581. S2CID 1706956.
  3. ^ a b Polyomaviridae Study Group of the International Committee on Taxonomy of, Viruses; Calvignac-Spencer, S; Feltkamp, MC; Daugherty, MD; Moens, U; Ramqvist, T; Johne, R; Ehlers, B (29 February 2016). "A taxonomy update for the family Polyomaviridae". Archives of Virology. 161 (6): 1739–50. doi:10.1007/s00705-016-2794-y. hdl:10037/13151. PMID 26923930.
  4. ^ a b c Siebrasse, E. A.; Reyes, A.; Lim, E. S.; Zhao, G.; Mkakosya, R. S.; Manary, M. J.; Gordon, J. I.; Wang, D. (2012). "Identification of MW Polyomavirus, a Novel Polyomavirus in Human Stool". Journal of Virology. 86 (19): 10321–6. doi:10.1128/JVI.01210-12. PMC 3457274. PMID 22740408.
  5. ^ Rockett, Rebecca J.; Sloots, Theo P.; Bowes, Sharleen; O’Neill, Nicholas; Ye, Suifang; Robson, Jenny; Whiley, David M.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Wang, David; Nissen, Michael D.; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn; Qiu, Jianming (8 May 2013). "Detection of Novel Polyomaviruses, TSPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, HPyV9 and MWPyV in Feces, Urine, Blood, Respiratory Swabs and Cerebrospinal Fluid". PLOS ONE. 8 (5): e62764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062764. PMC 3648528. PMID 23667518.
  6. ^ Lim, Efrem S.; Meinerz, Natalie M.; Primi, Blake; Wang, David; Garcea, Robert L. (September 2014). "Common Exposure to STL Polyomavirus During Childhood". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (9): 1559–61. doi:10.3201/eid2009.140561. PMC 4178396. PMID 25148144.
  7. ^ Li, Ke; Zhang, Chi; Zhao, Rong; Xue, Ying; Yang, Jian; Peng, Junping; Jin, Qi (May 2015). "The prevalence of STL polyomavirus in stool samples from Chinese children". Journal of Clinical Virology. 66: 19–23. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2015.02.017. PMID 25866330.