Human coronavirus OC43
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|Human coronavirus OC43|
|Transmission electron micrograph of human coronavirus OC43|
Human coronavirus OC43
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a member of the species Betacoronavirus 1, which infects humans and cattle. The infecting coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid receptor. OC43 is one of seven known coronaviruses to infect humans. It is one of the viruses responsible for the common cold. It has, like other coronaviruses from genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Embecovirus, an additional shorter spike protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).
Four HCoV-OC43 genotypes (A to D) have been identified, with genotype D most likely arising from genetic recombination. The complete genome sequencing of genotypes C and D and bootscan analysis shows recombination events between genotypes B and C in the generation of genotype D. Of 29 viral variants identified, none belong to the more ancient genotype A. Molecular clock analysis using spike and nucleocapsid genes dates the most recent common ancestor of all genotypes to the 1950s. Genotype B and C date to the 1980s. Genotype B to the 1990s, and genotype C to the late 1990s to early 2000s. The recombinant genotype D variants were detected as early as 2004.
Comparison of HCoV-OC43 with the most closely related strain of Betacoronavirus 1 species, bovine coronavirus BCoV, indicated that they had a most common recent ancestor in the late 19th century, with several methods yielding most probable dates around 1890, leading authors to speculate that an introduction of the former strain to the human population might have caused the 1889–1890 pandemic, which at the time was attributed to Influenza. The COVID-19 pandemic brought further evidence of a link, as the 1889–1890 pandemic produced symptoms closer to those associated with COVID-19 (the infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 betacoronavirus) than to Influenza.
The origin of HCoV-OC43 is uncertain, but it is thought that it may have originated in rodents, then passed through cattle as intermediate hosts. A deletion from BCoV to HCoV-OC43 may have taken place for the interspecies transmission event from bovines to humans.
Along with HCoV-229E, a species in the genus Alphacoronavirus, HCoV-OC43 is among the known viruses that cause the common cold. Both viruses can cause severe lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals such as those undergoing chemotherapy and those with HIV/AIDS.
Coronaviruses have a worldwide distribution, causing 10–15% of common cold cases (the virus most commonly implicated in the common cold is a rhinovirus, found in 30–50% of cases). Infections show a seasonal pattern with most cases occurring in the winter months in temperate climates, and summer and spring in warm climates.
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See Table 1.
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BCoV S1-NTD does not recognize galactose as galectins do. Instead, it recognizes 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5,9Ac2) (30, 43). The same sugar receptor is also recognized by human coronavirus OC43 (43, 99). OC43 and BCoV are closely related genetically, and OC43 might have resulted from zoonotic spillover of BCoV (100, 101).
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In all members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A, a haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene, which encodes a glycoprotein with neuraminate O-acetyl-esterase activity and the active site FGDS, is present downstream to ORF1ab and upstream to S gene (Figure 1).
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A presumed influenza pandemic in 1889 was actually caused by coronavirus, Danish research shows.
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