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|MERS-CoV: structure, attachment, entrance, and genomic composition]]|
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- Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Wang, Ming; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Xu, Huifang; Poon, Rosana W. S.; Guo, Rongtong; Wong, Beatrice H. L.; Gao, Kai; Tsoi, Hoi-wah; Huang, Yi; Li, Kenneth S. M. (February 2007). "Comparative Analysis of Twelve Genomes of Three Novel Group 2c and Group 2d Coronaviruses Reveals Unique Group and Subgroup Features". Journal of Virology. 81 (4): 1574–1585. doi:10.1128/JVI.02182-06. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 1797546. PMID 17121802.
See figure 2.
- Wong, Antonio C. P.; Li, Xin; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y. (2019-02-20). "Global Epidemiology of Bat Coronaviruses". Viruses. 11 (2): 174. doi:10.3390/v11020174. ISSN 1999-4915. PMC 6409556. PMID 30791586.
CoVs are classified into four genera, Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Within Betacoronavirus, they can be further subclassified into lineages A, B, C and D . In 2018, these four lineages were reclassified as subgenera of Betacoronavirus, and renamed as Embecovirus (previous lineage A), Sarbecovirus (previous lineage B), Merbecovirus (previous lineage C) and Nobecovirus (previous lineage D) . In addition, a fifth subgenus, Hibecovirus, was also included (Figure 1) .
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The presence of HE genes exclusively in members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A, but not members of Betacoronavirus subgroup B, C and D suggested that the recombination had probably occurred in the ancestor of members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A, after diverging from the ancestor of other subgroups of Betacoronavirus.