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Virus classification Edit this classification
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Pararnavirae
Phylum: Artverviricota
Class: Revtraviricetes
Order: Blubervirales
Family: Hepadnaviridae
Genus: Avihepadnavirus

Avihepadnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Hepadnaviridae.[1] Birds serve as natural hosts. There are three species in this genus.[1] Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinomas (chronic infections), and cirrhosis.[2][3]


The genus contains the following species:[4]


Viruses in the genus Avihepadnavirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 symmetry. The diameter is around 42 nm. Genomes are circular, around 3.2kb in length. The genome codes for 7 proteins.[1][2]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentation
Avihepadnavirus Icosahedral T=4 Non-enveloped Circular Monopartite

Life cycle[edit]

Viral replication is nucleo-cytoplasmic. Replication follows the dsDNA(RT) replication model. DNA-templated transcription, specifically dsDNA-RT transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by ribosomal shunting. The virus exits the host cell by budding, and nuclear pore export. Birds serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are parental, sexual, and blood.[1][2]

Genus Host details Tissue tropism Entry details Release details Replication site Assembly site Transmission
Avihepadnavirus Birds Hepatocytes Cell receptor endocytosis Budding Nucleus Cytoplasm Vertical: parental; sex; blood


  1. ^ a b c d "ICTV Report Hepadnaviridae".
  2. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
  3. ^ Guo, Haitao; Mason, William (2005). "Identification and Characterization of Avihepadnaviruses Isolated from Exotic Anseriformes Maintained in Captivity". Journal of Virology. 79 (5). American Society for Microbiology: 2729–2742. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.5.2729-2742.2005. PMC 548436. PMID 15708992.
  4. ^ "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.

External links[edit]