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TEM micrograph on an alloherpesvirus, 'Pilchard herpesvirus'
Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Duplodnaviria
Kingdom: Heunggongvirae
Phylum: Peploviricota
Class: Herviviricetes
Order: Herpesvirales
Family: Alloherpesviridae

See text

Alloherpesviridae is a family of viruses in the order Herpesvirales. This family includes the species that infect fish and amphibians. Phylogenetic studies have confirmed the validity of this family and suggest that it may be divided into two clades: one consisting of viruses from cyprinid and anguillid hosts and the other of viruses from ictalurid, salmonid, acipenserid, and ranid hosts.[1] There are currently 13 species in this family, divided among four genera. A disease associated with this family includes channel catfish disease.[2][3]


Alloherpesviridae was established as a family in 2005.


The family contains the following four genera:[3]


Viruses in Alloherpesviridae are enveloped, with icosahedral and spherical to pleomorphic geometries, and T=16 symmetry. The diameter is around 150–200 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 134-248kb in length. [2]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Ictalurivirus Spherical pleomorphic T=16 Enveloped Circular Monopartite
Cyprinivirus Spherical pleomorphic T=16 Enveloped Linear Monopartite
Batrachovirus Spherical pleomorphic T=16 Enveloped Linear Monopartite
Salmonivirus Spherical pleomorphic T=16 Enveloped Linear Monopartite

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is nuclear, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral glycoproteins to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. Fish serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion.[2]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Ictalurivirus Fish None Glycoprotiens Budding Nucleus Nucleus Passive diffusion
Cyprinivirus Fresh water eel None Glycoprotiens Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion
Batrachovirus Frogs None Glycoprotiens Budding Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Passive diffusion
Salmonivirus Salmonidae None Glycoprotiens Budding Nucleus Nucleus Passive diffusion


Several genomes have been sequenced.[4] Cyprinid herpesviruses 1, 2 and 3 (CyHV1, CyHV2 and CyHV3) cause disease in common carp, goldfish and koi. Their genomes are 291144, 290304 and 295146 base pairs in size. The overall organisation common to all three and consists of a unique central region flanked by a direct repeat at each end. 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein coding genes are present in the unique regions: of these six, four, and eight are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The genomes share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement. Up to 55 of these latter genes are also conserved in the other member of Cyprinivirus; Anguillid herpesvirus 1. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six and five families of paralogous genes.


  1. ^ Waltzek TB, Kelley GO, Alfaro ME, Kurobe T, Davison AJ, Hedrick RP (2009). "Phylogenetic relationships in the family Alloherpesviridae". Dis. Aquat. Org. 84 (3): 179–94. doi:10.3354/dao02023. PMID 19565695.
  2. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  4. ^ Davison AJ, Kurobe T, Gatherer D, Cunningham C, Korf I, Fukuda H, Hedrick RP, Waltzek TB (2013). "Comparative genomics of carp herpesviruses". J. Virol. 87 (5): 2908–22. doi:10.1128/JVI.03206-12. PMC 3571366. PMID 23269803.

Further reading[edit]

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