Iridoviridae

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Iridoviridae
TEM micrograph showing a cluster of Iridovirus virions
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Varidnaviria
Kingdom: Bamfordvirae
Phylum: Nucleocytoviricota
Class: Megaviricetes
Order: Pimascovirales
Family: Iridoviridae
Subfamilies and genera

See text

Iridoviridae is a family of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes.[1] Amphibians, fish, and invertebrates such as arthropods serve as natural hosts. There are currently 22 species in this family, divided among two subfamilies and seven genera.[1][2]

Nomenclature[edit]

The name is derived from Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow. This name was chosen because of the "rainbow-like" iridescence observed in heavily infected insects and pelleted samples of invertebrate iridoviruses. It may refer to any member of the Iridoviridae family or a particular genus within Iridoviridae.[citation needed]

Taxonomy[edit]

The following subfamilies and genera are recognized (-virinae denotes subfamily and -virus denotes genus):[citation needed]

Structure[edit]

The virions are icosahedral with triangulation number (T) = 189–217, 120–350 nm in diameter and made up of three domains: an outer proteinaceous capsid, an intermediate lipid membrane, and a central core containing DNA-protein complexes. Some of the viruses also have an outer envelope. The presence or absence of an envelope depends on whether they budded from the cell membrane (enveloped viruses) or were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the host cell cytoplasm and then were released by cell lysis (unenveloped viruses).[citation needed]

The linear genome varies between 150 and 303 kilobases in length. It contains terminal and redundant sequences and is circularly permuted.[citation needed]

Members of this family differ in their degree of genome methylation. The genera Chloriridovirus and Iridovirus lack a highly methylated genome. Members of Lymphocystivirus, Megalocytivirus, and Ranavirus have genomes with about 25% of their cytosine residues methylated by a virally encoded DNA methyltransferase.[citation needed]

Genus Structure Symmetry Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Lymphocystivirus Polyhedral T=189–217 Linear Monopartite
Megalocytivirus Polyhedral T=189–217 Linear Monopartite
Ranavirus Polyhedral T=133 or 147 Linear Monopartite
Iridovirus Polyhedral T=147 Linear Monopartite
Chloriridovirus Polyhedral T=189–217 Linear Monopartite

Gene expression[edit]

Similar to the herpes viruses, transcription occurs in three stages: immediate-early, delayed-early, and late. Positive induction and negative feedback mechanisms exist in each stage, mediated by products of the other stages.[citation needed]

Replication[edit]

Virus particles enter the cell and uncoating occurs. The viral DNA is transported to the host cell nucleus, where it is transcribed by host RNA polymerase II modified by the virus. Meanwhile, host macromolecular synthesis ceases.

Parental DNA produces a genome which is then the template for replication in the cytoplasm. Large concatemers of viral DNA are formed by recombination in the cytoplasm. Packaging of the new genomes into virions occurs in the cytoplasm and the virus is released either by budding from the cell membrane or cell lysis.

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Lymphocystivirus Fish None Cell receptor endocytosis Lysis; budding Nucleus Cytoplasm Unknown
Megalocytivirus Fish None Cell receptor endocytosis Lysis; budding Nucleus Cytoplasm Unknown
Ranavirus Frogs; snakes None Cell receptor endocytosis Lysis; budding Nucleus Cytoplasm Contact
Iridovirus Insects None Cell receptor endocytosis Lysis; budding Nucleus Cytoplasm Contact
Chloriridovirus Diptera with aquatic larval stage, mainly mosquitoes None Cell receptor endocytosis Budding Nucleus Cytoplasm Unknown

DNA repair[edit]

Members of the Iridoviridae appear to have the capability to repair DNA damages.[3]

Pathogenesis[edit]

Little is known about the pathogenesis of iridoviruses. The pathogenesis is, however, temperature dependent and iridoviruses are thus confined to poikilothermic hosts.[citation needed]

Host range[edit]

Members of the Iridoviridae family infect mainly invertebrates, but also some vertebrate species such as fish, amphibians and reptiles.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Iridoviridae". ICTV Online (10th) Report.
  2. ^ "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  3. ^ Ke F, Zhang QY. ADRV 12L: A Ranaviral Putative Rad2 Family Protein Involved in DNA Recombination and Repair. Viruses. 2022 Apr 27;14(5):908. doi: 10.3390/v14050908. PMID 35632650; PMCID: PMC9146916

MicrobiologyBytes: Iridoviruses, archived from the original on February 24, 2007, retrieved 2007-03-06 Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center & Viral Bioinformatics – Canada, University of Victoria, archived from the original on August 17, 2007, retrieved 2007-03-06

External links[edit]